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16    <Metadata name="Title">Managing Tropical Animal Resources - Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="hascover">1</Metadata>
18    <Metadata name="dc.Language">English</Metadata>
19    <Metadata name="dc.Subject">Animal Husbandry and Animal Product Processing|Other animals (micro-livestock, little known animals, silkworms, reptiles, frogs, snails, game, etc.)</Metadata>
20    <Metadata name="dc.Title">Managing Tropical Animal Resources - Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (b20cre)</Metadata>
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32
33&lt;B&gt;&lt;FONT FACE=&quot;Arial&quot; SIZE=2&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
34
35
36&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the&lt;/P&gt;
37&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation&lt;/P&gt;
38&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Board on Science and Technology for International Development&lt;/P&gt;
39&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Office of International Affairs&lt;/P&gt;
40&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;National Research Council&lt;/P&gt;
41
42&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In Cooperation with the Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Papua New Guinea&lt;/P&gt;
43
44&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS&lt;/P&gt;
45&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Washington, D.C. 1983&lt;/P&gt;
46
47&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Board on Science and Technology for International Development(BOSTID) &lt;/P&gt;
48
49&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Panel on Crocodile Farming&lt;/P&gt;
50
51&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director, Office of Biological Conservation, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA, Chairman &lt;/P&gt;
52
53&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HOWARD W. CAMPBELL (deceased) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, Florida, USA &lt;/P&gt;
54
55&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ARCHIE F. CARR, Jr., Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA &lt;/P&gt;
56
57&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;F. WAYNE KING, Director, Florida Museum, Gainesville, Florida, USA &lt;/P&gt;
58
59&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA &lt;/P&gt;
60
61&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MICHAEL G. MORRIS, Furzebrook Research Station, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Wareham, Dorset, England &lt;/P&gt;
62
63&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA &lt;/P&gt;
64
65&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROBERT M. PYLE, Species Conservation Monitoring Unit, Cambridge, England &lt;/P&gt;
66
67&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;SHELDON R. SEVERINGHAUS, Representative, The Asia Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan &lt;/P&gt;
68
69&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Contributors&lt;/P&gt;
70
71&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Papua New Guinea&lt;/P&gt;
72
73&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CAROL GABARA, Wildlife Division, Department of Oro Province, Popondetta &lt;/P&gt;
74
75&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WASSAM GABARA, Wildlife Division, Department of Oro Province, Popondetta &lt;/P&gt;
76
77&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;KAROL KISOKAU, Director, Office of Environment and Conservation, Waigani &lt;/P&gt;
78
79&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;NAVU KWAPENA, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu &lt;/P&gt;
80
81&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MIRO LAUFA, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu &lt;/P&gt;
82
83&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;GREG MITCHELL, Crocodile Farm, Lae &lt;/P&gt;
84
85&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;LEO NING, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Wewak &lt;/P&gt;
86
87&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Other Countries&lt;/P&gt;
88
89&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MIGUEE AEVAREZE DEE TORO, Instituto de Historia Natural, Departamento de Zoologia, Chiapas, Mexico&lt;/P&gt;
90
91&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ANGUS D'A.BELLAIRS, Department of Anatomy, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London, England&lt;/P&gt;
92
93&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;PETER BRAZAITIS, Department of Herpetology, New York Zoological Society, Bronx, New York, USA&lt;/P&gt;
94
95&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROBERT H.CHABRECK, Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA&lt;/P&gt;
96
97&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MAX C.DOWNES, The Game Conservation Centre, Melbourne, Australia&lt;/P&gt;
98
99&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;KARLHEINZ FUCHS, hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany&lt;/P&gt;
100
101&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CLAIRE HACEN, Reptile Products Association, New York, USA&lt;/P&gt;
102
103&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;RENEE.HONEGGER, Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland&lt;/P&gt;
104
105&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;TED JOANEN, Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, Chenier, Louisiana, USA&lt;/P&gt;
106
107&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;JOHN LEVER, Koorana Crocodile Farm, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia&lt;/P&gt;
108
109&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WILLIAM MAGNUSSON, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Amazonia, Brazil&lt;/P&gt;
110
111&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HARRY MESSEE, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia&lt;/P&gt;
112
113&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FRED PARKER, Kirwan Queensland, Australia&lt;/P&gt;
114
115&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ANTHONY POOLEY, St. Lucia Estuary, Zululand, South Africa&lt;/P&gt;
116
117&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CHARLES A.ROSS, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA&lt;/P&gt;
118
119&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;K.B.SALE, UNDP/FAO Crocodile Breeding and Management Project, Hyderabad, India&lt;/P&gt;
120
121&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;LUISVARONA, La Habana, Cuba&lt;/P&gt;
122
123&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CHAROON YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, Samutprakan, Thailand&lt;/P&gt;
124
125&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;UTAl YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, Samutprakan, Thailand&lt;/P&gt;
126
127&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MYRNA WATANABE, Co-editor of ICUN Newsleter, Brooklyn, New York, USA&lt;/P&gt;
128
129&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROMULUS WHITAKER, Guindy Deer Park, Madras, India&lt;/P&gt;
130
131&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Professional Associate, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Crocodile Study Director&lt;/P&gt;
132
133&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;National Research Council Staff&lt;/P&gt;
134
135&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;F. R. RUSKIN, BOSTID Editor&lt;/P&gt;
136&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MARY lANE ENGQUIST, Staff Associate&lt;/P&gt;
137&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CONSTANCE REGES, Administrative Secretary&lt;/P&gt;
138
139&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;This publication is dedicated to the memory of panel member Howard W. &quot;Duke&quot; Campbell who devoted most of his professional life to the conservation of crocodilians. Dr. Campbell was Chairman of the Crocodilian Specialist Group of the Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources at the time of his death in 1981.&lt;/P&gt;
140
141&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
142</Content>
143<Section>
144  <Description>
145    <Metadata name="Title">Preface</Metadata>
146  </Description>
147  <Content>
148
149&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The panel that produced this report met in Papua New Guinea in May 1981. Its purpose was to consider the principles of the Papua New Guinea crocodile farming program and their implications for economic development and for the management and survival of crocodilians elsewhere.&lt;/P&gt;
150
151&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles are an integral part of the tropical fauna; they are ecologically important, biologically interesting, and, potentially, a renewable natural resource of considerable economic value. The panel hopes that through this report the possibility of saving and managing this animal throughout the tropics can be better assessed.&lt;/P&gt;
152
153&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Members of the panel consulted officials of the Ministry of Wildlife and Conservation in Port Moresby and visited crocodile farms in Moitaka, Popondetta, and Lae. The panel is grateful to Karol Kisokau, Navu Kwapena, and Miro Laufa of the Division of Wildlife for arranging its itinerary and visits in Papua New Guinea. It also wishes to thank Yano Belo, Minister of Environment, for hosting an evening social at the Moitaka crocodile farm; Greg Mitchell and his wife Judy, who entertained the panel at their home in Lae and conducted a tour of their company's crocodile farm; and Wassam and Carol Gabara who acted as guides and hosts in Popondetta.&lt;/P&gt;
154
155&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI) of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council, is assessing scientific and technological advances that might prove especially applicable to problems of developing countries. This report is one of a series that explores promising areas of science previously unknown, neglected, or overlooked. Current titles in the ACT! series on Managing Tropical Animal Resources include:&lt;/P&gt;
156&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal (1981) &lt;/P&gt;
157&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1983) &lt;/P&gt;
158&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (1983) &lt;/P&gt;
159&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea (1983) &lt;/P&gt;
160
161&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;These activities are supported largely by the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Program costs for this study were sponsored by AID'S Bureau for Asia, and staff costs by AID'S Office of the Science Advisor, which also made possible the free distribution of this report. &lt;/P&gt;
162
163&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
164</Content>
165</Section>
166<Section>
167  <Description>
168    <Metadata name="Title">1 Introduction</Metadata>
169  </Description>
170  <Content>
171
172&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials ( Present-day crocodilians are grouped into three families: crocodiles, alligators and caimans, and gavials (gharials). The animals differ from one another only in minor characters such as shape of snout, arrangement of scutes, and dental features. This report focuses mainly on crocodile species, but its conclusions are generally applicable to alligators, caimans, and gavials.) have existed for some 200 million years - much longer than mammals - but they are now disappearing at alarming rates. Of the 21 or so species of crocodilians distributed in the warm waters of the world, at least 18 are threatened with extinction in most of the countries where they are found.&lt;/P&gt;
173
174&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although some species, such as the American alligator, appear to be out of danger because of strict conservation measures, many of the others survive mostly in national parks, protected preserves, or a few breeding stations. This is true for the slender-spouted crocodiles of Africa and Asia, the saltwater crocodile of Australia and Southeast Asia, the black caiman and Orinoco crocodile of South America, the Chinese alligator, the Siamese crocodile, and other species.&lt;/P&gt;
175
176&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Habitat destruction is a major contributor to crocodilian decline; each year more breeding areas are disturbed as swamps and marshlands are drained, rivers dammed, estuaries reclaimed, and riverine forests denuded. However, illegal poaching by tribal people with their simple but effective traps, snares, and set hooks, as well as professional hunters operating with power boats, spotlights, and modern firearms are also decimating the animals over most of their ranges.&lt;/P&gt;
177
178&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;To a large extent these animals are being destroyed because of their market value. Crocodile is regarded as the costliest and most fashionable leather in western markets. Since World War II, demand for crocodile leather shoes, handbags, luggage, wallets, watchbands, and other expensive luxury articles has far exceeded supply. Even small items such as purses and handbags sell for many hundreds of dollars each. For instance, a ladies' purse or handbag made from crocodile skin can command prices as high as $4,000. A pair of men's shoes may cost from $500 to $900, and a wallet from $150 to $250.&lt;/P&gt;
179
180&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The crocodile trade peaked in the mid-1960s, when world markets absorbed more than 2 million crocodile skins each year. Today it is still large. In 1979, for instance, 1,000,000 caiman hides and 300,000 true crocodile hides entered international commerce. In 1981 the United States itself imported 100,000 hides.&lt;/P&gt;
181
182&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;International markets for reptile hides and leathers are centered in France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan. France, the single largest buyer of raw crocodilian hides, uses an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 skins a year. The major buyers of finished crocodile leather products are Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, and the United States.&lt;/P&gt;
183
184&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Unrestricted hunting and poaching for hides are wiping out the large breeding animals. Excessive hunting has a devastating effect on crocodile populations because their age distribution is like a pyramid: a small number of breeding animals dominates a large number of juveniles and hatchlings, most of which never survive to maturity. Such societies, in which the size of future populations depends on only a few animals, are highly vulnerable to extinction; once some of the mature members are killed the population can crash. And it takes a long time for a crocodilian population to rebuild because for most large species the females do not begin breeding until they are at least 8 years old.&lt;/P&gt;
185
186&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Rearing Crocodiles&lt;/P&gt;
187
188&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although there may seem to be no future for many crocodile populations, the situation is not hopeless. With intelligent intervention and under good conditions they can recover rapidly. Mature crocodiles have no enemies other than man, and, given some care and protection, a small number of breeders can produce a huge number of progeny each year. Mature females of the various crocodilian species usually lay between 30 and 70 eggs each year, and under normal conditions most of these eggs hatch successfully. The key to conserving the population is to protect the few mature animals and their habitats. Then, because of their fecundity, crocodilians can rapidly build up large numbers of young.&lt;/P&gt;
189
190&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;This has been exemplified by the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Ten years ago its future seemed doubtful, but the legal protection of the populations has brought a remarkable recovery. Numbers are now so high that two states have lifted the ban on harvesting alligators, and between lo,ooo and 20,000 American alligator hides now enter commerce each year.&lt;/P&gt;
191
192&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The past few decades have seen several other examples of successful crocodile-rearing projects. Later chapters of this book highlight the national program in Papua New Guinea. In addition, three successful government-operated farms exist in India (where all the progeny is returned to the wild because current Indian law prohibits commercial crocodile farms). A remarkable farm with more than 3,000 breeding animals operates on the outskirts of Bangkok, Thailand. Australia has four crocodile farms, and a few African countries now have crocodile farms that are already beginning to supply hides internationally. For example, in 1982 Zambia had two such farms, Zimbabwe, five, South Africa, four (with five more planned or under construction), and Kenya, one. Appendix A lists these and other countries that are initiating farms for various crocodilian species.&lt;/P&gt;
193
194&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The early technical success of these projects offers the expectation that with an appropriate framework of safeguards and research, crocodiles might become a thriving resource for tropical nations. If such experiences can be replicated, crocodilians and their habitats may come to be considered as resources to be managed and treasured. This will require considerable investment, strict legislation and law enforcement, and international cooperation and research, as well as careful monitoring of the traffic in farmed hides. But national crocodile industries are a possibility, and they could result in thriving natural populations that are free from the danger of extinction.&lt;/P&gt;
195
196&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Such prospects may also provide economic incentives for preserving the often-fragile ecosystem in which wild crocodilians live. Crocodile farming could play a part by slowing the uncontrolled draining of swamps and other wetlands that cover large areas of the lowland humid tropics of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.&lt;/P&gt;
