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11    <Metadata name="pj.Title">Ancient Maori hieroglyphs</Metadata>
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16    <Metadata name="pj.Year">1974</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="pj.Location">LINGUISTICS</Metadata>
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102UNIVERSITY OF WAIKATO LIBRARY 01/1 LINGUISTICS- Maori Hieroglyphs ANCIENT MAORI HIEROGLYPHS (1974) MICROFILM COMPU TER SCANNING BY: JANUARY 2001 DOCUMENT MANACAMENT COMPANY 1.0,4. IIIIMEINIEVINEEMMVIMITIMW1rn  10 IA Ia. Ral &quot;-zZattz;.`,T,
103
104&lt;/pre&gt;</Content>
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191Polynosian Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications No, 15, Issued October, 1974 Ancient Maori Mathematical and Scientific Hieroglyphs by Barry Fell Museun of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Abstract The paper comprises a preliminary catalog of signs observed in the scientific inscriptions of the West Irian Caves of the Navigators, together with some others noted in New Zealand steles of the early mediaeval period. Post signs derive from symbols used in Greece, Egypt and Babylonia. and most date from early Maori settlements in New Guinea during the decade 235-225 Apart from these signs, the texts are written in standard Maori alphabetic letters. 1. Mathematical operators olo X a b a, sign of equality, placed before the second term of equation, derived from a similar Egyptian hieroglyph. b, sign of division, placed under the divisor. c, half of, placed under the dividend, identical with Egyptian hieratic, c, (no sign) multiplied by, the factors placed side by side. Measures of Tine   06 Oki!   LJ -  0 G d e  a f g h a, day (letter ra). b, 5 days, or, on the 5th day. c, at the 7th hour (= 1 ). d. month (a New-Zealand sign made up of the letters ma-ra-ma). e, Month 2, to be read as macama to rua, Treaty of Taranaki. f, year, comprising the letters ra-na-pa , = Ancient Egyptian renpet, year. g, in the 15th year, comprising sign f and the Etruscan numeral XV, plus the ordinal mark ne, h, year, an Egyptian hieroglyph, i, 8 years, = sign h placed over a retrograde Etruscan VIII, cU H. B. Fell, 1974. Occasional Publications of the S. are funded by a grant-in aid from John Dominis Holt and Frances Damon Holt, Honolulu.
192
193&lt;/pre&gt;</Content>
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222No. 15 Occasional Publicallons 3, Measure of weight (or value) 1 shekel, Found with metallugical signs in connexion with the gold and silver mining records. 4. Numerals In addition to the numerals already reported (0cc. Pub. No. 4), the following are noted (a) Egyptian Numerals a, unit or 1, repeated as 2 crescents for 2, ( IP 3 crescents for 3, and so on, on New Zealand a b and Easter Island inscriptions. b, 100, known only from the Treaty of Taranaki, New Zealand.  1 a (b) Etruscan Numerals V X etc. (c) Creek Numerals Z9-,4 a b  5, Renal Year a (1))/7 Ra-na-pa XVna Na-Xa n(i)-ta 6. Year, New Zealand Era = LL used for low numbers, apparently below 100. As shown in examples given above, the numeral may be written horizontally in dextral or sinistral (retrograde) sequence, or in vertical script, in which case the ciphers may lie on the side. In addition to the forms already reported (0cc. Pub. No, 4), Greek numerals of high values --- occur. a, 5000. b, 500,000. c 250,000.= 500,000 divided by 2 (see , 1,c). The earliest Polynesian dates refer to the regnal year of Ptolemy III (the last Egyptian king known to the migrants). The example, a, reads, &quot;In the 15th year of Pharaoh's reignV - 232 : The sign 6a was invented in New Zealand and appears as an antecedent to numerals giving the year-number by Fleet reckoning. Year 1 of this era approximately = 1350 If an eclipse record can be found, an exact correlation would be possible with the Gregorian era. The sign apparently reads &quot;Mu-ri to-re na-wa mai&quot;, &quot;After the Fleet arrived here&quot;. It occurs on the Treaty of Taranaki, together with a month designation, and the corresponding zodiacal sign, in this case Leo (&quot; July, Month 2). a
223
224&lt;/pre&gt;</Content>
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252  <Content>&lt;pre&gt;
