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31&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; height=&quot;634&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
32  &lt;tbody&gt;
33    &lt;tr&gt;
34      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
35      &lt;/td&gt;
36      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
37      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
38      &lt;/td&gt;
39    &lt;/tr&gt;
40    &lt;tr&gt;
41      &lt;td height=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
42      &lt;/td&gt;
43      &lt;td height=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
44      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'My Lord, if it were not to
45satisfy the world, and My Realm, I would not do that I must do this day
46for none earthly thing.' &lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
47      &lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Henry VIII to Cromwell on his wedding day to
48Anne of Cleves&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt; &lt;br&gt;
49&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
50      &lt;/td&gt;
51      &lt;td height=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
52      &lt;/td&gt;
53    &lt;/tr&gt;
54    &lt;tr&gt;
55      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
56      &lt;/td&gt;
57      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
58      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
59      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
60      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/clevescardinal.gif&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;95&quot; width=&quot;352&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
61      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
62      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/clevesholbein2.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;325&quot; width=&quot;331&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
63      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;miniature portrait of Anne of Cleves
64      by Hans Holbein the Younger&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
65      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;Anne of Cleves was the fourth wife of King
66Henry VIII; it was a very brief marriage, to the astonishment of all
67observers but the relief of both spouses.&amp;nbsp; Henry infamously
68referred to his bride as a 'Flanders mare' and told courtiers and
69ambassadors that he could not perform his husbandly duties because of
70Anne's appearance.&amp;nbsp; Anne's reaction to Henry's physical charms was
71not recorded, but she agreed to an annulment very quickly and remained
72in England for the rest of her life.&amp;nbsp; Henry was grateful for her
73cooperation and granted her a generous income and several homes,
74including Hever Castle.&amp;nbsp; Anne enjoyed an independent lifestyle
75denied most women, often visiting Henry's court as an honored
76guest.&amp;nbsp; Her fondness for English ale and gambling were her only
77vices.&amp;nbsp; Along with her successor as Henry's wife, Catherine
78Howard, Anne remains a mysterious figure about whom too little is
79known.&amp;nbsp; Had she and Henry remained married and had children, the
80course of English history might have changed dramatically.&amp;nbsp; But
81the mysteries of physical attraction denied Anne her place on the
82throne, ended the brilliant career of Thomas Cromwell, and thrust the
83king into the arms of his ill-fated fifth queen, Catherine Howard.&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
84      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
85      &lt;blockquote&gt;
86        &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fcleves.html#Biography&quot;&gt;
87        &lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;Read the biography of Anne of Cleves.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
88        &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
89Primary Sources&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
90Read &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletters.html&quot;&gt;letters
91written by Anne&lt;/a&gt;. &lt;br&gt;
92        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fpricleve.html&quot;&gt;Anne of
93Cleves meets Henry VIII for the first time&lt;/a&gt;, 1540&lt;/p&gt;
94      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
95      &lt;blockquote&gt;
96        &lt;p&gt;Visit &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fimages.html&quot;&gt;Tudor
97England: Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of Anne. &lt;/p&gt;
98        &lt;p&gt;Test your knowledge of Anne's life at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2ftudor1.html&quot;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