197
198&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles as a managed resource could economically benefit remote areas of the lowland tropics. Villagers there often have few alternative sources of income and possibilities for economic development are limited. Because the human population is relatively sparse, few opportunities exist for local trading; even where fish are abundant the problems of marketing are formidable. Indeed, in some areas crocodiles may constitute the only readily salvable resource.&lt;/P&gt;
199
200&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles as Farm Animals&lt;/P&gt;
201
202&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Well-fed crocodiles grow quickly. Under ideal conditions they may reach lengths of 1 m or more in a year and 1.5 m in 2 years. They are normally harvested in the third year when they reach about 2 m in length. In this time their value may have risen from about $5 to as much as $200.&lt;/P&gt;
203
204&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles have acquired a reputation as voracious feeders; investigations reveal this to be false. The animals actually have modest food requirements. Many hatchling animals have a food conversion rate of about 50 percent; that is, the crocodile adds 1 kg of weight for every 2 kg of food it consumes. Cattle, sheep, and pigs would have to eat 3-5 times as much food to achieve the same weight increase. After 2 years the crocodile's growth rate begins to slow down. During the third year the conversion falls to about 25 or 30 percent, which is still a high figure, and makes crocodiles probably the most nutritionally efficient land animal for commercial husbandry. Only the growth of some fish is comparable.&lt;/P&gt;
205
206&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The high food conversion efficiency is due to the fact that crocodiles have low metabolic rates and are normally extremely lethargic. They are active only in short bursts, spend hours immobile, and move only about one-third as much as mammals. Moreover, being reptiles, they spend almost no food energy maintaining body temperature. They bask in the sun to keep warm and seek shade or water to cool off. For these reasons crocodilians can thrive in marginal habitats unsuitable for mammals or birds (Investigations on the Nile crocodile showed that a pelican takes 3 days to consume food equal to its own weight, whereas a crocodile takes 125-160 days - Cott, 1961.) &lt;/P&gt;
207
208&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile farming is also space efficient. As long as they are sorted by size, hundreds of juveniles or dozens of larger animals can be penned together in a small area. Indeed crocodiles often choose to pile up on top of one another in stacks.&lt;/P&gt;
209
210&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Little is known about disease in reptiles. However, as farm animals, crocodiles have a major advantage: they produce antibodies readily and have few problems with external infections. In the wild it is common to find crocodiles missing limbs or tips of tails, with eyes gouged out, or enormous scars on the body. But the wounds heal readily, with little sign of infection (The American alligator is being used at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine as a model for studies on antibody formation.). This minimizes the need for veterinary services, a distinct benefit in remote village farms. Nevertheless, internal bacterial diseases, such as salmonella, can get out of hand and destroy a program by reducing growth rates, lowering hide quality, or killing the animals outright.&lt;/P&gt;
211
212&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile Hides&lt;/P&gt;
213
214&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is the belly skin that is the valuable part of a crocodile, and the worth of a hide is determined by the size of the belly skin, the smallness of its scales, and the hide's general condition. (Holes, cuts, scars, and rot drastically reduce its value.)&lt;/P&gt;
215
216&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although international markets utilize any crocodile skin from 0.3 m to 6 m long, the most sought-after hides are not the biggest but the moderate-sized ones from animals about 1.5-2 m long. These hides are approximately 25-50 cm in belly width.( A crocodile's total length is approximately 4-4.5 times the width of its belly). Large hides, for example those more than 3 or 4 m in length, are suitable only for luggage and briefcases because their scales are large. Smaller hides, on the other hand, are suitable both for items such as shoes, handbags, and wallets and for larger items.&lt;/P&gt;
217
218&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Internationally, the most desirable hides come from the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). It has proportionally the smallest belly scales of any crocodile, it lacks osteoderms,(Osteoderms are deposits of calcium carbonate under the skin. They are undesirable because they dissolve away during the tanning process, leaving a pitted surface),and on the side of its body the scales are uniformly small. The next most valuable hides probably come from Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), the American alligator, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). &lt;/P&gt;
219
220&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Papua New Guinea&lt;/P&gt;
221
222&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The rest of this report highlights the program in Papua New Guinea, where during the last 10 years the government has made crocodile rearing an organized industry, much as poultry farming is elsewhere. This program, which is beginning to establish crocodiles as a significant natural asset, is designed both to protect the wild populations and to integrate traditional uses of these reptiles into a scientifically managed hide industry.&lt;/P&gt;
223
224&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In Papua New Guinea crocodile farming (In the official terminology of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Papua New Guinea program is &quot;ranching&quot; rather than &quot;farming&quot; because the young livestock are mostly culled from wild populations and are not bred on the farm) has become the cornerstone for the economic improvement of some of the world's poorest people. It offers a means for bringing the rural poor into the process of economic development, and it can be blended into a traditional village structure where land and resources may be communally owned.&lt;/P&gt;
225
226&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The projects are small and many have had operational difficulties, but they suggest that conservation and economic development can be not only compatible, but also mutually reinforcing. The innovative idea is not that crocodiles can bring in money, but that sound conservation can be blended with marketing crocodile skins, meat, and by-products.&lt;/P&gt;
227
228&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;An important aspect of this approach to crocodile conservation is that it is based on protecting the existing landscape and resources. It provides a tool for conserving the species in their own wild habitats so that survival will not depend on a few captive specimens living under artificial conditions. It requires none of the bush clearing, fencing, forage planting or pesticide spraying that domestic animals often demand ,important advantages in an economic development project in a fragile tropical swamp or rain forest ecosystem.&lt;/P&gt;
229
230&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Papua New Guinea approach, then, provides an economic incentive for wildlife protection. Everyone ,from the villager to the minister of trade ,has a stake in keeping the wild populations healthy. Out of self-interest, in addition to natural respect, large numbers of people become the guardians of the resource and the habitat needed to keep it surviving and productive.&lt;/P&gt;
231
232&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The world's major conservation organizations have given Papua New Guinea's crocodile program their stamp of approval. In 1976 a team of scientists representing the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, one of the most prestigious conservation organizations in the world, inspected the program. As a result, Papua New Guinea was given special dispensation, and its crocodile skins can be legally traded internationally. For example, because of its endangered status the saltwater crocodile is banned from trade by the Convention on international Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). An exemption, however, is granted to Papua New Guinea in recognition of the fact that its crocodiles now are sufficiently well managed to sustain a skin industry without seriously damaging the wild stock.&lt;/P&gt;
233
234&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;This program serves as a model for nations of the Americas, Asia, and Africa where crocodilian resources are still unmanaged or managed poorly. Crocodiles are being destroyed so fast that within about five years Papua New Guinea and other countries that have organized crocodile farming operations may be the only ones supplying significant numbers of skins to the international market.&lt;/P&gt;
235
236&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although the principles developed in Papua New Guinea deserve international attention, the recipe will not be a cure-all for problems of rural development or crocodile conservation. Instead, the Papua New Guinea experience suggests that local social, political, economic, and conservation goals can become the impetus for a successful blend of village improvement and wildlife protection.&lt;/P&gt;
237
238&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
239</Content>
240</Section>
241<Section>
242  <Description>
243    <Metadata name="Title">2 Crocodile Farming in Papua New Guinea</Metadata>
244  </Description>
245  <Content>
246
247&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;As recently as the l950s, crocodiles were abundant in Papua New Guinea. Hunting was a major occupation and was unrestricted. Some Australians and Europeans made fortunes by shooting thousands of crocodiles a year to make shoes and handbags in Europe and North America.&lt;/P&gt;
248
249&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although it was obvious that wild populations could not sustain such wholesale slaughter, the destruction continued. By 1967 both the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and the freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) were threatened with extinction. By 1968, despite increased hunting, the yield of skins had dropped in half; along the easily accessible river systems, crocodile populations had been wiped out. By 1969 the saltwater crocodile had disappeared from much of its range throughout the country, and wildlife officers estimated that without protection most specimens of breeding size would be eliminated within five years.&lt;/P&gt;
250
251&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;But how could crocodiles be protected? Papua New Guinea is divided by mountain ranges, ravines, torrential rivers, forests, seas, malarial swamps, and more than 700 languages. It would take hundreds of trained wildlife officers to enforce a ban on crocodile hunting, particularly in the face of opposition from tribesmen who have traditionally harvested crocodiles for food, decorative items, and implements.&lt;/P&gt;
252
253&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The challenge was given to the officers of the Wildlife Division. Under the leadership of Max C. Downes, these officials concluded that the best way to protect crocodile populations was to halt the slaughter of the large breeding adults and build up a new hide industry based on the increased numbers of young that would result.&lt;/P&gt;
254
255&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Few young crocodiles ever reach breeding age in the wild. The tiny, virtually defenseless hatchlings are easy prey for large fish, birds, or other crocodiles. Almost all of them are killed by predators or by other natural causes, such as floods..&lt;/P&gt;
256
257&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Main areas of crocodile distribution in Papua New Guinea.&lt;/P&gt;
258
259&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;What was needed, the wildlife officers concluded, were incentives to make these smaller animals economically attractive, incentives to encourage local people to raise small crocodiles to commercial size. If that could be accomplished, hundreds of hatchlings that would normally perish could be utilized without endangering the wild populations' future. Villagers could benefit by selling skins while the vital breeding-sized animals were being left alone to provide more hatchlings. The system could benefit both the villagers and the vulnerable crocodile populations.&lt;/P&gt;
260
261&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;&lt;center&gt;&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/b20a.png&quot;&gt;&lt;/center&gt;&lt;br&gt;
262 Main areas of crocodile distribution in Papua New Guinea&lt;/P&gt;
263
264&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The idea was viable partly because many Papua New Guineans - particularly those of the Sepik and Fly Rivers - have ancient spiritual and cultural attachments to crocodiles. To them, the idea of handling and managing the animals is not unusual. Crocodile motifs are common in their art and they live in harmony with the big beasts and do not consider them dangerous pests to be eliminated.&lt;/P&gt;
265
266&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Legislation passed by the Papua New Guinea government in 1969 capitalized on this tradition by making the villagers themselves the real force in crocodile protection. The law did not ban crocodile hunting, but instead banned the possession, sale, and export of skins larger than 20 inches (51 cm) wide. In this way, it protected breeding-sized animals while allowing for the harvest of juveniles. It also allowed a person to kill a crocodile if attacked (but barred the selling of the skin, if it were oversized).&lt;/P&gt;
267
268&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In 1980, the legislation was supplemented by a law banning the export of small skins. Together, the bans on possessing large skins and exporting small skins have created a stimulus for gathering small crocodiles from the wild and rearing them to moderate size on farms. The legislation has been the impetus for crocodile farming.&lt;/P&gt;
269
270&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile farming officially started in Papua New Guinea in 1972. In the late 1970s, it was extensively supported by a UNDP/FAO assistance program that provided personnel and funds for technical support and program management. Today there are about 300 small village farms (The numbers vary, since some villagers go in and out of production depending on their need for income, seasonal variation in river levels, the cost of fuel, and the availability of government extension agents) supplying a number of larger business groups that rear crocodiles.&lt;/P&gt;
271
272&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Wildlife officers now teach crocodile farming, not crocodile conservation per se. They have introduced crocodile-rearing techniques to villagers all over Papua New Guinea. They help build pens and teach tribesmen how to care for the young reptiles, which are so vulnerable and timid that they can literally die of fright.&lt;/P&gt;
273
274&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Government loans of up to US$10,000, along with matching development bank loans, are available to help a farmer enter the crocodile farming business. The funds pay for pumps for changing the water in the pens and sometimes for an outboard motor used in gathering young crocodiles. Everything else a villager needs can be obtained from the forest, including materials for pen construction; a small farm can therefore be established inexpensively.&lt;/P&gt;
275
276&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Three Types of Farms&lt;/P&gt;
277
278&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The government's crocodile management program recognizes three levels of operation: village farms (up to 300 crocodiles), small-business farms (up to 1,000 crocodiles), and large-business farms (more than 1,000 crocodiles).&lt;/P&gt;
279
280&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A village crocodile farm consists of a small pen fenced with posts lashed together with vines. This stockade fence is about 1.5 m high and is sunk about 60 cm in the ground so the crocodiles cannot burrow out. Much of the enclosure is planted with grass, cassava, and banana trees to provide secluded areas where the animals, which regulate their body temperature by the warmth of the sun, can find shade. A shallow pool is excavated in the center.&lt;/P&gt;
281
282&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;These village farms are usually run by only one or two people. Many are little more than pens scattered in the remote bush for holding young crocodiles until a buyer from a larger farm comes around. Small crocodiles bring less money than medium-sized animals, but the villager avoids having to feed and care for them for a long period.(Because of operational difficulties, many village farms were abandoned in 1982. Lack of proper husbandy - despite government efforts - were the main reason for these difficulties. Most villagers now collect and hold young only until buyers from commercial farms arrive. However, they are still earning money from crocodiles, and the concept of fully functioning village farms remains valid for the future in Papua New Guinea, as well as for appropriate sites elsewhere). &lt;/P&gt;
283
284&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The small-business farm usually consists of a group of enclosures (each about 6 m x 6 m) constructed of bush materials. It is typically located near an airstrip. It buys crocodiles from the village farmer and, in turn, supplies them to the larger farms, which sometimes dispatch aircraft to pick the animals up (Special cardboard shipping containers have been devised. They can be folded to make cylinders of various diameters to fit crocodiles of different sizes). &lt;/P&gt;
