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11    <Metadata name="pj.Title">Te Ahu, Karaitiana - in the Matter of her Will</Metadata>
12    <Metadata name="pj.Year">1950</Metadata>
13    <Metadata name="pj.Location">ADMINISTRATION</Metadata>
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15    <Metadata name="pj.Provenance">Pei Te Hurinui Jones</Metadata>
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121CI1APMAN TRIPP CO.  IHM/BAL  BARRISTERS SOLICITORS   NOTARIES PUBLIC CABLE N T ELEGRAP H IC ADDRESS &quot;ATTENTION&quot;   CODE OSED : BENTLEY'S   BOX 1126. TELEPHONE 43-000 (3 Lines) LI ONARD OWEN HOWARD TRIPP. OA.  WILLIAM I MIGNAAON mon,  WILLIAM PERRY SHORLAND, LLs. 20 BRANDON STREET,  NOY CAMPRON CRISTIE EL . NOTARY PV. WELLINGTON,  IAN HANNAY MACARTHUR. Lt.. jrd October, 1950. NORMAN ANDREW MORRISON.  RONALD WILLIAMS NAIR. LA-M. SA  . Jones Esq., C/o Puketapu Sawmills, TAUMARUNUI.  Dear Sir, re KARAITIANA te AHU, deceased.  We act for Mr. Hone McMillan of Levin, who is the plaintiff in an originating summons for the interpretation of the Will of his late wife, Karaitiana te Ahu deceased. The Will leaves certain lands to Nina McMillan (now Nina Tutt) on condition that they are forfeited if she marries a &quot;pakeha&quot;. We may say that Mr. McMillan is on perfectly friendly terms with Nina, but as he is the executor of the Will it is necessary for him to obtain the decision of the Court as to whether the condition stated in the Will is a valid condition. We have to produce evidence to the Court as to what is the exact meaning of the word &quot;pakeha&quot;, as used in this particular Will. Mr. Jones made an affidavit some time ago stating his opinion and we enclose a copy herewith. He has suggested that we write to you for your opinion on the point. We are also enclosing herewith a copy of the relevant portion of an affidavit by the Very Reverend Laughton. You will notice that he etates that the word &quot;pakeha&quot; has reference to colour rather than to race. Mr. Jones doesnot agree with this view: he considers that the primary meaning of the word is that of &quot;foreigner&quot;, a person having no Maori blood, the question of colour being secondary. We should point out, however, that in the present case we are not asking the Court to decide the meaning of the word &quot;pakeha&quot; as used in normal modern Maori speech: we are asking the Court to decide what Karaitiana te Ahu meant when she used the word &quot;pakeha&quot;. The difference may be very important. Karaitiana te Ahu was a very old lady of distinguished lineage. She could not speak or understand English. She was one of &quot;the old school&quot;, and spoke the Maori language accurately.
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152-2- We should appreciate having your opinion on the matter, with a view to obtaining an affidavit from you in due course. We would like to emphasize that we seek your opinion first, as to the meaning of the word &quot;pakeha&quot; when used by a correct and accurate speaker of Maori, such as Karaitiana to Ahu was; secondly, however, we would appreciate your opinion as to whether, in accurate or loose speech, the word has reference to colour rather than to race. We need hardly say that your expenses as an expert witness in this matter will be paid in due course. When replying, would you be good enough to state your qualifications (as in paragraph 2 of Mr. Jones' affidavit) so that we may draft an affidavit for you. We should appreciate an early reply. Yours faithfully, CHAr(AN TRIPP CO.  Encls.
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1832. THE nearest equivalent in English of the word21311a is fair-skinned foreigner. The word has reference to colour rather than to race. A person of mixed Maori and European blood having a fair skin would not infrequently be described as a pakeha by Maoris who used the Maori language correctly and knew of the admixture of blood and who were not speaking in a derogatory or emotional way of that person. For example, a light skinned person known to the speaker to be a half-caste might sometimes be described as a pakeha, and that usage would not, in my opinion, be incorrect. On the other hand it would be very unlikely that a correct speaker of Maori, even though knowing the racial admixture, would describe as a pakeha a person who was a quarter-caste, that is, had one quarter of Maori blood, and who was dark skinned. Provided a person has some Maori blood, whether he would be called a pakeha or a Maori turns more on the darkness or lightness of his complexion than on any other factor, but the precise point of darkness or lightness is impossible of definition. PAKEHA would not generally be applied to a non-Maori who was dark. For various races, dark or otherwise, there are now special names in Maori, as for example, Itariana  for an Italian. But a light-skinned Italian, known to the speaker to be an Italian, would in my experience be far more often called a pakeha than an Itariana by correct Maori speakers. Such speakers would not describe as a pakeha a dark person whom they knew to be an Italian, but would call him Itariana, or sometimes, if the person were very dark, Mangu Mangu. The points or stages in coloration on which the usage of pakeha, Itariana or other special racial names, or Mangu Mangu would turn, are impossible to define with any certainty or precision.