253No. 15 Polynesian Epigraphic Society -3- 7. Planetary signs The occurrence of a nearly complete heptachord in the Mango Cave permits most of the planetary signs to be recognized by their position. Some others can be identified in masthead insignia in ships whose tutelary deity is indicated by an inscription. a, sun. b, noon, made up of letters ma-ra-ma, c, moon. d, Mercury. e, Mars. f, Jupiter, a version found with figure of Zeus hurling thunderbolt. g, Jupiter, version found on heptachord. h, Saturn. i, Venus (Tawera, Aphrodite as the morning star, Maui's patron goddess, and corresponding to a similar Egyptian hieroglyph dwaw, Divine morning star). j, alternative symbol for Mercury, formed of the Maori letters Ko-pu, and simulating the serpents coiled on the caduceus of Hermes; the Egyptian word kopu means coiled serpent. Kopu is incorrectly applied to the planet Venus in Williams' Maori Dictionary. 8. Planetary configurations on the zodiac a is used as the sign of conjunction, and is identical with the Ancient Creek sign, Presumably opposition, and ascending and descending nodes, therefore, will be found to carry Greek signs also, 9, Zodiacal signs A list of inferred zodiacal signs has already been given in Occ. Pub, No. 14, and Host of these have now been elr, con i3' correct identifications. It is evident that the Greek signs were employed with virtually no change in form. Lee of the signs to designate months continued abed in New Zealand after the Fleet era, Aries, Cancer and Leo having all now been found as month designators. A few confirmed examples are illustrated here. a, Sagittarius (and month November), b, Leo (pronounced Rongo in New Zealand), and designating July, at least until 1450; later lost, but name surviving in Chatham Islands dialect. c, Aries (March), and d, Cancer (June), both still in use in New Zealand in 1350, appearing on a birth-stele of the first child\_ of a chief to be born in Ao-tea-roa (Tane-Nui). A few signs, Aquarius and Capricorn, have not yet been identified in any Polynesian context. 10, Angular measure a, a complete circle, hence = 360?. b, a segment of a circle, hence angle (Ancient Maori co-no, Modern Maori ko-na, Greek ionia7. c, an angle of---77 100 of a circle, degrees. d, an obelisk with the sun vertically overhead, hence casting no shadow. e, (either) the coast , its Egyptian sense, (or) a place where the sun always subtends an angle from the zenith; both sense apply in the mathematical context where this sign is used. 0 ,c/ fs,;/ 2 4 a
254
255&lt;/pre&gt;</Content>
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284'    No. 15 Polynesian Epigraphic Society  a, stades. It is uncertain whether the Polynesian   stade was equal to the Olympian. In Maui's   demonstration of Eratosthenes' calculation of the   Linear. Measure circumference of the earth (0cc. Pub. No. 16), the   computed result is given as 250,000 stades, the same   figure as in Kleomeles' traditional account of the   calculation. Hence the Polynesian stade equaled that   used in Alexandria.  a  Signs used in Physics  a, a light ray (hu-ne). b, parallel rays, or parallel lines. c, a ray passing from the sun towards the earth. b All from Maui's inscriptions. 11. Alchemical and geographic signs These signs have been A ?V with mainly identified the aid of Rudolf Koch's (1955) Book for (ofe), Signs. Except  a b c d e appear to be of Babylonian origin. They occur in the Irian Caves, but have not yet been found in other Polynesian contexts, a, the earth. b, ;ire, c, water, d, a star (Egyptian, Faulkner p 219). e, the Maori letters Sa-nu-ra, spelling the ancient Egyptian word meaning &quot;The ocean surrounding the earth.  This sign, Rdder p. 147 (17),  is resolvable into all the above   elements, with the addition ofmoon   and sun, and appears therefore   to be the Polynesian symbol of   the universe. References Gardiner, Alan (1973). Egyptian Grammar. Griffith Institute, Oxford. Koch, Rudolf (1955). A Book of Signs. Dover, New York, Faulkner, Raymond O. (1972) Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Griffith Institute. Rtider, Josef (1959). Ergehnisse d, Frobenius-Expedition 1937-38 in die Molukken and mach Hollandisch Neu-Guineai Felsbilder. Wittick Verlag. Fell, Barry (1974). Numerals on Ancient Maori Steles, Occ. Pub. S., 4, 1-8. (1971 Carthaginian and other Graffiti from West Irian Caves. ibid.,14,1-3. (1974 The Treaty of Taranaki, a Mediaeval Stele from New Zealand, ib.,16,1-5. Maui (ca 232 ) trans. Fell (1974). A Proposition by Eratosthones, an Astronomer of the Delta Country. ibid., 18, 1-6 (to be issued Nov. 13 1974).