285
286&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Large-scale crocodile farms accommodate as many as 20,000 crocodiles and require a large investment. They serve to regulate the export of skins and are the major purchasers of live crocodiles from the smaller farms. During periods of drought, flooding, or diminished food supplies, the large-scale farms also act as emergency buyers. On the outskirts of Lae on Papua New Guinea's northern coast, there is a 100-hectare farm with nearly 8,000 crocodiles. It is associated with a poultry company, and the crocodiles are raised on the offal from the slaughterhouse.&lt;/P&gt;
287
288&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Government Research and Extension&lt;/P&gt;
289
290&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Wildlife Division has constructed four demonstration farms across the country and one large research farm at Moitaka near Port Moresby, the capital city. After training at one of these, a tribesman can start his own farm alone or can call on the government for further assistance.&lt;/P&gt;
291
292&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Moitaka is also the site of short courses in crocodile farming. Prospective farmers are brought in for several weeks' training. They learn how to build pens, to feed and care for crocodiles, to kill and skin them, and to prepare the hides for market. They also learn about the crocodile laws and the reason they were enacted. A farm at Lake Murray, in a remote and swampy area of the Western Province, serves the same purpose. It is built entirely from bush materials (see picture, pp. 6-7).&lt;/P&gt;
293
294&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Wildlife Division provides instruction books, profusely illustrated for the illiterate. The books include vivid descriptions of all phases of farming the animals.&lt;/P&gt;
295
296&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Economic Gains&lt;/P&gt;
297
298&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In 10 years, crocodile rearing has expanded remarkably in Papua New Guinea. It has already become the main source of income for the people of some swamp and river areas. The Ambunti area, for example, produces coffee and rice, but crocodile skins now bring in much of the area's income. By 1981 the farms nationwide contained a total of 30,000 crocodiles, ensuring a sustained production of at least 10,000 skins a year worth approximately US$ 1-2 million on the international market.&lt;/P&gt;
299
300&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Because crocodiles are a familiar resource, villagers take to the program quickly. By contrast, introducing cattle or western-style crop raising requires massive education and training, in addition to some social and environmental disruption.&lt;/P&gt;
301
302&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;On government farms in Papua New Guinea, fish-fed crocodiles have increased their belly width by 25 cm per year and are ready for slaughter in 2-3 years when the width approaches 50 cm. The selling price of the skin is then between $100 and $200, depending on species, flaws, and size.&lt;/P&gt;
303
304&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;But skins are not the only product. A crocodile with a skin big enough to market can provide 20 kg of meat. The meat is white and is low in fat. Papua New Guinea is a net importer of meat, and crocodile farming is now augmenting local supplies. The large farm at Lae already sells frozen crocodile meat (including front and hind legs, tail steaks, ribs, and chops) both locally and on foreign markets. Some orders have come in from dealers in Paris who supply expensive French restaurants.&lt;/P&gt;
305
306&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
307</Content>
308</Section>
309<Section>
310  <Description>
311    <Metadata name="Title">3 Conclusions</Metadata>
312  </Description>
313  <Content>
314
315&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Benefits of Crocodile Farming&lt;/P&gt;
316
317&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile farming seems to be singularly appropriate for rural, isolated, lowland communities in the tropics. The land there is often unsuitable for conventional agriculture, and the people lead a tenuous existence or drift to the cities looking for work. In such areas, there are few opportunities for people to earn cash without drastic and expensive modifications to the environment.&lt;/P&gt;
318
319&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile farming has many advantages over hunting the animal in the wild. For instance, crocodiles farms can:&lt;/P&gt;
320&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Permit government monitoring of the crocodile industry. (Hunters are more difficult to regulate since they work in remote areas, often undetected and crossing borders at will.)&lt;/P&gt;
321&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Yield a regular harvest of a specific number of animals of a selected size.&lt;/P&gt;
322&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Produce a standardized, premium product that better serves the needs of the international hide industry, making skins poached from the wild less desirable. (They may provide, for instance, a standard first grade 1-1.5 m long hide rather than hides of mixed size and quality.)&lt;/P&gt;
323&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Reduce the wasteful losses of hides from improper handling, the fate of a high proportion of skins now brought in from the wild.(*In remote areas, salt may become scarce late in the season as it is used for hides. This often results in insufficient salt being used when the supply runs out and hides subsequently rot or &quot;slip&quot;. In some isolated areas, as much as 25 percent of the hides are lost or downgraded because of improper curing for lack of salt. However, skins produced on farms, especially near urban areas or large villages, are usually properly salted; if salt becomes scarce, killing of the animals can be delayed) &lt;/P&gt;
324&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Educate the public about crocodile ecology and the animal's importance to the habitat and the local economy.&lt;/P&gt;
325&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Provide sites for scientific studies on crocodilians. Studies conducted on alligators at the Rockefeller Refuge in Louisiana, USA, for example, have provided reproductive, nutritional, and growth data directed specifically towards developing efficient farming techniques.&lt;/P&gt;
326
327&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;For some farms the earnings from hides, meat, and by-products may be supplemented by tourism (through gate admissions and the sale of curios), as well as by selling eggs and young to other farms for breeding stock.&lt;/P&gt;
328
329&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A long-term program of wise utilization of crocodiles can benefit governments by providing revenue from hides, curios, craftwork, and manufactured articles, as well as from export duties. Furthermore, in their natural state in parks and preserves, crocodiles are an important tourist attraction.&lt;/P&gt;
330
331&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In an effort to preserve crocodile habitats, the Papua New Guinea program has encouraged the collection of eggs or young from the wild and has discouraged the breeding of crocodiles in captivity. This is because a reliance on the wild creates economic incentives to conserve crocodile habitats; if the habitats are drained for human settlement or conventional agriculture the farmers lose the source of their stock.&lt;/P&gt;
332
333&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Contrary to popular impression, preliminary observations indicate that crocodiles benefit commercial fisheries. The animals are important links in the ecosystems of rivers and lakes and are often the largest inhabitants of the freshwater wetlands. Their movements inhibit the growth of aquatic plants in the waterways, and, in areas with prolonged dry seasons, some species maintain residual waterholes that benefit small aquatic organisms that would otherwise perish. In estuaries and lakes, crocodiles enrich the nutrient content of the water by converting terrestrial prey into feces that in turn feed invertebrates and fish.&lt;/P&gt;
334
335&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Where crocodiles have been eliminated, reductions in the tonnage of fish caught for human consumption can usually be demonstrated. For example, in Brazil, Kenya, and India, a decline in the fishermen's catch has paralleled the decline in crocodiles.&lt;/P&gt;
336
337&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Limitations of Crocodile Farming&lt;/P&gt;
338
339&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Governments and individuals seeking rapid returns on investments should realize that a crocodile farming industry is not a get-rich-quick scheme. To build a stable national industry may require 10 years and an investment of at least $500,000 before it is biologically and economically successful.&lt;/P&gt;
340
341&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Nevertheless, an organized industry is vital. A village crocodile-rearing pond is only profitable if there is someone to buy, grade, package, and ship the product with all its documentation. Services will be needed at all levels to advise on disease control, nutrition, skinning, and preserving the hides. In many parts of the world crocodile farms have been financial and conservation failures not just because of poor husbandry management, but also because of fiscal shortsightedness.&lt;/P&gt;
342
343&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Selection of a suitable farm site is basic to the economics of the entire operation. Farms demand a steady supply of meat or fish to feed the crocodiles, and are most successful when located near a reliable source of inexpensive food. Some farms take advantage of offal from nearby chicken or cattle abattoirs; others use the fish by-catch from shrimping operations. In the absence of an inexpensive animal protein feed, the farm will have to raise its own food (tilapia is frequently used) or harvest it from the wild, both of which can be expensive.&lt;/P&gt;
344
345&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodile farms also require a steady year-round supply of clean water for the holding ponds and tanks. If this cannot be supplied by gravity flow from nearby sources, it must be pumped from wells or from nearby lakes or ponds. This, too, is likely to be expensive.&lt;/P&gt;
346
347&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Despite the general hardiness of crocodiles, the farms must have access to veterinary care. Most disease problems stem from poor sanitation, low water temperatures, and poor diet, all of which can be easily corrected. But with large numbers of animals crowded together, disease problems, if not quickly diagnosed and treated, can wipe out the young captive animals in epidemic proportions.&lt;/P&gt;
348
349&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Capturing and transporting large crocodilians is dangerous and difficult. Dealing with a large captive population of crocodiles of different age groups and sizes requires a great deal of experience.&lt;/P&gt;
350
351&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although crocodilians are common in zoos, successful breeding of these reptiles in captivity is so far a rare and remarkable event. However, researchers are now coming to understand the behavioral requirements for success. For instance, gravid females must have access to appropriate nesting sites, males must have ample space when they are penned in with other males, and juveniles and hatchlings must be separated from their parents and housed by size and feeding preferences. That prolific breeding can be achieved, however, is illustrated by the Samutprakan crocodile farm near Bangkok, Thailand, which reportedly has reared tens of thousands of its own animals and now aims for a population of 100,000 crocodiles by 1987.&lt;/P&gt;
352
353&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Conservation&lt;/P&gt;
354
355&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The worldwide shortage of crocodile leather is becoming more acute each year, and it will be many years before any output from farms can significantly reduce pressure on wild populations. Thus, farming should be only one aspect of an overall conservation program that includes total protection of some populations in national parks and sanctuaries. In addition, the conservation of natural wetlands is an important part of overall economic planning. If wetlands are lost, many wild species in addition to crocodiles will be affected.&lt;/P&gt;
356
357&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In Australia, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, many crocodilian populations are poorly protected because governments lack the manpower or the will to enforce conservation laws rigorously, especially in the remote areas where the last remaining crocodiles reside. Because most wildlife departments in the tropics are short staffed and have vast areas to police, their efforts at wildlife protection are frequently ineffective. Moreover, some countries have been slow to introduce protective legislation for an animal that does not engender public sympathy.&lt;/P&gt;
358
359&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Papua New Guinea's program offers one of the best hopes for saving all endangered crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials. The methods developed there serve as a model for other nations. By providing an alternative, Papua New Guinea gives villagers the incentive to protect wild crocodiles that are breeding nearby so as to assure themselves of future supplies. The people themselves become the conservators of the local animals and habitats. In turn, watersheds, soils, and conventional agricultural development (including natural and forest products) can all benefit. The habitat is also preserved for many other wildlife species that share it, and genetic diversity can be maintained. Conversely, without a special incentive to conserve them, all these resources are normally degraded as a region develops.&lt;/P&gt;
360
361&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
362</Content>
363</Section>
364<Section>
365  <Description>
366    <Metadata name="Title">4 Regulations, Safeguards, and Research Needs</Metadata>
367  </Description>
368  <Content>
369
370&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Papua New Guinea experience provides a model for other nations, but to implement such a program requires a foundation of legislation, government support, and legal safeguards. Prerequisites of any crocodile farming program are an overhaul of legislation, strict law enforcement, and reciprocal laws with neighboring countries.&lt;/P&gt;
371
372&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The enforcement of wildlife regulations is so inadequate in most countries that crocodile farming is open to abuse. Farms can front for illegal poaching operations, and hides taken from the wild can be intermingled with hides produced on the ranch or farm unless government enforcement is stringent and inspection frequent.&lt;/P&gt;
373
374&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Moreover, the stimulation of world trade in crocodile hides through the sale of farmed hides might lead to increased poaching of wild crocodiles or eggs. Poachers have fewer operating expenses than farmers, and unscrupulous hunters and dealers can harvest hides, steal crocodile eggs or young, and subsequently sell them through countries that lack enforcement capabilities. This practice could be disastrous for countries where crocodile populations have almost disappeared.&lt;/P&gt;
375
376&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Government Regulations&lt;/P&gt;
377
378&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Before any farming scheme is attempted, protective legislation should be in operation throughout the country. This should make it unlawful to kill, capture by any means whatsoever, disturb willfully, or pursue any crocodiles, or to collect or gather any crocodile eggs without a permit.&lt;/P&gt;
379
380&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;No crocodile eggs should be allowed to be imported or exported with out a permit. No persons should possess, sell, buy, donate, receive consequent upon a donation, convey, keep in captivity, or display any live crocodiles without being the holder of a permit. And no person should be allowed to import or export any crocodile, dead or alive, or any portion of a crocodile, processed or not, from any country without a permit.&lt;/P&gt;
381
382&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Before granting a license for a commercial farm, the government should investigate the applicant's land tenure and financial resources, particularly since the farm will have to operate for three to four years before producing crocodiles suitable for culling. The applicant's ability and experience in rearing crocodiles should be determined. A plan of the proposed farm, including details of water and food supply and the proposed methods of harvesting food, should be examined.&lt;/P&gt;
383
384&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is suggested that:&lt;/P&gt;
385&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· No permit for egg harvesting should be issued until adequate rearing facilities have been prepared. The permit should state the name of the holder or his authorized representative, the annual total number of eggs allocated for harvesting, and the area where collection is permitted.(In some cases it is also important to specify a harvest time. Often it is best to take eggs laid early in the season because the female will then lay another clutch.) &lt;/P&gt;
386&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Permits should be issued on a year-by-year basis. The applicant should understand that the department may refuse to renew or issue further permits if the farm is not managed satisfactorily or if permit conditions have not been observed.&lt;/P&gt;
