root/other-projects/nightly-tasks/diffcol/trunk/model-collect/METS/archives/HASHea92.dir/doc.xml @ 28657

Revision 28657, 24.3 KB (checked in by ak19, 7 years ago)

AUTOCOMMIT by gen-model-colls.sh script. Message: Clean rebuild of model collections 1/2. Clearing out deprecated archives and index.

Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="no"?>
2<!DOCTYPE Archive SYSTEM "http://greenstone.org/dtd/Archive/1.0/Archive.dtd">
3<Archive>
4<Section>
5  <Description>
6    <Metadata name="gsdlsourcefilename">import/html_files/aragon.html</Metadata>
7    <Metadata name="gsdldoctype">indexed_doc</Metadata>
8    <Metadata name="Plugin">HTMLPlugin</Metadata>
9    <Metadata name="FileSize">20380</Metadata>
10    <Metadata name="Source">aragon.html</Metadata>
11    <Metadata name="SourceFile">aragon.html</Metadata>
12    <Metadata name="Language">en</Metadata>
13    <Metadata name="Encoding">windows_1252</Metadata>
14    <Metadata name="Title">Katharine / Katherine / Catherine of Aragon: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="FileFormat">HTML</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="URL">http://html_files/aragon.html</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="UTF8URL">http://html_files/aragon.html</Metadata>
18    <Metadata name="Identifier">HASHea9284af3b5d7ad3d4018b</Metadata>
19    <Metadata name="lastmodified">1384906073</Metadata>
20    <Metadata name="lastmodifieddate">20131120</Metadata>
21    <Metadata name="oailastmodified">1384906074</Metadata>
22    <Metadata name="oailastmodifieddate">20131120</Metadata>
23    <Metadata name="assocfilepath">HASHea92.dir</Metadata>
24    <Metadata name="gsdlassocfile">aragoncardinal.gif:image/gif:</Metadata>
25    <Metadata name="gsdlassocfile">aragonsittow1.jpg:image/jpeg:</Metadata>
26    <Metadata name="gsdlassocfile">aragonhorenbout1.jpg:image/jpeg:</Metadata>
27    <Metadata name="gsdlassocfile">visit.gif:image/gif:</Metadata>
28  </Description>
29  <Content>
30&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; height=&quot;674&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
31  &lt;tbody&gt;
32    &lt;tr&gt;
33      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
34      &lt;/td&gt;
35      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
36      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;'In this world I will confess
37myself to be the king's true wife, and in the next they will know how
38unreasonably I am afflicted.'&lt;/font&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
39      &lt;/b&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon, 1532&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
40      &lt;/td&gt;
41      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
42      &lt;/td&gt;
43    &lt;/tr&gt;
44    &lt;tr&gt;
45      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
46      &lt;/td&gt;
47      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
48      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
49      &amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
50      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
51      &lt;/td&gt;
52    &lt;/tr&gt;
53    &lt;tr&gt;
54      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
55      &lt;/td&gt;
56      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
57      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
58      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragoncardinal.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Katharine of Aragon&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;114&quot; width=&quot;443&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
59      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
60      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragonsittow1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;portrait of Katharine of Aragon by Michael Sittow, c1502&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;541&quot; width=&quot;351&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
61      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;portrait of Katharine of Aragon by
62      Michael Sittow, c1502&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
63      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;The youngest surviving child of
64the 'Catholic Kings' of Spain, Katharine was born on 16 December 1485,
65the same year that Henry VII established the Tudor dynasty.&amp;nbsp; At
66the age of three, she was betrothed to his infant son, Prince
67Arthur.&amp;nbsp; In 1501, shortly before her sixteenth birthday, Katharine
68sailed to England.&amp;nbsp; But her marriage to Arthur lasted less than
69six months and was supposedly never consummated.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was
70then betrothed to Arthur's younger brother, Prince Henry.&amp;nbsp; When he
71became king in 1509, at the age of eighteen, he promptly married
72Katharine and they lived together happily for many years.&amp;nbsp; But
73their marriage produced just one living child, a daughter called Mary,
74and Henry was desperate for a male heir.&amp;nbsp; He also fell deeply in
75love with another woman.&amp;nbsp; Cast aside, Katharine fought against
76great odds to deny Henry an annulment.&amp;nbsp; But the king would not be
77denied and when the Catholic church would not grant the annulment, he
78declared himself head of a new English church.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was
79banished from court and died on 7 January 1536, broken-hearted but
80still defiant.&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