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315Polynesian Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications No. 17. Issued November 13. 1974 Newly Deciphered Naval Records of Ptolemy III by Barry Fell Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University This preliminary report is an abstract of a Natural History Seminar held at the Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, 13 Nov 1974. An expedition of the Frobenius Institut, jor,Wolfgang Gothe Universitat Frankfurt am Main, visited a series of limestone caverns on the coast of McCluer Bay, north-west New Guinea, in 1937-38, and found a large series of inscriptions i of varying age. The oldest, here identified as the work of an ancient Maori expedition, are sealed behind a thin sheet of transparent stalactite. Many  later inscriptions, Imitative of the older work, are superimposed, and are  here attributed to Papuan cave artists. The inscriptions were in part published by Josef Rader in 1959, without interpretation or attribution other than to Papuan origins. Recognizing certain Egyptian features in some of the drawings,-Ruth K. Manner of Kauai, Hawaii, assembled copies of them, and recently forwarded. them to the Z. for possible study and translation, in the light of current research that showed that the Maori tongue derives from Ancient Eaptian, Materials, These comprise drawings, paintings and written inscriptions. Some TZhrot work involves yellow, red, pink, brownand white earths, used like chalk; the black work, script, astronomical. and navigational diagrams and calculations, with various sonograms and graffiti, is apparently done in charcoal, now protected by the stalactite layer. Sub act matter, Diagrams of ships, including fore-and-aft rigged vessels resemMtFThows and smaller skiffs, and oare, galleys, all of Libyan types. Diagrams of fishing gear, including trawl-nets, dredges, lobster-trap, hooked lines and vessels carrying out trawling etc. Rebus inscriptions, mainly in  the ancient Maori language of Libya and Polynesia, relating to the subject matter of the diagrams. Euclidian diagrams, accompanied by related mathamtical text in ancient Maori, and calculations in ancient Maori, employing Greek and Egyptian numeral signs and operator,. Astronomical observations, with illusttrations of celestial phenomena and astronomical apparatus, including the cross-staff, a variable-angle sundial for use in various latitudes, a computing instrument for correcting zenith-angles to latitude, dividers, set-square, - charts of the sky showing particular constellations. Numerous religious drawings and paintings depicting Graeco-Egyptian deities, some of which are identified in Greek or ancient. Maori script; the deities include Zeus-Ammon, Athena, Neith, Watat, Ears. Nnmorous astrological signs occur, those of the planets being related to a heptachord, and also to masthead insignia carried by some of the ships depicted;  ; astrological sines of the zodiacal constellations are common, and occur in fr technical astronomical contexts. There is evidence of gold easel silver having been mined, and recorded by Minoan-type symbols and Phoenician signs, including the
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346Polynesian Epigraphic Socio;y Translator's notes This issue reports the first and most important of the group of inscriptions signed by Rata, au' and others, dating from ea 232 , mainly written in Ancient Maori, with sone Crock and Carthaginian, and occasional use of Egyptian hieroglyphs, all found inithe Cavosof the Navigators, Rest Irian, as reported in 'Co,02. No. 17. The version here offered is a rectified linear? transcription in Maorian (Nrmidian) characters, retaining however the peculiar letter forms sometimes used by Maui. The English translation is provisional, pending preparation of a more detailed etymology of wor not previously encountered in Ant Maori - Barry Fell, Museum of Comparative Zoology, larvezd University. (CI)B.'ioll 1974. Occasion;11 Publications aro supported by,la grant-in-aid made by Join Dominis Holt and Trances DamonHolt, Honoiu u. Occasional Publications No, 16, Issued November 13, 1974 A Proposition by Eratosthenes, an Astronomer of the Delta Countr by Maui, Captain of the Mariners
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377139. R3468. la. fit Souorrtt cave. nr FurIr. Fro. benj.1;:rip1 Lccturo twxan, blast=c. 232  .  S rScEeec Vhw  C., , 1. / - e? -
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