387&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· The applicant should understand that the farm and all production records should be available for inspection by an official of the conservation department.&lt;/P&gt;
388&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· The farmer should be required to submit periodic reports detailing the total number of nests raided and eggs harvested, the egg mortality, and the number of eggs hatched. Thereafter, the number of animals held in captivity, the rate of mortality and its causes, if known, and the number of animals sold or culled should be included in each report.&lt;/P&gt;
389
390&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Furthermore, it is recommended that the permit holder release 5 percent of his annual crop of hatchlings in order to restock the natural habitat. In addition, a further 5 percent of the hatchling crop should be reared to a length of 1 m before being released, bringing the total release of young crocodilians to 10 percent of the annual crop of hatchlings.&lt;/P&gt;
391
392&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The distribution of hatchlings and young reared animals should be supervised by the conservation department.&lt;/P&gt;
393
394&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Unless government agencies monitor the wild populations of crocodilians being harvested for hides, eggs, or young, the farms themselves could become a major drain on those populations, leading to their extinction. Therefore, before any farming program is started, a survey of the breeding grounds should be undertaken to determine the number of nests available and those from which eggs can be taken with least danger to the wild population (for example, from nests on grounds likely to be flooded).&lt;/P&gt;
395
396&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;These breeding grounds should be fully protected; tourists on foot, in vehicles, or in launches should not be allowed to visit or disturb crocodiles during the breeding season.&lt;/P&gt;
397
398&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;International Safeguards and Cooperation&lt;/P&gt;
399
400&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The international traffic in millions of unmarked crocodilian hides and products poses one of the greatest obstacles to enforcement of national and international endangered species regulations. Hides and skins frequently cannot be traced to their source or country of origin. Legally harvested or farmed animals cannot readily be distinguished from those exported in secret from illegal sources.&lt;/P&gt;
401
402&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The need for internationally acceptable methods of marking individual hides and products is critical. Traffic in illegal crocodilian hides and products will continue as long as law enforcement agencies lack the means to detect them easily.&lt;/P&gt;
403
404&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In the United States a system has been developed in some states that enables conservation, police, and customs officials to monitor traffic in alligator hides. A conservation authority issues an official tag for each animal allowed by the license. All hides exported are tagged with a serially numbered plastic tag that cannot be removed without breaking it. The serial number is recorded on the export permit and with details of the buyer's and seller's name and address. This tag remains on the hide, right through the tanning process, until the hide reaches the manufacturer. Each tannery maintains a register of purchases that is available for inspection. This system also is being implemented in Zimbabwe and is worthy of trial in other countries.&lt;/P&gt;
405
406&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The tagging of all hides and products for individual identification is an important safeguard. Other safeguards include:&lt;/P&gt;
407&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· The use of engraved stamps or seals to authenticate legal licenses and export permits and make it more difficult for documents to be forged.&lt;/P&gt;
408&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Internationally accessible data and a retrieval system that allows law enforcement personnel to corroborate the authenticity of documentation and the origin of hides and products;&lt;/P&gt;
409&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Monitoring agencies to record and publish market statistics, traffic, and trends;&lt;/P&gt;
410&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Laws limiting the sale of hides only to nations that cooperate in an internationally sanctioned program of safeguards; and&lt;/P&gt;
411&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;· Research funding to monitor populations and develop new marking and identification techniques. (For instance, the use of dyes, roll marking, and infusion of detectable chemical tracers has yet to be fully explored.)&lt;/P&gt;
412
413&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Research Needs&lt;/P&gt;
414
415&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;There is urgent need for tannery owners, manufacturers, and conservation authorities to jointly work out the rational exploitation of crocodile populations. Commercial interests have reaped a rich reward over many years, and if the crocodile industry is to continue, its entrepreneurs must invest in management and conservation.&lt;/P&gt;
416
417&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Clearly, research to improve farming techniques will be a wise investment for both commercial operators and the countries concerned. Surveys to determine population numbers and size as well as the structure of breeding stocks and recruitment rates are essential. Such surveys may indicate the need to establish sanctuaries to protect breeding stock and nesting grounds, or perhaps to ban hunting to allow populations to recover. A rearing program and restocking of suitable habitats might be necessary.&lt;/P&gt;
418
419&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
420</Content>
421</Section>
422<Section>
423  <Description>
424    <Metadata name="Title">Appendixes</Metadata>
425  </Description>
426  <Content>
427
428&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
429</Content>
430<Section>
431  <Description>
432    <Metadata name="Title">Appendix A: Crocodile Farming Around the World</Metadata>
433  </Description>
434  <Content>
435
436&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Experiences with crocodile farming in Papua New Guinea, the main subject of this report, are described in chapter 2. Here we summarize the status of similar efforts in other countries.&lt;/P&gt;
437
438&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Australia&lt;/P&gt;
439
440&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Four crocodile farms have been established in Australia, one in the Northern Territory and three in Queensland. To date, only the Edward River farm, operated by the government as an aboriginal development project, has developed a successful breeding program. There, seven-yearold saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatched on the farm from wild eggs are now breeding and laying fertile eggs. &lt;/P&gt;
441
442&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Asia&lt;/P&gt;
443
444&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;People's Republic of China&lt;/P&gt;
445
446&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A farm for Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) has been established at Xuancheng, Anhui Province. Its purpose is to breed alligators for conservation, although the hide of this species is not in great demand because it has many osteoderms in the belly scales. Recently the government has expressed interest in establishing a farm for saltwater crocodiles in southern China. &lt;/P&gt;
447
448&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Taiwan&lt;/P&gt;
449
450&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Taiwan has one crocodile farm or rearing station, but it is too far north to breed its own stock, except in heated indoor enclosures.&lt;/P&gt;
451
452&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Philippines&lt;/P&gt;
453
454&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;There are several buyers in the Philippines who maintain pens of crocodiles for short periods. None of these is a farm. A new experimental farm for the Philippine freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis) was established by Silliman University in an attempt to preserve that endangered species and to promote an economic interest in crocodile conservation.&lt;/P&gt;
455
456&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Micronesia&lt;/P&gt;
457
458&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A farm for saltwater crocodiles has been established on Palau, where a small population of these crocodiles occurs in a brackish interior swamp. In the past, the government hired a hunter to reduce the population whenever the local people felt it had become sufficiently large to present a danger, about once a decade. Presumably the nuisance crocodiles will now end up in the farm. The farm, which has been in existence only for a year or two, earns money from tourist admissions as well as hide production.&lt;/P&gt;
459
460&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Indonesia&lt;/P&gt;
461
462&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A few crocodile-rearing stations have operated for several decades in Java, Sumatra, and Kalimantan. These have been stocked with eggs and young animals collected from the wild in Sumatra and Kalimantan. In the early 1970s, three such operations in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, closed down for lack of wild stock. At least one operation in Jakarta, Java, continues to survive, but with virtually no output of stock.&lt;/P&gt;
463
464&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A survey of Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea) in 1980 indicated a number of ranches in that region as well, but revealed that some were having difficulty obtaining stock because of overharvest.&lt;/P&gt;
465
466&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Singapore&lt;/P&gt;
467
468&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Singapore has a famous crocodile farm that figures prominently in tourism. It breeds some of its stock, but also obtains wild stock from all over Southeast Asia. Singapore has a thriving crocodile hide trade. Many buyers and several tanneries are located there.&lt;/P&gt;
469
470&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Singapore is not a member of CITES and openly trades in any and all species of crocodilians.&lt;/P&gt;
471
472&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Malaysia&lt;/P&gt;
473
474&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;There are several crocodile farms in West Malaysia (at Penang, for example) and at least one in East Malaysia (near Sandakan, Sabah). These started out as rearing stations relying on wild young, but have moved slowly toward breeding their own stock. The Penang farm depends on tourism to pay many of its expenses. The Sandakan farm is operated in conjunction with a duck and pig farm that supplies it with offal. Its stock consists of saltwater crocodiles. Until at least 1980, it had very little production from captive animals, but the owner is hoping to broaden his stock from them.&lt;/P&gt;
475
476&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Sarawak (East Malaysia) also used to have several rearing farms. The present status of these operations is unknown.&lt;/P&gt;
477
478&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Thailand&lt;/P&gt;
479
480&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm was started in 1950 with 20 wild crocodiles and an investment of US$500. Today it is reported to be the world's largest crocodile farm, with about 30,000 individuals. About 3,700 of these animals, placed in eight separate breeding ponds, are used for breeding stock, and there are plans for a population of 100,000 by 1987. The Samutprakan farm opened to the public 12 years ago and now receives about one million visitors annually.&lt;/P&gt;
481
482&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Most of the farm's crocodiles are from the two species native to Thailand, the saltwater crocodile and the Siamese freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). It also has hybrids of the two, as well as the indigenous false gavial (Tomistoma schlegelii) and five exotic species: South American caiman (Caiman crocodilus), New Guinea freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae), Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), broad-spouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), and dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus). The farm has succeeded in breeding South American caiman (Caiman crocodilus); the other species are approaching maturity and it is hoped they will breed in the near future.&lt;/P&gt;
483
484&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The farm sells crocodile meat locally, mostly to restaurants as a delicacy (for US$5 per kg).&lt;/P&gt;
485
486&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The commercial and biological success of the farm is largely due to favorable conditions at Samutprakan. The temperature and humidity are high year-round, and low costs of labor and building materials permit the physical plant to be profitably established and maintained. The main cost is for food; approximately 4,000-5,000 kg of by-catch fish are needed daily at a cost of US 20 cents per kg. If the supply of fish is inadequate, the diet is supplemented with chicken wings, legs, and necks from a slaughterhouse.&lt;/P&gt;
487
488&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Burma&lt;/P&gt;
489
490&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In Rangoon there are some crocodile-holding pens operated by hide buyers. It is not clear whether breeding or farming of crocodiles occurs in them or whether the operation simply acts as a clearing center for wild hides. The government has expressed interest in establishing farms in the mangrove areas near the mouth of the Irrawaddy River. &lt;/P&gt;
491
492&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;India&lt;/P&gt;
493
494&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In 1974 an FAO report on India's crocodiles noted that the Indian gavial (Gavialis gangeticus) was on the verge of extinction, the saltwater crocodile was extremely rare, and the Indian mugger (Crocodylus palustris was a depleted, although not threatened, species).&lt;/P&gt;
495
496&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The government, with United Nations assistance, then initiated a project for the conservation and management of all three species. This program aimed to protect and restock habitats. Animals for restocking were obtained by collecting eggs laid in the wild, incubating them under controlled conditions, raising the resulting hatchlings, and returning juveniles to specially selected sanctuaries when they reached about 1.2 m in length,at which time they are free from predation other than by man.&lt;/P&gt;
497
498&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The project has resulted in the comeback of the gavial. By March 1979, 200 gavials had been restored to the wild. The wild population now exceeds 1,000 animals of more than 2 m length, and the number is expected to increase rapidly through natural reproduction.&lt;/P&gt;
499
500&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The project has also carried out extensive research on crocodiles, and since its founding in 1978 the Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Training Institute, located in Hyderabad, has trained many wildlife officers in crocodile protection. Crocodile-rearing facilities are also located near Madras, Lucknow, and Cuttack. All have had success in raising the animals and restocking their habitats.&lt;/P&gt;
501
502&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Indian crocodile project has been a notable success and it coincided with (and perhaps helped create) a wave of local interest in India's wildlife and its conservation.&lt;/P&gt;
503
504&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Israel&lt;/P&gt;
505
506&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A farm stocked with American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) was established at a popular hotwater spring resort area, using animals supplied by a Florida farm. The Israeli program will earn money from tourist admissions and from future production of hides. The first successful hatching of captive-bred alligators was reported in 1982.&lt;/P&gt;
507
508&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Africa&lt;/P&gt;
509
510&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Kenya&lt;/P&gt;
511
512&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Near Mombasa a farm for the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) has been set up to produce hides from captive-bred stock. The farm is a demonstration project of a large cement factory that is attempting to return its limestone-mined areas to productive agriculture. Some sophisticated experiments are under way on crocodile nutrition, with food for the animals produced in an intensive aquaculture project using tilapia. &lt;/P&gt;
513
514&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zambia&lt;/P&gt;
515
516&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zambia is planning a series of farms patterned after those in Zimbabwe (described below).&lt;/P&gt;
517
518&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe&lt;/P&gt;
519
520&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe has made great strides in captive breeding. In 1979, 87 captive females at two farms produced 1,906 eggs, and a third farm has set aside 30 captive females for breeding.&lt;/P&gt;
521
522&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Four of the country's five crocodile farms are on the shores of Lake Kariba and the other is at Victoria Falls. The government allows each farm an annual allotment of wild eggs (averaging 2,000 to 2,500 eggs) for stocking its rearing programs. Each farm is also striving to become self sufficient in egg production by developing successful breeding programs. The government is considering reducing each farm's allotment by the number of eggs produced annually in the farm so that each will eventually become independent of the wild populations.&lt;/P&gt;