99        &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;
100        &lt;/p&gt;
101        &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;Interact&lt;br&gt;
102        &lt;/b&gt;Meet other Six Wives enthusiasts at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fladiesallfanlist.cjb.net&quot;&gt;Ladies All: A Fanlisting for
103the Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
104        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2ftudorhistory.org%2flists%2flist.html&quot;&gt; Tudor Talk &lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;This
105email discussion list is sponsored by Tudorhistory.org.&lt;br&gt;
106        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fgroups.yahoo.com%2fgroup%2fReign%5fof%5fthe%5fTudors%5frpg&quot;&gt;Reign
107of the Tudors&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is a role-playing game set in 16th century
108England.&amp;nbsp; If you would like to 'play' Jane Grey or Anne Boleyn or
109other Tudors, click the link to join.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
110      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
111      &lt;/td&gt;
112      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
113      &lt;/td&gt;
114    &lt;/tr&gt;
115  &lt;/tbody&gt;
116&lt;/table&gt;
117&lt;blockquote&gt;
118  &lt;blockquote&gt;
119    &lt;blockquote&gt;
120      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
121&amp;nbsp;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
122      &lt;p&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'So she came to
123Greenwich that night, and was received as queen.&amp;nbsp; And the next
124day, being Sunday, the king's grace kept a great court at Greenwich,
125where his grace with the queen offered at mass, richly dressed.&amp;nbsp;
126And on Twelfth Night, which was Tuesday, the king's majesty was married
127to the said queen Anne solemnly, in her closet at Greenwich, and his
128grace and she went publicly in procession that day, she having a rich
129coronet of stone and pearls set with rosemary on her hair, and a gown
130of rich cloth of silver, richly hung with stones and pearls, with all
131her ladies and gentlewomen following her, which was a goodly sight to
132behold.' &lt;/font&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; Anne of Cleves marries King
133Henry VIII, 1540&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;br&gt;
134&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
135    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
136  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
137  &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
138  &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Biography&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
139Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII's fourth wife, though not his first
140choice for the role by far.&amp;nbsp; His ambassadors searched out all the
141eligible heiresses of Europe and discovered their king had a very nasty
142marital reputation.&amp;nbsp; The beautiful Christina of Milan was told of
143the king's interest and wittily replied that if she had two heads she
144would risk it, but she had only one; Marie de Guise, who would later
145wed his nephew the King of Scots, replied much the same.&amp;nbsp; The
146tragic tale of his second queen, Anne Boleyn, had kept European gossips
147busy for three years now.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
148  &lt;p&gt;The king's poor and disrespectful treatment of his first wife (he
149was rumored to have bullied Katharine of Aragon to an unhappy death)
150and the quick end of his third (in his desperation for a healthy male
151heir, the king was rumored to have ordered Jane Seymour cut open,
152mangled and killed) only contributed to his low reputation. &lt;/p&gt;
153  &lt;p&gt;One wouldn't think a king would have too difficult a time finding
154a wife, but Henry VIII - who defied his contemporaries in so many other
155ways - did so in this respect as well. &lt;/p&gt;
156  &lt;p&gt;In the end, it was religion which brought Anne of Cleves to
157England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
158  &lt;p&gt;Henry had sought out Catholic princesses like Marie de Guise and
159his fifth wife would be a Catholic as well.&amp;nbsp; Despite the Henrician
160'reformation', England and its monarch remained a Catholic nation,
161albeit one in which supreme authority resided within the king rather
162than the pope.&amp;nbsp; But Henry's influential advisor, Thomas Cromwell,
163wanted England to ally herself with a Protestant nation that also
164rejected papal authority.&amp;nbsp; Cromwell recognized the inexorable
165Catholic decline which was only just beginning to occur; the king's