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214Iv TPE 1UPRi entIRT nF ',ALANC, 4FTLIFGTnW DRITT  No. r. 77/ph  IN ThE of -Jle Judtooture Aot, 19IN4 - And - IN of the Will of i(AAITIANA te Alit of Koputeroa, NearrisTgi,- 77,770 9omen, deceased. J1PM 1'4FRT MovILLAN of Koputnroe near Levin, Ferrer (as ,xenutor it the Will of the Aboven,med wnrAitiena te Ahu leos,e4 ), nmintiff  A JOEN 40mILLAN of Mopu- ter?, Aforeeald, Ferrer, First Defendant  A N D NINA TPTT of Foruteroa, Afore- said, Ferried woman, Second Defendant I, ACKAEL 901nMITO JONES of :ellinf ton, ervent, make oath end say As follows :- 1. I AY a 'sari Liaison ',Meer to the Yinieter of veori Affeirs. P. I WAS in praine AA n Lioeneed Interpreter end Agent in Te Fuiti for two years (1-2,) end in Mayers from 19PP to 194n. I have been a Lioeneed Inter- ,reter (first Trade) of the ,aori lenguegs for approximately 3n years. I en a member of the ricers of Examiners appointed under the &quot;aori Land Not 1931 for the examination of Interpreters of the first Trade. I Wig for 00000 el years the examiner appointed by the University of ,iew zealend for the Pniversity Entrance examination in Maori. I hove oleo been t/t examiner in that subject for the degree of oafthelor of rte of the mead University; And I still examine oandidatee in the oral pert of the examinations for the last-mentioned degree.
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245-2- 7. I HAVE carefully examined oertified copy of the oriJinel ,111 of the abovenamed vareitlann tor Ahu deceased bearing date the PAL), any of June 1930, which ,111 )e written in the 'sort language and le deposited (I em Informed And verily believe) In the wort Land Court flkeroe Dietrict) At 'Allington. I have odium road the nalieh translation of tY t 111, aa exhibited to the Affidavit of hone Yovillan filed In these rroceedinge. TFE following passame nbpeArs In the said original 111 &quot;tone' tovu wire me oku Leona' tinAna shakoo 1 whoa o le ,Yon o la nhu. kl A ',mina mon. motuhAke enguri mehemea ka tunono tone roe twine pekehe he nos mareno ranel he moe nom iho rnnel e iv tu,nnno ranel tone note 1 to wa e mho tanarikl ens lo kaore one url het reit. me riro kAto7 au. naming. whenue me au. tnonga tinana I a Hone '01111An [non. motuhake.' in ny opinion, the accurate translation of the foregoing &quot;aware into the English language Ic As follows 'Tub my will and All my nersarl eatate wheresoever eitunte And whataaever kind unto Tieing ,c,illen for herself absolutely but if she should happen to marry n Eurorean husband or bether t law or just living together or If she should die while she Is still n minor without issue then 11 the aforesaid landed interests end the aforesaid oarsonnl est,te unto Uone S7111,41 for himself 'beelutely.&quot; 5. THE ffsori word for &quot;or&quot; la &quot;ranei&quot;. The `,Aori word for &quot;end&quot; is &quot;me&quot;. I h,ve no doubt whatever thnt in the arglinh translation of the -111 referred to in paragraph ; hereof, the word &quot;And&quot; hoe been erroneously written for &quot;or&quot; in the following pert of the translation, &quot;whether At Inw or otherwise and If he should die during her minority&quot; should read &quot;whether t law or otherwise or if she should die during her minority&quot;. 6. APART from the mutters that I have just mentioned in oaragraphe 4 nod 5 hereof I a of the opinion that the
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276-3- :nglish translation of the sold atteched to the 1914 rfilavit of Hone oeillan, la en acourate translation of the original. 21; \_word 'nekeha&quot; ie defined in illiame 'earl jsllstErx (1037 4.) -e follows &quot;Foreigner Not neoenserily lIght-skinned, but probably connected with pakennkeha. Pakepakeha or pekehakeha m Imaginary beings resembllng men with fair skins.&quot; In '+A0 r,eech today, however, the word &quot;pakehe&quot; 1a used to describe a non-.nori who to fmir-ekinned. There ore special ?a,rl words nowadays to describe a number of es,  rt. Frenchmen = :lawman  &quot;Manama&quot;: c'hinamen  &quot;heinemana&quot;: Indian &quot;Inds&quot;. A light-skinned ,neniard or Italian would be de cribed in ordin ry 9aori speeoh as n 'pakehe: but a very dark-skinned 9naniard or Italian .owld be deecribed no a &quot;,Inau mmhgu&quot;. The word'rp,n,u pongu. Is also ollied to Negro. t person hawing home !aori blood (to the nowledge of the speaker) could not normally be referred to as a &quot;paknhe. Certainly If that -,erson were half-oasts or had wore than one-hell of ,aori blood, the word nakehe would not be uned to dee- cribs him. (In the other hand., If he ,ossessed only a little Paori blood, were light-skinned, and lived p. 'uropean, it la quite mealble tint some comic would refer to him as a &quot;pakehs&quot;. I regard that a lone use or the word end would not so use it myself. The word &quot;pakehe I. often traneletei as &quot;;uropean&quot; beceuee most roropsens are `!WORN t 11ington this )  day of ) 1949: Before me :- golicitor of the 'uoreme Court of Rew lealand.
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307. /48  IN ri: irraT Or NEW 11ND YELLIWTO9 1I?TRIC7 q7urvyrnli RrGITRY IN r' of 'The Judioature Re&quot; 1008w - and - IN THE YATTER of the will of vAHATTIANA t AHU of Kopoos, ne r Tevin, Married woman, 4eceased. KIWEEN JOHN NBlIAT NoNILLAN, Plaintiff A N 0 JOHP 'inHFAT NoHILLAN  First Defendant 0 qHA  '.eoond Defendant AFFID VII. OF CHAEL HITOhIt3 Dark 4 Hertrsx, colioltors, LEVIN fly their Arentet Chapman Tri)0 stew Jamem t Co. ,olioitore WSLLIMON.
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