523
524&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe farmers operate on a system that obliges them to return a small percentage of live animals to the wild if the government requires it. At present, this requirement is being waived because the wild population is increasing on its own.&lt;/P&gt;
525
526&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe has built its crocodile conservation program on a broad base. Crocodiles are protected throughout the country, as game animals in the country at large and as totally protected species in parks and sanctuaries. Populations have increased dramatically, from endangered status in the l950s to over 50,000 individuals today. In the 1950s a survey of the Zambesi River and Lake Kariba revealed no crocodiles; today thousands are seen.&lt;/P&gt;
527
528&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe's Department of National Parks and Wildlife is striving to ensure that its legitimate international trade in farm-raised hides does not provide illegal operators in other countries with the opportunity to sell poached hides (for example, forging papers that claim their hides originated on legitimate Zimbabwe farms). To make poaching difficult, Zimbabwe, taking a clue from the state of Louisiana, plans to use serially numbered nonremovable plastic tags to mark legitimate hides. Numbers of the tags will be noted on export permits. In addition, every export permit will be validated by the government with an engraved security stamp that is difficult to forge and that shows ink damage if any erasures or modifications are attempted. The use of such stamps is recommended by CITES, and Zimbabwe is the first nation to put them into use.&lt;/P&gt;
529
530&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;South Africa&lt;/P&gt;
531
532&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;South Africa has four crocodile farms, and another five are planned or under construction. Apart from the Natal Parks Board Crocodile Research Station at St. Lucia Estuary, which breeds Nile crocodiles for restocking and conservation purposes, all farms are for tourism and hide production. So far only one farm, outside Pretoria, is reported to produce many offspring. Only the provinces of Transvaal and Natal have wild crocodiles, and neither allows eggs, young, or adults to be collected for stocking farms. Both provinces, however, permit the killing of nuisance crocodiles on private land. Transvaal will allow one or two nuisance crocodiles to be taken captive by farmers, but it refuses permission for removing larger numbers of nuisance animals,presumably for fear that this would generate a flood of spurious nuisance complaints. Natal will not permit the removal of any wild crocodiles to farms, nor will it supply offspring from the St. Lucia station to farmers. This makes the Pretoria farm the only source of crocodiles in South Africa.&lt;/P&gt;
533
534&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Following the example of Zimbabwe, the South African farmers (present and potential) formed a crocodile farming association in 1982.&lt;/P&gt;
535
536&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Botswana&lt;/P&gt;
537
538&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Several farms patterned after those in Zimbabwe are planned for the Okavango area. Petitions for approval are currently before the Botswana government.&lt;/P&gt;
539
540&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Chad&lt;/P&gt;
541
542&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In the late 1960s French businessmen established a farm for Nile crocodiles near Lake Chad. It collapsed after only a few years.&lt;/P&gt;
543
544&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Ivory Coast&lt;/P&gt;
545
546&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The government of Ivory Coast has obtained assistance from Zimbabwe to establish a conservation program for its three native crocodiles: the Nile crocodile, African slender-spouted crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus), and Congo dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). Recommendations were made for conserving the wild populations as well as for establishing farms. Field studies are under way.&lt;/P&gt;
547
548&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Europe&lt;/P&gt;
549
550&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Italy&lt;/P&gt;
551
552&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A commercial farm for the South American caiman (Caiman crocodilus) was established in southern Italy in the late 1970s. Stock was obtained from Colombia. The animals, numbering in the thousands, arrived in Rome in winter and were transported south to the farm in an open truck. Most died from cold. Later shipments fared no better, and the few animals that survived died from poor husbandry. &lt;/P&gt;
553
554&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Americas&lt;/P&gt;
555
556&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;United States&lt;/P&gt;
557
558&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;There are between 15 and 20 successful alligator farms in the United States. Most are located in Florida and Louisiana, and there is at least one in California. All earn a portion of their money from tourist admissions.&lt;/P&gt;
559
560&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Cuba&lt;/P&gt;
561
562&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In the 1960s the Cuban government established at least two farms for crocodiles. One is located in the Zapata Peninsula National Park; the other is near Cienfuegos. The purpose of these farms is to breed crocodiles whose wetland habitat has been converted to sugar cane fields. Eventually, the farms will also produce a cash crop of hides.&lt;/P&gt;
563
564&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Unfortunately, what started out as an admirable effort created several conservation problems because the farm managers did not realize there were two crocodiles in Cuba ,the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in brackish waters, and the Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) in freshwater areas. The two were mixed in the farms and hybridization resulted.&lt;/P&gt;
565
566&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Mexico&lt;/P&gt;
567
568&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Mexican government has established several farms for Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Chiapas and Veracruz. The purpose is to breed the species in captivity to relieve hunting pressure on the wild population and prevent its extinction. Original funding was provided by the World Wildlife Fund. At least one of these farms still exists. Breeding has been achieved, but there have been problems of survival in hatchlings. The cause of the deaths has not been discovered.&lt;/P&gt;
569
570&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In recent years several businessmen in Mexico have expressed interest in starting one or more crocodile farms, but none has yet materialized.&lt;/P&gt;
571
572&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;El Salvador&lt;/P&gt;
573
574&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In the late 1960s, the Louisiana Game and Fisheries Commission supplied specimens of the American alligator to a cattle rancher in El Salvador for the purpose of establishing an experimental farm.&lt;/P&gt;
575
576&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Louisiana was interested in studying growth rates of American alligators in a tropical nation where the animals did not have to undergo winter hibernation. The husbandry on the farm followed methods worked out in Louisiana. The animals grew fast and presumably have started breeding. &lt;/P&gt;
577
578&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Venezuela&lt;/P&gt;
579
580&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A captive breeding program for the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) was established in Venezuela in the late 1970s on the ranch of Tomas Blohm. The operation is not commercial; its purpose is to prevent extinction of the species. The offspring may be used for restocking wild habitats in the future.&lt;/P&gt;
581
582&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Under Venezuelan law there can be no commercial export of any crocodilians. In addition, the Orinoco crocodile and the various caimans are protected. However, the reptiles are everywhere killed as vermin.&lt;/P&gt;
583
584&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Peru&lt;/P&gt;
585
586&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Peru has proposed harvesting certain wild populations of caimans (Caiman crocodilus) to supply animals to a ranching operation.&lt;/P&gt;
587
588&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;BraziI&lt;/P&gt;
589
590&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The government of Brazil is interested in establishing farms for several species of caiman, including the yacare (Caiman crocodilusyacare). &lt;/P&gt;
591
592&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Other Latin American Nations&lt;/P&gt;
593
594&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;During the past two years, other Central and South American nations that have indicated their intention to set up farms for crocodiles or caimans are Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, and Uruguay. &lt;/P&gt;
595
596&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
597</Content>
598</Section>
599<Section>
600  <Description>
601    <Metadata name="Title">Appendix B: Practical Crocodile Farming</Metadata>
602  </Description>
603  <Content>
604
605&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;This appendix is adapted from a paper by A. Pooley that detailed the lessons learned from farming crocodiles to restock depleted habitats in Natal, South Africa. The information is presented here not as a blueprint for setting up a farm, but to show prospective farmers some of the points that they must first consider before attempting to rear crocodiles.&lt;/P&gt;
606
607&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Farm Location&lt;/P&gt;
608
609&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Reliable supplies of good water and suitable food are the most important considerations for establishment of a crocodile farm; the area selected must have both. Village farms also need to be close enough to wild crocodile populations for the animals to be obtained easily. Larger farms can be located farther from the source.&lt;/P&gt;
610
611&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;For small farms, a natural supply of food should also be readily available in the wild. Areas that have a fishing industry are ideal locations. For large farms, sites near slaughterhouses or fish-processing facilities are ideal.&lt;/P&gt;
612
613&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Other considerations also include the volume of water available throughout the year, the distance over which water must be piped to the ponds, and pumping costs. The quality of the water should be established, with samples tested for salinity and acidity and, where the supply comes from mineral springs, analyzed for harmful chemicals. Chlorinated water must be tested regularly to ensure that the chlorine content is not too high, and the nature of any factory effluents present should be determined. It is important to establish whether fish, frogs, crabs, mollusks, or aquatic insects survive in the water intended for use.&lt;/P&gt;
614
615&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Bacterial analysis is advisable where the water is drawn from a river that drains an area densely populated by humans and livestock. If the water is found to be contaminated, the stagnant pond rearing pen system should not be used, particularly when Salmonella spp. are present in high concentrations.&lt;/P&gt;
616
617&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A filter system has advantages if water is pumped straight from a river carrying a heavy silt load. Apart from enabling farmers to see the animals in the pools, filtered water makes the pools and pipes easier to clean. Filtration can be achieved by drawing water from a deep pit close to the river so that the water collected seeps through sand or mud.&lt;/P&gt;
618
619&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A reservoir or a series of supply tanks is useful as an additional method of filtering water. In the event that pumping equipment fails, such a reserve supply may prove vital to the health and survival of the crocodiles.&lt;/P&gt;
620
621&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The ponds should receive as much sun as possible, particularly during the winter months. A series of winter air temperature recordings would be useful in choosing the site of rearing pens, since valley temperatures are often several degrees lower than the temperatures some 50 to 100 m uphill. Preference should be given to the warmer locations, taking into account the direction of local winds and heavy rains.&lt;/P&gt;
622
623&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Soil types are the next consideration. If soils are sandy and porous, earth ponds are impractical and a concrete lining is required to retain water.&lt;/P&gt;
624
625&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Drainage of the ponds must be carefully considered. Drainage is far easier if the ponds are built on a slight rise. Water from the ponds must not be allowed to stagnate nearby; the drainage system must be efficient. It is recommended that pens be spaced at least 8 m apart and that their drainpipes lead underground at least 10 m before emptying.&lt;/P&gt;
626
627&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pen Construction&lt;/P&gt;
628
629&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pens with rounded corners are the most successful. Crocodiles frequently choose to lie together in a pile. Square corners allow them to pile up against the angle, smothering those on the bottom and sometimes allowing animals to climb over the fence. With rounded corners, the pile cannot grow very high before the crocodiles slide sideways and the heap collapses.&lt;/P&gt;
630
631&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Experiments in South Africa indicate that natural pools containing rooted vegetation are less prone to become sources of disease than are concrete pools. The surface of the concrete seems to become impregnated with liquid and debris from food and to become a breeding ground for bacteria. For hatchlings and very small juvenile crocodiles, concrete has an added disadvantage; its rough surface can abrade the belly skin when the animals slide in and out of the water, which can foster infection. In 5 or 10 years, even smooth concrete will erode sufficiently to become a problem.&lt;/P&gt;
632
633&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Researchers elsewhere, however, report better results with concrete lined ponds, which they find easier to clean. Concrete pools are useful for summer because they can be scrubbed clean and because the volume of water used is small. Normally they need only be emptied, cleaned, and refilled every third day, and there is no wastage through seepage.&lt;/P&gt;
634
635&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The pools are best built as channels. This provides more bank for basking and enables the pools to accommodate more crocodiles. Because the larger males become belligerent only when they can see each other, floating logs, patches of grass, or channel corners are visual barriers that reduce interactions. The channel system also gives more water edge, and this appears to satisfy the territorial instinct.&lt;/P&gt;
636
637&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles are famous for basking in the sun, but they die surprisingly easily of heat prostration. At least one-third of the land area of a farm pen should be shaded with vegetation. The amount of space around each pool is calculated to allow ample basking room for each animal, and an area of shade must likewise be provided.&lt;/P&gt;
638
639&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;On land, crocodiles often seek contact with each other (thigmotaxis) and frequently lie piled on top of each other, but this should be a matter of choice rather than of overcrowding. There should be few enough animals in the enclosure to allow every crocodile to get out of the water if it chooses.&lt;/P&gt;
640
641&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Ideally, only half the available number of pools should be occupied at a time, so that they can be used in rotation. In this system, the animals can be moved to fresh pools every two months (or as necessary), leaving the &quot;used&quot; pools to be drained and dried out to bake in the sun. After two months, the pools will then be clean and ready for use again.&lt;/P&gt;
642
643&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;An important requirement is that the pools be at least 60 cm in depth; otherwise, the water becomes too hot in summer. The pool floor should be sloped towards the drain outlet to facilitate cleaning and flushing away uneaten food. Also, the outlet pipe should be 10 cm in diameter, with a stopcock outside the enclosure, so that the pool can be cleaned and emptied efficiently. It is essential to place a screen in the drainpipe to prevent small crocodiles from escaping or being sucked out of the pool during cleaning. After some time, stagnant ponds may become difficult to clean because of the heavy growth of algae on their sides. Hard-bristle scrubbing brushes are needed to dislodge this growth. Small amounts of copper sulfate in the water will help control algae if used regularly.&lt;/P&gt;
644
645&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The entire pond and surrounding apron must be smoothly plastered to facilitate cleaning. It helps to have a water source close to each pool from which a hose pipe can be led to pressure spray and clean the pool and its apron.&lt;/P&gt;
646
647&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;An important part of the design is a partly submerged, gently sloping ledge, some 45 cm in width, around the perimeter of the pool. This provides a shallow resting zone for the crocodiles and gives them easy access to the water. The crocodiles rest there when feeding, and the ledge prevents them from scraping their bellies and damaging their claws when they enter or leave the pool.&lt;/P&gt;