166assumption of supreme authority had merely been the first and most
167spectacular opening shot in a new religious war.&amp;nbsp; Raised to be a
168churchman until his brother's untimely death and deeply interested in
169theological debate, Henry VIII didn't appreciate the Pandora's Box of
170change he had opened.&amp;nbsp; Cromwell, younger and more philosophically
171attuned to the attitudes of the rising middle class, did appreciate
172it.&amp;nbsp; And he approved of it.&amp;nbsp; The marriage to Anne of Cleves
173would openly ally England with a Protestant duchy, thus making the
174'reformation' even more settled. &lt;/p&gt;
175  &lt;p&gt;Henry VIII's previous two marriages had been love matches; he had
176been quite independent in choosing women of his own court to
177marry.&amp;nbsp; But this fourth marriage was necessarily a more diplomatic
178endeavor.&amp;nbsp; In this, the king returned to the traditional role of
179kings searching for brides; he also understood that, since the Act of
180Supremacy in 1534, England stood dangerously isolated amongst the
181Catholic powers of Spain and France. &lt;/p&gt;
182  &lt;p&gt;There was a gap of over two years between Jane Seymour's death in
183October 1537 and Anne of Cleves's arrival in England in late December
1841539.&amp;nbsp; Romantics believe the king waited such a long while to
185marry again because he loved Jane so much.&amp;nbsp; Whether he loved her
186or not is beside the point, though there is ample evidence that he
187did.&amp;nbsp; Henry actually waited so long (and he did so quite
188impatiently) because marriage negotiations took an unexpectedly long
189time.&amp;nbsp; He actually sent out instructions regarding the search for
190a new wife barely a month after Jane's death. &lt;/p&gt;
191  &lt;p&gt;But the French princesses would not assemble for his perusal; they
192also made it clear they preferred other suitors.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Likewise,
193other heiresses of Europe, some of which (like Christina of Milan) were
194related through tangled Hapsburg bloodlines to the king's first wife,
195Katharine of Aragon, avoided the English ambassadors.&amp;nbsp; And always,
196busy with his paperwork and contacts throughout Europe, Cromwell sought
197to arrange a Protestant alliance. &lt;/p&gt;
198  &lt;p&gt;During all of these negotiations, one must not forget the king's
199own views regarding his future wife.&amp;nbsp; Henry was used to making his
200own decisions about the women in his life; he had high standards for
201female beauty and insisted his next wife be physically
202attractive.&amp;nbsp; To that end, he told his ambassadors that no official
203overtures be made to certain ladies until he had approved of their
204looks.&amp;nbsp; 'The thing touches me too near,' said the king, which was
205true enough but not the sort of thing kings were supposed to say.&amp;nbsp;
206After all, he was not merely a man but a monarch; he was not supposed
207to marry for himself alone. &lt;/p&gt;
208  &lt;p&gt;The ambassadors were often placed in embarrassing positions,
209commissioning portraits and sending back detailed descriptions of pock
210marks and hairstyles.&amp;nbsp; Finally, the choices were narrowed down to
211four serious contenders - Marie de Guise, the widow of the duc de
212Longueville, was tall, beautiful and already proven in
213childbirth.&amp;nbsp; As mentioned earlier, she chose the Scottish king
214James V.&amp;nbsp; Henry then looked to her younger sister, but she also
215became otherwise engaged.&amp;nbsp; Then there was the beautiful and
216intelligent Christina of Milan, just sixteen and one of the most
217sought-after heiresses of her generation.&amp;nbsp; But the king of England
218was three times her age, fat and with a cruel reputation; she allowed
219herself to be painted by Holbein but did nothing to solve the problem
220of her being a great-niece of Katharine of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; This
221impediment of affinity was a nice way to avoid the king of England. &lt;/p&gt;
222  &lt;p&gt;The year of 1538 passed with no alliance.&amp;nbsp; Henry had intended
223to use his fourth marriage as a balance between France and the Hapsburg
224empire.&amp;nbsp; But it now seemed as if those two enemies might join
225forces against him in defense of the papal supremacy. &lt;/p&gt;
226  &lt;p&gt;Suddenly Cromwell's moment had arrived.&amp;nbsp; The fourth serious
227contender was the sister of the duke of Cleves.&amp;nbsp; The duke was not
228a Protestant himself but was allied through marriage with Saxony and
229the league of Lutheran princes; he was also at odds with the Hapsburg
230emperor Charles V over the duchy of Gelderland.&amp;nbsp; The duchy of
231Cleves might one day rival the Netherlands in terms of trade and
232strategic advantage.&amp;nbsp; The king was persuaded to send his favorite