81      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
82      &lt;blockquote&gt;
83        &lt;blockquote&gt;
84          &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpsamepagelink_#Biography&quot;&gt;
85          &lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;Read the biography of Katharine of Aragon.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
86        &lt;/blockquote&gt;
87        &lt;blockquote&gt;
88          &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
89Primary Sources&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
90Read &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletters.html&quot;&gt;letters
91written by Katharine&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fh8crown.html&quot;&gt;an account of her
92coronation&lt;/a&gt; at Westminster Abbey.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
93          &lt;br&gt;
94          &lt;b&gt;Secondary Sources&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;Read JA Froude's 1891 work &lt;i&gt;
95          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fsecondary.html&quot;&gt;The Divorce
96          of Catherine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
97          &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;Visit &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fimages.html&quot;&gt;Tudor England:
98Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of Katharine.&lt;br&gt;
99Visit the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fmary1.html&quot;&gt;Queen
100Mary I site&lt;/a&gt; to learn more about Katharine's daughter.&lt;/p&gt;
101          &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
102Interact&lt;br&gt;
103          &lt;/b&gt;Meet other Six Wives enthusiasts at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fladiesallfanlist.cjb.net&quot;&gt;Ladies All: A Fanlisting for
104the Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
105          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2ftudorhistory.org%2flists%2flist.html&quot;&gt; Tudor Talk
106          &lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;This email discussion list is sponsored by
107Tudorhistory.org.&lt;br&gt;
108          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fgroups.yahoo.com%2fgroup%2fReign%5fof%5fthe%5fTudors%5frpg&quot;&gt;Reign of
109the Tudors&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is a role-playing game set in 16th century
110England.&amp;nbsp; If you would like to 'play' Jane Grey or Anne Boleyn or
111other Tudors, click the link to join.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
112        &lt;/blockquote&gt;
113        &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
114      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
115      &lt;/td&gt;
116      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
117      &lt;/td&gt;
118    &lt;/tr&gt;
119  &lt;/tbody&gt;
120&lt;/table&gt;
121&lt;blockquote&gt;
122  &lt;blockquote&gt;
123    &lt;blockquote&gt;
124      &lt;blockquote&gt;
125        &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
126        &lt;p&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
127        &lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'My tribulations are so great, my life so
128disturbed by the plans daily invented to further the king's wicked
129intention, the surprises which the king gives me, with certain persons
130of his council, are so mortal, and my treatment is what God knows, that
131it is enough to shorten ten lives, much more mine.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;
132        &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon to Charles V, November 1531&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
133        &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
134      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
135    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
136    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Biography&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
137Katharine was born on 16 December 1485 at Alcala de Henares, in the
138archbishop of Toledo's palace.&amp;nbsp; Her early life promised a future
139of splendor and success, if not personal happiness.&amp;nbsp; Her parents,
140Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, were legends throughout
141Europe.&amp;nbsp; Their marriage had united the kingdom of Spain and
142together they had driven the Moors from Granada.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's
143mother was deeply pious and very intelligent.&amp;nbsp; Her children, even
144the daughters, received excellent educations.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's brother
145Juan and sister Joanna were married off into the powerful Hapsburg
146family and two other sisters, Isabella and Maria, would each marry the
147king of Portugal.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was promised to England; the
148betrothal contract was finalized before her fourth birthday.&amp;nbsp; The
149island nation, so long torn between Plantagenet cousins vying for the
150throne, was now ruled by Henry Tudor.&amp;nbsp; He had married the daughter
151of the former Plantagenet king, Edward IV, and in 1486 had a male heir
152and a desire to establish the stability and validity of his new
153dynasty.&amp;nbsp; A match with a Spanish princess would give him
154both.&amp;nbsp; And so Katharine, proud and solemn and accompanied by a
155vast dowry, came to England in 1501.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
156    &lt;p&gt; She