648
649&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;For small crocodiles it is advisable to roof over the entire pen with wire netting or cries-crossed strands of wire. This protects against predators. Further, young crocodiles can climb vertical wire netting with ease and will escape unless the enclosure is either roofed or has side walls that slope inwards. A skirting board (planking, sheet iron, tin, or plastic sheeting) placed against the wire netting can also prevent this. If wire netting is used for the sides of the pens it should have mesh no larger than 1 cm so that hatchlings will not injure themselves by trying to climb through. While these pools are being cleaned, care must be exercised to prevent crocodiles from falling into the empty pool.&lt;/P&gt;
650
651&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Water can be passed continuously through the pools. The advantage of this is that during hot summer weather, when crocodiles are feeding at their maximum rate, small uneaten food particles, feces, and urine are carried away. Constant dilution of the pond's water also ensures a low bacteria level. However, the pool must be drained and scrubbed clean at least weekly.&lt;/P&gt;
652
653&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Earthen pools are easy and cheap to build and are a &quot;natural&quot; habitat where vegetation can be planted and small live fish introduced; insects, frogs, and other creatures attracted to the dams will be an important addition to the diet and health of the crocodiles. Earthen pools are ideal in climates where low winter temperatures are likely to cause respiratory illness in the young animals. During cold weather the crocodiles burrow into the mudbanks and survive nights of heavy frost.&lt;/P&gt;
654
655&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Because of the animal's burrowing capabilities, it is important to provide a strip of land 4 m wide between the pool's edge and the boundary fence. Otherwise, crocodiles may tunnel beyond the fence line. Fences must be buried at least 1 m deep to intercept the burrows and to prevent predators from burrowing in. Burrowing, however, can be hazardous, because the burrows can collapse and suffocate the animals.&lt;/P&gt;
656
657&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In areas where the soil is porous or sandy, the floor of an earth dam can be sealed with concrete or plastic irrigation sheets. A layer of earth can be used to conceal this artificial floor. The disadvantages of earth pools are that, because of seepage, they require more water than concrete ones and that they require more maintenance because they cannot be efficiently cleaned. Even if the pools are provided with constantly circulating water, they eventually become fouled, particularly during hot weather.&lt;/P&gt;
658
659&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Removing crocodiles from an earth pond can prove difficult, since most will take refuge in their burrows.&lt;/P&gt;
660
661&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Capturing Crocodiles&lt;/P&gt;
662
663&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles are located at night, usually from a boat, by shining a light along the edges of rivers and lagoons. Because of a reflective tapetum, the eyes of crocodiles glow reddish or orange and are visible for a hundred meters or more. If the population has not become exposed to hunting and become wary of people, the animals will not submerge when the light strikes them. Dazzled by the beam, they tolerate a stealthy approach, and small animals can simply be grabbed by hand or scooped up in a net. They can then be transported in sacks to the rearing pens. Larger animals may be noosed or baited into cylindrical screen traps at places they frequent along the water's edge.&lt;/P&gt;
664
665&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Managing a Crocodile Farm&lt;/P&gt;
666
667&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is a problem to sort the young crocodiles. From one clutch of eggs, some individuals will be aggressive and others may be shy or extremely timid; growth may vary from rapid to very slow, with a few individuals classed as runts.&lt;/P&gt;
668
669&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Larger animals can be so dominant that smaller individuals will not even attempt to feed. If sorting is not done, the smaller, less-aggressive individuals do not get a fair share of the food; they grow slowly and get bitten and harassed by the larger animals. At feeding time, some will flee to the opposite side of the pen and stop feeding altogether. Keeping the young animals sorted into classes of the same size avoids many of these problems.&lt;/P&gt;
670
671&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Nutrition and Feeding&lt;/P&gt;
672
673&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Despite the crocodilian's reputation as a man-eater, small wild crocodiles live mainly on invertebrates and larger ones live mainly on fish. Papua New Guinea's farmers feed a varied diet of locally caught fish, crab, shrimp, frogs, snails, grasshoppers, beetles, and slaughterhouse waste. Whole animals minced up should be used, if necessary, because crocodiles require a diet of bone, intestine, scales, and other tissues to provide calcium and minerals. Bones in chopped fish must be minced thoroughly for hatchlings or very young crocodiles, or they should be fed very small fish supplemented by tadpoles or insects. One village in Papua New Guinea has shown remarkable success in rearing hatchlings on a diet of chopped fish and live freshwater shrimp.&lt;/P&gt;
674
675&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Fish is an excellent food for the bulk feeding of a large captive population. Whole fish chopped into pieces, including the livers and hearts, forms a balanced diet that may be supplemented by meat, if available, to make up bulk. Small whole fish are particularly suitable; the crocodiles derive calcium from the bones and scales, plus roughage to facilitate digestion, while the flesh, liver, and heart are rich in nutrients and protein The main difficulty usually lies in harvesting enough fish to meet the crocodiles' demands.&lt;/P&gt;
676
677&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Any method of supplementing the diet with live creatures is recommended. For instance, a light can be left burning in each pen about 15 cm above the water for attracting insects. Various types of insect traps may also be used.&lt;/P&gt;
678
679&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles also can be fed on a variety of wastes such as offal or noncommercial fish. Ideally, a large-scale farm should be located near a poultry slaughterhouse. (Cattle offal is also satisfactory, but it is not nutritionally adequate as a sole ration for crocodiles.) Even crocodile offal itself can be fed back to crocodiles. However, the use of offal will necessitate dietary supplements to assure sufficient phosphorus and calcium. These minerals are generally provided by feeding bones to the crocodiles.&lt;/P&gt;
680
681&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Crocodiles usually consume their food in the water, but they can also be fed on land. They will eat daily, but are able to remain active for weeks without food. If they are fed in the water of a farm pen, the water will become polluted unless there is considerable flow to carry away the debris. In extreme cases, the pools become septic. To ensure the health of the growing animals, constantly flowing water is far superior to standing water. (The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm in Thailand feeds some of its animals in water, but the small feeding pools are separate from the large regular breeding pools and at a lower level to prevent their overflowing into the breeding pools.)&lt;/P&gt;
682
683&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is important to feed pieces of food small enough to be swallowed without difficulty. Large fish should be cut into elongated rather than square pieces, since the bones can cause damage during swallowing. Similarly, whole live fish should not be so large that the dorsal fin may cause damage to the reptile's throat and gullet.&lt;/P&gt;
684
685&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is important to know the amount of food that each group of animals will consume at each meal. By feeding at the same time each day, it is easy to calculate how much is required. Moreover, the crocodiles become accustomed to a routine and the food is consumed while it is still fresh. In the hot summer months the animals will devour a full meal every 24 hours, but the feeding rate slackens with the onset of colder weather. It is then wise to start reducing frequency and quantities until food is required only every second or third day, depending on the climate. Generally, young crocodiles will refuse food when the air or water temperature falls below 60°F (15.6°C). Even in midsummer sudden cold spells may occur; at such times, it is usually futile to feed the animals or try to coax them to eat until the weather warms up again. &lt;/P&gt;
686
687&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;During hot weather conditions it is preferable to feed late in the afternoon or evenings, mainly to avoid placing the food on a hot cement surface. The food should be spread out around the edge of the pool under the shaded area so that the animals do not have to climb over one another to reach it.&lt;/P&gt;
688
689&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;In cemented pens the area where the food is laid out should be cleaned and scrubbed two hours after feeding time and any uneaten food removed from the water with a hand net. In earthen pools, the food should be placed at a different spot along the bank at each feeding. A useful aid to hygiene is keeping a few predacious fish, such as barbel (Clarias spp.), in each pool to clean up scraps of uneaten food.&lt;/P&gt;
690
691&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Population Density&lt;/P&gt;
692
693&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Twenty-five crocodiles are considered the maximum manageable number per unit; staying within this limit reduces competition for food, bullying and fighting, and the number of injuries. A low stocking rate also results in a more even average growth rate. Most important is the fact that the overall health of the crocodiles is better than in a more crowded pen; disease problems are fewer and the symptoms easier to detect in a small group. If the units are spaced 8 m apart, there is also less danger of infectious disease spreading to other pens. The cleaning of pens is facilitated, and the disturbance caused by capturing crocodiles to be moved to other units is minimized. Housing 500 crocodiles in groups of 25 will require 20 separate pens, and an additional two pens should be provided to allow for intensive care of sick, injured, and weaker animals.&lt;/P&gt;
694
695&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;During the first year, when animals are graded frequently, they will often be moved from one pen to another. Recording the number of animals housed in each pen will make it possible to keep track of numbers and movements.&lt;/P&gt;
696
697&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Breeding&lt;/P&gt;
698
699&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Reproduction is impossible when crocodiles are kept in large groups composed of different species and sizes and in more or less unnatural enclosures.&lt;/P&gt;
700
701&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Healthy, sexually mature pairs of crocodiles are usually not enough to start a breeding program. Genetic diversity to maintain a long-term breeding group must be considered, and certain environmental factors are vital for success. The distinct size and age classes of a free-living population must also be taken into consideration. Optimal sex ratios for breeding in enclosed compounds must be determined and adhered to. If a breeding unit is not based on regard for the animals' basic needs for space, nesting sites, and retreats, the larger specimens will disturb, injure, and often kill smaller specimens.&lt;/P&gt;
702
703&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Diseases and Parasites&lt;/P&gt;
704
705&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Disease symptoms may be easily overlooked if the observer is not familiar with the behavior of crocodiles under a variety of conditions. It is essential to know how they normally walk, swim, sleep, feed, and bask in relation to the time of day, the air and water temperatures, and the amount of sunlight or rain, by day, by night, and at different seasons of the year. Caretakers should notice the appearance of feces from healthy animals to be able to detect evidence of diarrhea, and to identify misaligned teeth and weakened limbs to detect nutritional deficiencies. Eggs are critically dependent on specific temperature and moisture requirements if the embryos are to develop normally.&lt;/P&gt;
706
707&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is often difficult to determine the cause of illness or death, and even if the ailment has been correctly diagnosed, it is not easy to capture and administer drugs to large numbers of sick animals. Some animals may be injured during the handling process. Emphasis on preventing disease, rather than curing it, is the best way of ensuring a healthy crop.&lt;/P&gt;
708
709&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Almost inevitably, the water in the pools will harbor concentrations of bacteria such as salmonella. If strict hygiene is observed, however, the bacterial level will not be harmful.&lt;/P&gt;
710
711&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is recommended that whenever possible animals found newly dead should be dissected and vital organs such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and stomach removed for veterinary research. Blood slides should also be taken and feces samples collected. The various specimens must be carefully labeled, frozen as quickly as possible, and packed on ice in a vacuum flask for immediate dispatch to the nearest veterinary research institute or pathologist. Alternatively, dying animals may be sent live for research purposes.&lt;/P&gt;
712
713&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;It is helpful for the handler to become thoroughly acquainted with the animal's internal anatomy, in order to distinguish between healthy and diseased organs. This knowledge, coupled with the symptoms noted before the animal dies, and the veterinary report, will be useful in future diagnosis and treatment.&lt;/P&gt;
714
715&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;One problem for the crocodile farmer is a roundworm (nematode) parasite that burrows into the belly skin. When the burrow collapses it produces an undulating track across the belly and throat scales that ruins the hide. These parasites have been found in crocodiles from Latin America, Africa, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Asia. They seem more prevalent in some areas and some farms than in others. The organism has been identified, but no treatment or control has been discovered. It is, however, believed that damp, muddy conditions foster the nematode, and that to reduce it pens should have areas of dry land where the animals can bask.&lt;/P&gt;
716
717&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Killing, Skinning, and Tanning&lt;/P&gt;
718
719&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Some farmers kill the crocodiles themselves, but many rear the animals and then sell them to a larger concern that is better equipped to deal with the skins. Killing is done most quickly and humanely by catching the crocodile with a noose and severing the spinal cord just behind the skull.&lt;/P&gt;
720
721&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Many hides are ruined or severely damaged during skinning. Even a single hole resulting from a slip of the skinning knife may reduce a hide's value by 25 percent.&lt;/P&gt;
722
723&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;After skinning, the hides are normally coated with about 0.5 cm of coarse salt and rolled up. Within 48 hours they are unrolled and resalted. If the hide is not sufficiently salted, it may become infected with bacteria or fungi that cause the epidermis of the scales to decay or slip. Although this layer is removed during tannage, scale slip is a symptom of rot and usually causes damage to the finished hide product. If the decay is intense, the salted hides may become reddish or brown in color. This is called &quot;red heat.&quot;&lt;/P&gt;
724
725&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Although salt remains the universally used preservative for raw hides, the reptile leather industry has developed chemical fixatives that are used in addition to salt for preserving hides for tanning. Most of these pretannage fixatives are liquid and require soaking the hide in a vat, which may not be feasible in remote areas.&lt;/P&gt;
726
727&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A pretanned hide is called a crust. It is green-gray (chrome tanned) or tan (vegetable tanned) and is stiff. The hide is dyed and glazed to its final finish. To increase the workability and to remove as many of the osteoderms as possible (if they are present), the underside of the hide is shaved to an even thickness. The shaving is done by craftsmen. If they shaved too much, the hide will be thin and weak, especially over the suture between the scales.&lt;/P&gt;
728
729&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
730</Content>
731</Section>
732<Section>
733  <Description>
734    <Metadata name="Title">Appendix C: Selected Readings</Metadata>
735  </Description>
736  <Content>
737
738&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;General information on the management and status of crocodiles can be found in the following:&lt;/P&gt;
739
740&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;IUCN/Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter. Available from the editors, Peter Brazaitis and Myrna Watanabe, c/o New York Zoological Park, Bronx Zoo, The Bronx, New York 10460, USA.&lt;/P&gt;
741