233court painter, Hans Holbein the Younger, to the German duchy.&amp;nbsp;
234There he painted both Anne and her sister Amelia.&amp;nbsp; Henry, who by
235this time was wearying of the endless rounds of negotiations (and whom
236Cromwell feared would soon turn to another English noblewoman), was
237interested in Anne.&amp;nbsp; Negotiations began in earnest. &lt;/p&gt;
238  &lt;p&gt;Anne was 24 years old, and had spent most of her life at the ducal
239court of Dusseldorf.&amp;nbsp; She was well-educated in domestic skills but
240she was neither intellectual or flirtatious, both qualities the king
241admired.&amp;nbsp; She had no musical skills, and music was one of Henry's
242passions, and no interest in books.&amp;nbsp; On the trip to England, her
243escort (perhaps sensing disaster ahead) tried to teach her the king's
244favorite card games but Anne found them hopeless.&amp;nbsp; It was not her
245fault, nor that of Henry VIII, but she was raised in a different
246country and, as things turned out, was not given time to acclimatize
247herself before the king rejected her.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
248  &lt;p&gt;
249  &lt;img alt=&quot;Holbein's betrothal portrait of Anne of Cleves&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/cleves-bio1.jpg&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;280&quot; width=&quot;190&quot;&gt;The issue of the betrothal portrait is the most fascinating part
250of this story.&amp;nbsp; Holbein was a man of vast talent; his best
251portraits are simply astounding, beautifully composed and possessing
252great psychological insight.&amp;nbsp; Look at the infamous portrait of
253Anne of Cleves to the left; it is clear that Holbein was more
254fascinated with the embroidery of her gown than with Anne's
255personality.&amp;nbsp; Her eyes are downcast and her features lost beneath the ornate
256trappings of her dress and hood. &lt;/p&gt;
257  &lt;p&gt;There has long been a rumor that Henry was so enraged with the
258work, believing that Holbein had deliberately duped him with a false
259portrait, that he fired the painter.&amp;nbsp; But that is not true.&amp;nbsp;
260At the time, there were a few remarks that she did not look as well as
261the portrait asserted, but this was not unlikely - she had arrived in
262England after a long journey, perhaps the sea air did not agree with
263her skin?&amp;nbsp; Or perhaps nervousness over the impending marriage
264caused a change in her complexion.&amp;nbsp; We cannot know.&amp;nbsp; But we
265do know that Henry's ambassadors, only too aware of their master's
266wishes, allowed the portrait to be sent as a fair likeness of
267Anne.&amp;nbsp; Would they have dared to mislead their monarch in such a
268way?&amp;nbsp; It's not likely.&amp;nbsp; Even Henry himself did not make much
269of the supposed difference between the painted and real Anne, aside
270from a comment to Cromwell that she was 'nothing so fair as she had
271been reported.'&amp;nbsp; Often expectations can be idealistic, and that
272was possibly the case with Henry.&amp;nbsp; Holbein continued to receive
273commissions from the English aristocracy before dying of plague in
274London in 1543. &lt;/p&gt;
275  &lt;p&gt;What actually happened to drive Anne and Henry apart was a simple
276matter of attraction.&amp;nbsp; Almost five hundred years later, we still
277don't understand why certain people are physically attracted to each
278other; it simply happens.&amp;nbsp; And it didn't happen with Anne and
279Henry; in fact, quite the opposite occurred and the king was repulsed
280by her.&amp;nbsp; Anne's feelings on the matter are not known but Henry was
281no longer the strong, athletic king of years past; various injuries had
282reduced his exercise but not his appetite.&amp;nbsp; He was increasingly
283obese and subject to its attendant problems. &lt;/p&gt;
284  &lt;p&gt;There were other reasons for the king to look askance at this new
285bride.&amp;nbsp; The foreign crisis which had caused Cromwell to seek an
286alliance with the Protestant duchy had passed; France and Spain had
287returned to their old enmity.&amp;nbsp; England was no longer threatened by
288the Catholic powers.&amp;nbsp; Also, the dispute over Gelderland had become
289more serious and Henry was not eager to fight the suddenly genial
290Spanish in defense of Anne's brother.&amp;nbsp; These issues were clear in
291mid-autumn 1539 but the marriage negotiations continued.&amp;nbsp; By that
292point, they had a momentum of their own.&amp;nbsp; A proxy marriage
293occurred and Anne left her home in late November.&amp;nbsp; She reached
294Calais on 11 December; during the journey, she was addressed as Queen
295of England and treated accordingly.&amp;nbsp; For a fortnight she waited at
296Calais until the weather settled.&amp;nbsp; On 27 December she set out for