742&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;A Field Guide of Captive Rearing and Management of Crocodiles in India is available from Mr. R. K. Rao, Director, Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Training Institute (Government of India), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.&lt;/P&gt;
743
744&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Blake, D. K. 1974. The rearing of crocodiles for commercial and conservation purposes in Rhodesia. The Rhodesia Science News 8(10):315-324.&lt;/P&gt;
745
746&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Blake, D. K., and J. P. Loveridge. 1975. The role of commercial crocodile farming in crocodile conservation. Biological Conservation 8(4): 261-272.&lt;/P&gt;
747
748&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Bolton, M. 1981. Crocodile Husbandry in Papua New Guinea. Field Document 4. FO: DP/ PNG/74/029. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 103 pp.&lt;/P&gt;
749
750&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Bolton, M., and M. Laufa. 1982. The crocodile project in Papua New Guinea. Biological Conservation 22:169-179.&lt;/P&gt;
751
752&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Brazaitis, P. (In press) Problems in the Identification of Commercial Crocodilian Hides and the Effect on Law Enforcement. Proceedings of the IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group meeting in Zimbabwe September-October, 1982. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.&lt;/P&gt;
753
754&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Brazaitis, P. 1973. The identification of living crocodiles. Zoologica 58(3-4):59-101.&lt;/P&gt;
755
756&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Cott, H. B. 1954. Ecology and economic status of the crocodile in Uganda. Record of the Symposium on African Hydrobiology and Inland Fisheries, Committee on Technical Cooperation for Africa South of the Sahara 6:119-122.&lt;/P&gt;
757
758&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Cott, H. B. 1961. Scientific results of an inquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Uganda and Northern Rhodesia. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 29(4):211-337.&lt;/P&gt;
759
760&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Downes, M. C. 1978. An explanation of the National Policy for the Crocodile Programme. Wildlife Division, Department of Lands, Surveys and Environment, Konedobu, Papua New Guinea.&lt;/P&gt;
761
762&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Fuchs, K., nd. Die Krokodilhaut Eduard Roether Verlag Darmstadt, Frankfurt, West Germany.&lt;/P&gt;
763
764&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Graham, A., 1981. Mapping the pattern of crocodile nesting activity in Papua New Guinea. Field Document No. 3, FO: DP/PNG/74/029. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 50 pp.&lt;/P&gt;
765
766&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Joanen, T., and L. McNease. 1975. Notes on the Reproductive Biology and Captive Propagation of the American Alligator. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 29:407-415. &lt;/P&gt;
767
768&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Joanen, T., and L. McNease. 1979. Culture of the American alligator. International Zoo Yearbook 19:61-66.&lt;/P&gt;
769
770&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;King, F. W., and P. Brazaitis. 1971. Species identification of commercial crocodile skins. Zoologica 56(2): 15-72.&lt;/P&gt;
771
772&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Loveridge, J. P. ed. 1982. The Zimbabwe Science News 16(9):196-219. Causeway, Zimbabwe. (Contains five articles on crocodilian research and conservation; from Zimbabwe, Australia the United States, and lndia.)&lt;/P&gt;
773
774&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Millichamp, N. J. ;980. Medical aspects of disease in reptile collections. In The Care and Breeding of Captive Reptiles, The British Herpetological Society, London, England.&lt;/P&gt;
775
776&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Parker, F. 1981. New Crocodile Laws for Papua New Guinea. Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu, Papua New Guinea. 50 pp.&lt;/P&gt;
777
778&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. 1969. Some observations on the rearing of crocodiles. Lammergeyer 10:45-59.&lt;/P&gt;
779
780&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. 1971. Crocodile rearing and restocking. Pp. 104-130 in Crocodiles, IUCN Publications New Series Supplementary Paper 32. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1110 Gland, Switzerland.&lt;/P&gt;
781
782&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. 1973. Conservation and Management of Crocodiles in Africa. Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association 3(2):101-103.&lt;/P&gt;
783
784&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. 1977. A report on Crocodile Farming. Papua New Guinea. Wildlife leaflet No. 77/27. pp. 1-14.&lt;/P&gt;
785
786&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. 1981. Disappearing African Crocodiles. Oryx 16(1):38-40.&lt;/P&gt;
787
788&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C. (In press). The status of crocodiles in Africa. Paper Presented at 5th Meeting IUCN Survival Service Commission's Crocodile Specialist Group. Gainesville Florida, USA. September 1980.&lt;/P&gt;
789
790&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pooley, A. C., and C. Gans. 1976. The Nile crocodile. Scientific American 234(4): 114-124.&lt;/P&gt;
791
792&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Wallis, B. E. 1980. Market prospects for reptile leathers. Report number ITC/DIP/12, International Trade Commission, Geneva, Switzerland. 50 pp.&lt;/P&gt;
793
794&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Wermuth, Von H., and K. Fuchs. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Haute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York.&lt;/P&gt;
795
796&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Whitaker, R. 1982. Export prospects from commercial crocodile farms in Bangladesh. ITC/UNCTAD, Geneva, Switzerland. 47 pp.&lt;/P&gt;
797
798&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Whitaker, R., and M. Kemp. 1981. The crocodile industry in Papua New Guinea: Commercial Aspects. Field Document No. 2. FO:DP/PNC/74/029. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 35 pp. &lt;/P&gt;
799
800&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
801</Content>
802</Section>
803<Section>
804  <Description>
805    <Metadata name="Title">Appendix D: Research Contacts</Metadata>
806  </Description>
807  <Content>
808
809&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The following individuals are involved in crocodilian research. Most are biologists concerned with the conservation or natural history of the animals.&lt;/P&gt;
810
811&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Australia&lt;/P&gt;
812
813&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Applied Ecology Crocodile Farm, Edward River, Queensland 4870&lt;/P&gt;
814
815&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Shelley Burgin, Total Environment Center, 18 Argyle Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2000&lt;/P&gt;
816
817&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Melvin Bolton, Woodbury Farm, Woodbury Road, M.S. 142, Via Yeppoon, Queensland 4703&lt;/P&gt;
818
819&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Max C. Downes, The Game Conservation Center, 24 Queens Parade, North Fitzroy, Victoria 3068&lt;/P&gt;
820
821&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Alistair Graham, P.O. Box41266, Darwin, Northern Territory 5792&lt;/P&gt;
822
823&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Gordon Grigg, Zoology A08, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006&lt;/P&gt;
824
825&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;John Lever, Koorana Crocodile Farm, M.S.F. 76, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702&lt;/P&gt;
826
827&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Harry Messel, Head, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006&lt;/P&gt;
828
829&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Fred Parker, 717 Ross River Road, Kirwan, Queensland 4814&lt;/P&gt;
830
831&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Grahame Webb, School of Zoology, University of New South Wales, Kensington 2033&lt;/P&gt;
832
833&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Bangladesh&lt;/P&gt;
834
835&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Mohd. Reza Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Dacca, Dacca 2&lt;/P&gt;
836
837&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Brazil&lt;/P&gt;
838
839&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;William Magnusson, Depto de Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Caixa Postal 478, 69000, Manaus, Amazonia&lt;/P&gt;
840
841&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Burma&lt;/P&gt;
842
843&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Ko Ko Gyi, Professor of Zoology, Rangoon Arts and Sciences University, Rangoon&lt;/P&gt;
844
845&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Nyan Taw, Research Officer, People's Pearl and Fishery Corporation, Myakhwanyo Street, Thaketa, Rangoon &lt;/P&gt;
846
847&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;People's Republic of China&lt;/P&gt;
848
849&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Huang Chu-Chien, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing&lt;/P&gt;
850
851&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;The Swatow Prefecture Crocodile Farm, Shantou, Guang Dong Province&lt;/P&gt;
852
853&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Colombia&lt;/P&gt;
854
855&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Federico Medem, Instituto Roberto Franco, Apartado Aereo 2261, Villavicencio (Meta)&lt;/P&gt;
856
857&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Costa Rica&lt;/P&gt;
858
859&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Gerado Budowski, Head, Natural Renewable Resources Programme, CATIE, Turrialba&lt;/P&gt;
860
861&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Cuba&lt;/P&gt;
862
863&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Luis Varona, Norte 29, Nuevo Vedado, La Habana 6&lt;/P&gt;
864
865&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Dominican Republic&lt;/P&gt;
866
867&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Jose Alberto Ottenwalder, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Plaza de la Cultura, Santo Domingo&lt;/P&gt;
868
869&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Federal Republic of Germany&lt;/P&gt;
870
871&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Karlheinz Fuchs, Schillerstrasse 2, 6257 Hunfelder 2&lt;/P&gt;
872
873&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Guatemala&lt;/P&gt;
874
875&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Jaime Tres 1., Centro de Estudias Conservacionistas, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Avenida de la Reforma 0-63, Zona IO, Guatemala&lt;/P&gt;
876
877&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;India&lt;/P&gt;
878
879&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;B. C. Choudhury and Lala A. K. Singh, Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Training Institute, 19-4-319, Lake Dale, Rajendranagar Road, Hyderabad 500 264, Andhra Pradesh&lt;/P&gt;
880
881&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Indian Board for Wildlife, c/o Department of Environment, Bikaner House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi 110 011&lt;/P&gt;
882
883&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;John Sale, UNDP/FAO Crocodile Breeding and Management Project, 19-4-319, Lake Dale, Rajendranagar Road Hyderabad 500 264, Andhra Pradesh&lt;/P&gt;
884
885&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;S. Shanmugunathan, Chief Wildlife Warden, Vivekananda Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu&lt;/P&gt;
886
887&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Sudhakar Kar, Saltwater Crocodile Research and Conservation Unit, Danginal 754 220 Via Rejkanika, District Cuttack, Orissa&lt;/P&gt;
888
889&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Romulus Whitaker, Madras Snake Park Trust, Guindy Deer Park, Madras, Tamil Nadu, 600 002&lt;/P&gt;
890
891&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Italy&lt;/P&gt;
892
893&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;G. S. Child, Wildlife and Parks Management Of ficer FAO, Rome&lt;/P&gt;
894
895&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Japan&lt;/P&gt;
896
897&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Wataru Kimura, Proprietor, Atagawa Tropical and Alligator Garden, Atagawa Higashi Zlu Town, Shizuoka Prefecture&lt;/P&gt;
898
899&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Kenya&lt;/P&gt;
900
901&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;R.D. Haller , Bamburi Portland Cement Co. ,Ltd., P.O. Box 90202 ,Mombasa&lt;/P&gt;
902
903&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Malaysia&lt;/P&gt;
904
905&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Paul R. Wycherley, President, Malayan Nature Society, P.O. Box 150, Kuala Lumpur&lt;/P&gt;
906
907&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Mexico&lt;/P&gt;
908
909&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Miguel Alvarez del Toro, Director, Instituto de Historia Natural, Departamento de Zoologia, Apartado Postal No. 6, Tuxtle Gutierrez, Chiapas, 29000&lt;/P&gt;
910
911&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Marco Antonio Lascano B., INIREB, Apdo. No 281, Merida&lt;/P&gt;
912
913&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Nepal&lt;/P&gt;
914
915&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Tirtha Maskey, National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Office, Thapathali, P.O. Box 107, Kathmandu&lt;/P&gt;
916
917&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;New Zealand&lt;/P&gt;
918
919&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Antoon de Vos, Box 34, Whitford, Auckland&lt;/P&gt;
920
921&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Nicaragua&lt;/P&gt;
922
923&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Milton G. Camacho B., Instituto Nicaraguense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente (IRENA), Depto. de Fauna Silvestre, Kim 12 1/2 Carreterra Norte, Managua.&lt;/P&gt;
924
925&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pakistan&lt;/P&gt;
926
927&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Ashiq Ahmad, Wildlife Management Specialist, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar&lt;/P&gt;
928
929&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Abdul Latif Rao, Conservator of Wildlife, National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, U.G. St. 51, Sector F 6/4, Islamabad&lt;/P&gt;
930
931&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Papua New Guinea&lt;/P&gt;
932
933&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Miro Laufa, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, P.O. Box 2585, Konedobu&lt;/P&gt;
934
935&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Karol Kisokau, Director, Office of Environment and Conservation, Central Government Offices, Waigani&lt;/P&gt;
936
937&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Navu Kwapena, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu&lt;/P&gt;
938
939&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Graham Goudie, Crocodile Farm, Lae&lt;/P&gt;
940
941&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Martin Hollands, Monitoring Ecologist, National Crocodile Project, P.O. Box 2585 Konedobu&lt;/P&gt;
942
943&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Peru&lt;/P&gt;
944
945&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Pedro Vasques Ruesta, Departamento de Manejo Forestal, Universidad Nacional Agraria, Apdo. 456, La Molina&lt;/P&gt;
946
947&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Philippines&lt;/P&gt;
948
949&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Angel C. Alcala, Division Research, Extension and Development, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, 6501, Negros&lt;/P&gt;
950
951&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;School of Agriculture, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, 6501, Negros.&lt;/P&gt;
952
953&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;South Africa&lt;/P&gt;
954
955&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;H. B. Anthony, The Natal Parks, Game and Fish Preservation Board, Box 662, Pietermaritzburg, Natal&lt;/P&gt;
956
957&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Antony Pooley, P.O. Box 42, St. Lucia Estuary, 3936 Zululand&lt;/P&gt;
958
959&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Switzerland&lt;/P&gt;
960
961&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Rene E. Honegger, Curator, Zurich Zoo, Zurichbergstrasse 221, 8044 Zurich&lt;/P&gt;
962
963&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Thailand&lt;/P&gt;
964
965&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;U. Srisomboon, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok Utai Youngprapakorn and Charoon Youngprapakorn, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo Co., Ltd., Talban Road, Samutprakan&lt;/P&gt;
966
967&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;United Kingdom&lt;/P&gt;
968
969&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Angus d'A. Bellairs, Department of Anatomy, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School University of London, Paddington, London W2&lt;/P&gt;
970
971&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;H. Robert Bustard, Isle of Man&lt;/P&gt;
972
973&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;United States&lt;/P&gt;
974
975&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;John Behler, New York Zoological Society, 185th Street &amp;amp; Southern Blvd., The Bronx, New York 10460&lt;/P&gt;
976
977&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Peter Brazaitis, New York Zoological Society, 185th Street &amp;amp; Southern Blvd., The Bronx New York 10460&lt;/P&gt;
978
979&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Gary Callis, Rt. I, Box 360, Clayton, New Mexico&lt;/P&gt;
980
981&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Robert H. Chabreck, Louisiana State University, School of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803&lt;/P&gt;
982
983&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Michael Davenport, Department of Herpetology, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20008&lt;/P&gt;
984
985&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Claire Hagen, Representative, Reptile Products Association, 120 Cabrini Blvd., New York, New York 10033&lt;/P&gt;
986
987&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Fred Hauptfuhrer, Director of Planning and Development, World Wildlife Fund, Inc., 910 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20006&lt;/P&gt;
988
989&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Howard Hunt, Atlanta Zoological Park, 518 Atlanta Ave. S.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30315&lt;/P&gt;
990
991&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Ted Joanen, Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, Route 1, Box 20-B, Grand Chenier, Louisiana 70643&lt;/P&gt;
992
993&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;F. Wayne King, Director, Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida 32611&lt;/P&gt;
994
995&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Jeffrey W. Lang, Biology Department, University of North Dakota, University Station, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202&lt;/P&gt;
996
997&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Charles J. Lankester, UNDP, I United Nations Plaza, New York, New York 10017&lt;/P&gt;
998
999&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;James H. Powell, 1110 Kokomo Street, Plainview, Texas 79072&lt;/P&gt;
1000
1001&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Charles A. Ross, Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560&lt;/P&gt;
1002
1003&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Myrna Watanabe, 141 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, New York 11201&lt;/P&gt;
1004
1005&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Uruguay&lt;/P&gt;
1006
1007&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Federico Achaval, Departamento de Zoologia (Vertebrados), Universidad de la Republic Cerrito73, Montevideo&lt;/P&gt;
1008
1009&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Venezuela&lt;/P&gt;
1010
1011&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Tomas Blohm, Apartado 69, Caracas 1010-A&lt;/P&gt;
1012
1013&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Andres Seijas Y., Servicio Nacional de Fauna Silvestre, MARNR, Apartado 184, Maracay&lt;/P&gt;
1014
1015&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Zimbabwe&lt;/P&gt;
1016
1017&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;D. K. Blake, Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management, P.O. Box 8365, Causeway, Harare&lt;/P&gt;
1018
1019&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;John Loveridge, Zoology Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare&lt;/P&gt;
1020
1021&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Kevin van Jaarsveldt, Crocodile Farmers Association of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box 2569, Harare &lt;/P&gt;
1022
1023&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
1024</Content>
1025</Section>
1026<Section>
1027  <Description>
1028    <Metadata name="Title">Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Panel Members</Metadata>
1029  </Description>
1030  <Content>
1031
1032&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director of the Office of Biological Secretary General Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., is currently the Secretary General of the International Union of Biological Sciences. He received his B.A. in 1961 from Miami University in Ohio, M.Sc. from The George Washington University in 1963, and his Ph.D. in 1966 from the University of London. His research interests are in comparative anatomy and phylogeny of flowering plants, commercial timbers, histology of monocotyledons, economic botany, and tropical biology. An internationally recognized expert on tropical plants, he has published extensively in these areas and on topics relating to science, technology, and development, especially in developing countries. Dr. Ayensu was co-chairman of the Panel on Underexploited Tropical Plants of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation and chairs and serves as a member of many international bodies. &lt;/P&gt;
1033
1034&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ARCHIE F. CARR, JR., is Graduate Research Professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville. As Technical Director of the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, he has directed a seasonal research program at the breeding ground of the green turtle at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, since 1952, with continuous grants from the National Science Foundation from 1955 to 1980, and has carried out investigations of marine turtle ecology and navigation in various parts of the world. The author of numerous papers, articles, and books, he received the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal of the National Academy of Sciences for Handbook of Turtles and the John Burroughs Medal for The Windward Road. He is Research Associate of the American Museum of Natural History; Affiliate Curator of Natural Sciences, Florida State Museum; Chairman of the Marine Turtle Specialist Group of the Survival Service Commission, International Union for the Conservation of Nature; Honorary Consultant of the World Wildlife Fund; Fellow of the Linnean Society of London; Fellow of the American Fisheries Society; and a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi.In 1973 he was awarded a gold medal from the World Wildlife Fund for the application of scientific findings to the conservation of marine turtles. In 1975 he received the Edward W. Browning Award for achievement in biological conservation. In 1978 Dr. Carr was awarded the Gold Medal of the New York Zoological Society for contributions to natural science and conservation; in 1978 he became Officer of the Order of the Golden Ark (The Netherlands).&lt;/P&gt;
1035
1036&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;F. WAYNE KING is the Director of the Florida State Museum, Gainesville. He received a B.S. in 1957 and an M.S. in 1961 from the University of Florida and a Ph.D. from 1966 from the University of Miami. His research interests are in wildlife conservation and habitat preservation, impact of international trade on wildlife populations, and ecology and behavior of reptile populations. He worked at the New York Zoological Society from 1967 to 1975. As an international wildlife consultant, Dr. King has received honors from the Dominican Republic, the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, and from H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of The Netherlands. He has served on committees advising the State Department and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources on policies regarding the trade of crocodile skins, turtle products, and other wildlife materials. &lt;/P&gt;
1037
1038&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry and Professor of Forest Genetics, Yale University, was Dean of the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale from 1965 to 1975. He received a B.A. from Luxembourg College and a B.Sc.F. from the University of New Brunswick in 1950, an M.F. in ecology in 1951, and a Ph.D. in forest genetics from Yale in 1954. He is especially knowledgeable about francophone Africa and was chairman of the Sahel program of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development and a member of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation. From 1960 to 1965 he was research collaborator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1966 he was the recipient of the Award for Outstanding Achievement in Biological Research from the Society of American Foresters and in 1975 was Distinguished Professor (Fulbright-Hays Program) in Yugoslavia. Before joining the Yale faculty, he served as project leader in forest genetics for the U.S. Forest Service in Florida. He has served as a consultant to FAO, various foreign governments, and private forestry companies, and he has traveled extensively in the tropical countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. &lt;/P&gt;
1039
1040&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MICHAEL G. MORRIS is head of the Furzebrook Research Station of the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (National Environment Research Council, U.K.). He received a B.A. in natural sciences (zoology) at the University of Cambridge of 1958, M.A. in 1962, and received his Ph.D. from London University in research on the integrated control of orchard pests. Dr. Morris worked at Monks Wood Experimental Station on the effects of grassland management on populations of invertebrates and developed a strong interest in community and applied ecology, particularly the conservation of insect populations. Recently he has become involved with problems of butterfly conservation and resource utilization. He is Secretary of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Insects, a Vice-Chairman of the Lepidoptera Specialist Group of lUCN'S Survival Commission, and Chairman of the Habitat and Species Protection Committee of SEL (Societal Europaea Lepidoptero-Logica). &lt;/P&gt;
1041
1042&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HUGH L. POPENOE is Professor of Soils, Agronomy, Botany, and Geography and Director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture and International Programs (Agriculture) at the University of Florida. He received his B.S. from the University of California at Davis in 1951 and his Ph.D. in soils from the University of Florida in 1960. His principal research interest has been in the area of tropical agriculture and land use. His early work on shifting cultivation is one of the major contributions to this system. He has traveled and worked in most of the countries in the tropical areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. He is past Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Escuela Agricola Panamericana in Honduras, Visiting Lecturer on Tropical Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Agronomy, the America Geographical Society, and the International Soils Science Society. He is Chairman of the Advisory Committee for Technology Innovation and a member of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. &lt;/P&gt;
1043
1044&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE, a writer and consulting lepidopterist based in Gray's River, Washington, has served since 1979 as Co-Compiler of the lUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. In this capacity he is consultant to the Conservation Monitoring Center in Cambridge, England. After receiving his B.S. and M.S. at the University of Washington, he took his Ph.D. through the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University in 1976. He worked for the Government of Papua New Guinea on the conservation and utilization of insect resources and then with the Nature Conservancy as Northwest Land Steward. A former Fulbright Scholar to the United Kingdom, Dr. Pyle subsequently founded the Xerces Society for conservation of beneficial insects and their habitats. He has been chairman of IUCN'S Lepidoptera Specialist Group (Species Survival Commission) since 1976. His publications include the Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. A comprehensive book on insect conservation in his next project.&lt;/P&gt;
1045
1046&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;SHELDON R. SEVERINGHAUS received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1977 in natural resources management. He has worked on various wildlife research projects in Asia since 1964 and is representative for the Asia Foundation in Taiwan. He has published articles on butterfly conservation and wildlife industries in Taiwan, where he has been studying the butterfly and wildlife farming projects. &lt;/P&gt;
1047
1048&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer for this study, is Professional Associate of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science that are important for developing countries. &lt;/P&gt;
1049
1050&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
1051</Content>
1052</Section>
1053</Section>
1054<Section>
1055  <Description>
1056    <Metadata name="Title">Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation</Metadata>
1057  </Description>
1058  <Content>
1059
1060&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Chairman &lt;/P&gt;
1061
1062&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Members&lt;/P&gt;
1063
1064&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WILLIAM BRADLEY, Consultant, New Hope, Pennsylvania&lt;/P&gt;
1065
1066&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HAROLD DREGNE, Director, International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (member through 1981) &lt;/P&gt;
1067
1068&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ELMER L. GADEN, JR., Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia &lt;/P&gt;
1069
1070&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CARL N. HODGES, Director, Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona &lt;/P&gt;
1071
1072&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CYRUS MCKELL, Native Plants, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah &lt;/P&gt;
1073
1074&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (member through 1982) &lt;/P&gt;
1075
1076&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;DONALD L. PLUCKNETT, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1077
1078&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;THEODORE SUDIA, Deputy Science Advisor to the Secretary of Interior, Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1079
1080&lt;B&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
1081</Content>
1082</Section>
1083<Section>
1084  <Description>
1085    <Metadata name="Title">Board on Science and Technology for International Development</Metadata>
1086  </Description>
1087  <Content>
1088
1089&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, New York, Chairman &lt;/P&gt;
1090
1091&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;Members&lt;/P&gt;
1092
1093&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;SAMUEL P. ASPER, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania &lt;/P&gt;
1094
1095&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;DAVID BELL, Department of Population Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts &lt;/P&gt;
1096
1097&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;LEONARD BERRY, Professor, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts &lt;/P&gt;
1098
1099&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ERNEST I. BRISKEY, Dean, School of Agriculture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon &lt;/P&gt;
1100
1101&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HARRISON S. BROWN, Director, Resources Systems Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii &lt;/P&gt;
1102
1103&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROBERT H. BURRIS, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin &lt;/P&gt;
1104
1105&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;CLAUDIA JEAN CARR, Associate Professor, Conservation and Resource Studies, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California &lt;/P&gt;
1106
1107&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;NATE FIELDS, Director, Developing Markets, Control Data Corporation, Minneapolis, Minnesota &lt;/P&gt;
1108
1109&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ROLAND J. FUCHS, Chairman, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii &lt;/P&gt;
1110
1111&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;ELMER L. GADEN, JR., Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia &lt;/P&gt;
1112
1113&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;JOHN HOWARD GIBBONS, Director, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1114
1115&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;N. BRUCE HANNAY, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1116
1117&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WILLIAM HUGHES, Director, Engineering Energy Laboratory, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma &lt;/P&gt;
1118
1119&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WILLIAM A. W. KREBS, Vice President, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts &lt;/P&gt;
1120
1121&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;GEORGE I. LYTHCOTT, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin &lt;/P&gt;
1122
1123&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;JANICE E. PERLMAN, Executive Director, Committee for a New New York, New York City Partnership, New York, New York &lt;/P&gt;
1124
1125&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida &lt;/P&gt;
1126
1127&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FREDERICK C. ROBBINS, President, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1128
1129&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;WALTER A. ROSENBLITH, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. &lt;/P&gt;
1130
1131&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;FREDERICK SEITZ, President Emeritus, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York &lt;/P&gt;
1132
1133&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;RALPH HERBERT SMUCKLER, Dean of International Studies and Programs, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan &lt;/P&gt;
1134
1135&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;GILBERT F. WHITE, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado &lt;/P&gt;
1136
1137&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;BILL C. WRIGHT, Assistant Dean for International Programs, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma &lt;/P&gt;
1138
1139&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;JOHN G. HURLEY, Director&lt;/P&gt;
1140
1141&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MICHAEL G. C. McDONALD DOW, Associate Director/Studies &lt;/P&gt;
1142
1143&lt;P ALIGN=&quot;JUSTIFY&quot;&gt;MICHAEL P. GREENE, Associate Director/Research Grants &lt;/P&gt;
1144
1145&lt;/FONT&gt;
1146</Content>
1147</Section>
1148</Section>
1149</Archive>
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