297Deal; it was a stormy crossing.&amp;nbsp; It was on the first day of 1540
298that the king, so impatient to see his new bride, entered her rooms in
299disguise.&amp;nbsp; The scene was recorded by the Imperial ambassador,
300Eustace Chapuys: &lt;/p&gt;
301  &lt;blockquote&gt;
302    &lt;p&gt;And on New Years Day in the afternoon the king's grace with five
303of his privy chamber, being disguised with mottled cloaks with hoods so
304that they should not be recognized, came secretly to Rochester, and so
305went up into the chamber where the said Lady Anne was looking out of a
306window to see the bull-baiting which was going on in the courtyard, and
307suddenly he embraced and kissed her, and showed here a token which the
308king had sent her for New Year's gift, and she being abashed and not
309knowing who it was thanked him, and so he spoke with her.&amp;nbsp; But she
310regarded him little, but always looked out the window.... and when the
311king saw that she took so little notice of his coming he went into
312another chamber and took off his cloak and came in again in a coat of
313purple velvet.&amp;nbsp; And when the lords and knights saw his grace they
314did him reverence.... and then her grace humbled herself lowly to the
315king's majesty, and his grace saluted her again, and they talked
316together lovingly, and afterwards he took her by the hand and led her
317to another chamber where their graces amused themselves that night and
318on Friday until the afternoon.&lt;/p&gt;
319  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
320  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;You can read the entire account at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fpricleve.html&quot;&gt;Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;
321  &lt;br&gt;
322  &lt;br&gt;
323Henry had so far managed to conceal his dislike of Anne.&amp;nbsp; There is
324reason to believe it was not an immediate revulsion; it was only after
325their wedding night, which the king declared he could not consummate,
326that word spread of his physical distaste.&amp;nbsp; When Cromwell asked
327him the next morning, 'How liked you the Queen?', Henry replied, 'I
328liked her before not well, but now I like her much worse.' &lt;/p&gt;
329  &lt;p&gt;On Twelfth Night (6 January), they were married in the 'Queen's
330Closet' at Greenwich Palace, where Henry had also married his last
331bride.&amp;nbsp; But the king was already looking for ways out.&amp;nbsp; The
332very day of the ceremony, he told Cromwell, 'My Lord, if it were not to
333satisfy the world, and my Realm, I would not do that I must do this day
334for none earthly thing.'&amp;nbsp; These were ominous words. &lt;/p&gt;
335  &lt;p&gt;It is also possible that around this time, the king met &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhoward.html&quot;&gt;Catherine
336Howard&lt;/a&gt;, cousin of his second wife, Anne Boleyn, and now destined to
337be lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves when her Flemish attendants were
338dismissed.&amp;nbsp; There is no doubt he felt an instant attraction to the
339lively, curvaceous Catherine.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
340  &lt;p&gt;Henry's nobility, which had long chafed against the power and
341influence of &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fcromwell.html&quot;&gt;Cromwell&lt;/a&gt;
342(much as they had against Wolsey), welcomed this opportunity to
343discredit him.&amp;nbsp; The minister had pushed the king into the Cleves
344marriage, they reminded Henry gleefully.&amp;nbsp; The king's wrath turned
345against his former friend and Cromwell was executed on 28 July 1540, a
346decision Henry almost instantly regretted.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
347  &lt;p&gt;And so four things pushed Henry towards an annulment - his dislike
348of Anne, foreign policy changes, his attraction to Catherine Howard,
349and his courtiers' hatred of Cromwell. &lt;/p&gt;
350  &lt;p&gt;In the few days between the first meeting and the wedding,
351Cromwell and the king had found a potential way out, though the
352ceremony continued as planned.&amp;nbsp; In the mid-1530s, Anne had briefly
353been engaged to Francis, duke of Lorraine.&amp;nbsp; The English had not
354explored the issue too much, merely asking the government of Cleves if
355negotiations had ended.&amp;nbsp; Now they looked more closely, with the
356king waiting impatiently for the right response.&amp;nbsp; They suddenly
357discovered there was no dispensation from the precontract; Anne was
358still officially betrothed to Francis.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
359  &lt;p&gt;The ambassadors from Cleves were not unaware of Henry's
360intent.&amp;nbsp; They struggled to find the right documents but, on 26
361February 1540, all they could produce was a report in their archives
362which stated that negotiations with Lorraine 'were not going to take
363their natural course.'&amp;nbsp; No actual papers of dispensation could be
364produced since they did not exist.&amp;nbsp; Thus Henry's marriage to Anne
365of Cleves was legally invalid from the start.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
366  &lt;p&gt;This is one of the more ironic moments in Henry's checkered
367marital career.&amp;nbsp; For once, his decision to end a marriage was
368legally valid and acceptable to all. &lt;/p&gt;
369  &lt;p&gt;Meanwhile, the king made certain comments regarding Anne's body
370and virtue which reveal him in a less than gentlemanly light.&amp;nbsp; He
371told Anthony Denny, a member of the Privy Chamber, that she had
372'breasts so slack and other parts of body in such sort that [he]
373somewhat suspected her virginity.'&amp;nbsp; He further told his court
374physicians of the 'hanging of her breasts and looseness of her
375flesh.'&amp;nbsp; Clearly, consummation of the marriage would not
376occur.&amp;nbsp; The king bravely slept in the same bed at least every
377other night, yet he reported a month later that Anne 'was still as good
378a Maid.... as ever her Mother bare her.'&amp;nbsp; This contradiction - she
379was not a virgin, yet was - was never mentioned. &lt;/p&gt;
380  &lt;p&gt;What did Anne think of all this controversy?&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
381  &lt;p&gt;Luckily for her, she had only a small knowledge of English and
382even less knowledge of the physical relationship between a man and
383wife.&amp;nbsp; Her English ladies were astounded by her innocence.&amp;nbsp;
384'When he [Henry] comes to bed, he kisses me and taketh me by the hand,
385and biddeth me 'Goodnight, sweetheart,' and in the morning, kisses me,
386and biddeth me, 'Farewell, darling.'&amp;nbsp; Is this not enough?' asked
387Anne.&amp;nbsp; No, she was told emphatically, it most certainly was not. &lt;/p&gt;
388  &lt;p&gt;Anne's ignorance casts a bad light on her mother, Duchess Maria,
389but it served to protect her feelings in England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
390  &lt;p&gt;In the end, she ruled as queen for just four months; her last
391official appearance as the royal consort was during the May Day
392celebrations.&amp;nbsp; She was never crowned, though even if the king had
393wished it, he could not have afforded such a ceremony.&amp;nbsp; During
394those months, the Catholic nobility pushed their advantage against the
395Protestant Cromwell.&amp;nbsp; The minister was too Lutheran for the king's
396taste.&amp;nbsp; Likewise, the Catholics encouraged the flirtations of
397young Catherine Howard, also a Catholic and the duke of Norfolk's
398niece.&amp;nbsp; Too young and ill-educated to be aware of how others used
399her as a pawn, she happily danced before the king and accepted his
400gifts.&amp;nbsp; She was granted lands in April and the next month received
401rich gifts of fabric and jewelry.&amp;nbsp; There is every possibility
402Catherine consummated her relationship with the king in May.&amp;nbsp; How
403else can we explain the sudden race to rid himself of Anne? &lt;/p&gt;
404  &lt;p&gt;The investigation into her precontract with Lorraine had been
405hastily done in January and February but for two months afterwards, the
406king merely lamented his fate.&amp;nbsp; Parliament even confirmed Anne's
407dowry in April.&amp;nbsp; But suddenly in May there was a fierce new
408determination to annul the marriage; the king was no longer content to
409complain.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
410  &lt;p&gt;It is possible, and was rumored, that Henry had slept with
411Catherine and consequently there was a chance she was pregnant.&amp;nbsp;
412Another male heir was never far from Henry's mind.&amp;nbsp; He was also
413deeply in love with his 'Rose without a Thorn', a somewhat pathetic
414attraction between an elderly (the king was almost 49 years old) man
415and a very young woman.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
416  &lt;p&gt;And so Anne had to go.&amp;nbsp; She succumbed to the inevitable with
417surprising grace.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she was leery of the royal temper, or&lt;img alt=&quot;engraving of Anne of Cleves, after Holbein&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/cleves-bio2.jpg&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;218&quot; width=&quot;154&quot;&gt; remembered the king's marital
418history, or she simply didn't care.&amp;nbsp; Henry was very
419grateful.&amp;nbsp; If she had not cooperated....&amp;nbsp; He knew, from the
420example of Katharine of Aragon, what could happen if a queen fought an
421annulment.&amp;nbsp; He had no desire to alienate Cleves or engage in
422another lengthy legal and theological dispute.&amp;nbsp; The king declared
423the marriage had not been consummated and, in any case, it was invalid
424from the start.&amp;nbsp; Would Anne agree? &lt;/p&gt;
425  &lt;p&gt;She did agree, most readily.&amp;nbsp; She was shocked at first by the
426news; the king's representatives visited her at Richmond Palace, where
427she had gone to escape the threat of plague.&amp;nbsp; They brought an
428interpreter so there would be no misunderstanding.&amp;nbsp; For her part,
429Anne quickly grasped the situation.&amp;nbsp; She had no advisers and the
430king had already executed one wife and harassed another to death.&amp;nbsp;
431Certainly she enjoyed the role of queen, was more fluent in English and
432had taken a liking to her new country; even the people cheered her on
433the occasional public ride between palaces.&amp;nbsp; But did she dare
434fight Henry?&amp;nbsp; Of course not. &lt;/p&gt;
435  &lt;p&gt;The king's servants wrote that she was 'content always with your
436Majesty', thus accepting Henry's judgment, and in her &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletter12.html&quot;&gt;letter of&lt;/a&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletter12.html&quot;&gt; submission&lt;/a&gt;
437she signed herself 'daughter of Cleves', not 'queen of England'.&amp;nbsp;
438She agreed the marriage had never been consummated and signed all
439necessary documents.&amp;nbsp; For his part, Henry was now prepared to be
440generous.&amp;nbsp; Anne was to enjoy precedence over all the ladies in
441England, except the Queen and the king's daughters.&amp;nbsp; She was to be
442known as the king's 'good sister' and received a very nice settlement
443of manors and estates, some of which belonged to Cromwell.&amp;nbsp; This
444guaranteed her an income of 3000 pds a year, making her one of the
445wealthiest women in England.&amp;nbsp; All this depended upon her remaining
446in England, and this Anne was more than willing to do.&amp;nbsp; 'The
447King's highness whom I cannot have as a husband is nevertheless a most
448kind, loving and friendly father and brother,' she wrote to her
449brother.&amp;nbsp; Why should she return home in ignominy, dependent upon
450her brother's generosity, when she could remain in England and live a
451comfortable, independent life? &lt;/p&gt;
452  &lt;p&gt;Anne was perhaps as content with the arrangement as Henry.&amp;nbsp;
453She grew to enjoy English ale and gambling; she spent large sums on
454gowns; she visited with the king's children and occasionally the king
455himself.&amp;nbsp; She was heard to remark that she was more attractive
456than Katharine Parr, to whom the king's attention turned in 1543.&amp;nbsp;
457In fact, upon Catherine Howard's execution in 1542, rumors circulated
458that perhaps the king would take back his former bride.&amp;nbsp; The
459French ambassador was suitably impressed with Anne's handling of a
460delicate situation, observing that 'all her affairs could never make
461her utter a word by which one might suppose that she was
462discontented.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
463  &lt;p&gt;These rumors were understandable enough; Anne occupied a nebulous
464place in English society, unmarried but wealthy and independent.&amp;nbsp;
465She was not an heiress but still honored as a royal.&amp;nbsp; She answered
466to no male authority but that of the king, and he did not choose to
467trouble her.&amp;nbsp; For the rest of her life, rumors spread about her
468lifestyle.&amp;nbsp; For Anne's part, she was content and happy and had
469little reason to be otherwise. &lt;/p&gt;
470  &lt;p&gt;She made her last public appearance at Mary Tudor's coronation in
4711553, riding alongside the Princess Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; She died in 1557
472of a 'declining illness' and was buried with appropriate honor at
473Westminster Abbey.&amp;nbsp; Her will is perhaps most representative of her
474kindly character.&amp;nbsp; In it, she remembered gifts to everyone who had
475ever served her, no matter how humble or long ago. &lt;/p&gt;
476  &lt;p&gt;Anne had chosen as her motto 'God send me well to keep' and it
477proved apt, though in a way few could have predicted.&lt;/p&gt;
478  &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
479  &lt;center&gt;
480  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fwives.html&quot;&gt;to the Six
481Wives main page&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
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483Tudor England&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
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485  &lt;/center&gt;
486&lt;/blockquote&gt;
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489</Content>
490</Section>
491</Archive>
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