157wed Prince Arthur within a few weeks of her arrival.&amp;nbsp; It was a
158grand celebration; all of London rejoiced and there was every
159expectation of a glorious future for both husband and wife.&amp;nbsp; They
160left for Ludlow Castle, the government seat of the Prince of Wales, and
161within six months Arthur was dead.&amp;nbsp; It was the dreaded sweating
162sickness.&amp;nbsp; The news devastated his parents.&amp;nbsp; Katharine
163returned to London but was not sent home.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII was already
164writing to her parents about another marriage.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
165    &lt;p&gt;Katharine was now promised to Arthur's younger brother,
166Henry.&amp;nbsp; Born 28 June 1491, he was almost six years younger than
167Katharine.&amp;nbsp; But he was robust and healthy, and already regarded as
168a precocious intellect.&amp;nbsp; Before his brother's death, he had been
169destined for the church and educated accordingly.&amp;nbsp; But now he was
170the future king and as such he needed a future wife.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII
171betrothed young Henry to his brother's widow, a plan which required a
172papal dispensation.&amp;nbsp; Ferdinand, at odds with France, was anxious
173to please his English ally; Isabella's piety may have ruined the plan
174but she was dying and did not protest.&amp;nbsp; Katharine and her duenna,
175Dona Elvira, both wrote that her marriage to Arthur had never been
176consummated.&amp;nbsp; Pope Julius II granted the dispensation.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
177    &lt;p&gt;The new betrothal may have been spurred by Henry VII's legendary
178avarice.&amp;nbsp; Katharine had brought half of her dowry with her upon
179marriage to Arthur; if she returned home, her marriage contract
180required that the dowry be returned.&amp;nbsp; Also, her inheritance as
181dowager Princess of Wales was substantial.&amp;nbsp; If she left England,
182so would that steady income.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
183    &lt;p&gt;Katharine herself &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletters.html&quot;&gt;wrote to her father&lt;/a&gt;
184that she had no wish to remain in England but she would obey his
185decision.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she had already learned enough of Henry VII's
186character to know she would be shabbily treated.&amp;nbsp; Despite her
187royal position, she lived in poverty.&amp;nbsp; The Spanish ambassador was
188forced to buy her necessities and she was unable to pay her
189attendants.&amp;nbsp; And soon enough Henry VII was implying that he would
190break the Spanish betrothal.&amp;nbsp; Katharine spent the next seven years
191in a state of political limbo.&amp;nbsp; And when he turned fourteen, Henry
192VII had his son publicly repudiate the betrothal, claiming that the
193marriage contract was made without his knowledge or consent.&amp;nbsp; Yet
194Katharine remained in England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
195    &lt;p&gt;In 1509, the situation was resolved with startling speed.&amp;nbsp;
196Henry VII died and his eighteen year old son became king.&amp;nbsp;
197Handsome, proud, and imbued with the romantic spirit of chivalry, he
198promptly married Katharine.&amp;nbsp; Did he marry her out of a sense of
199obligation?&amp;nbsp; Was it because, as he later claimed, he wished to
200respect his father's last wish?&amp;nbsp; Were political councilors
201encouraging the Spanish alliance?&amp;nbsp; Or did he love the dignified
202and lovely young princess?&amp;nbsp; It is impossible to know.&amp;nbsp; But
203they certainly acted like a loving and affectionate couple, far beyond
204typical royal marriages.&amp;nbsp; There were public displays of affection,
205declarations of love and respect, and for a long while she was also a
206close political adviser.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
207    &lt;p&gt;Henry VIII's court was full of gaiety and celebration.&amp;nbsp; It
208was a welcome change from the austerity of his father's rule.&amp;nbsp;
209Katharine proved herself to be the perfect consort, even when politics
210led her father to humiliate and betray Henry.&amp;nbsp; Katharine
211recognized that she must choose between unwavering support of her
212father and loyalty to her husband.&amp;nbsp; She chose Henry, though his
213Lord Chancellor, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fwolsey.html&quot;&gt;Cardinal
214Wolsey&lt;/a&gt;, never trusted her and instead favored an Anglo-French
215alliance.&amp;nbsp; His influence, and Henry's own suspicions, led the king
216to disregard her political advice.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
217    &lt;p&gt;Katharine's primary duty was both personal and political - to
218bear children, as many as possible and preferably sons.&amp;nbsp; This was
219especially important in England since Henry VIII was the sole surviving
220son of his father.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was far from barren and did her
221best; in the first nine years of their marriage, she conceived at least
222six times.&amp;nbsp; She miscarried twice, once delivered a stillborn
223daughter, and two sons died within weeks.&amp;nbsp; The only surviving
224child was a daughter, Princess Mary, born in 1516.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's
225last recorded pregnancy was in 1518, when she was thirty-three years
226old.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
227    &lt;p&gt;Henry was not unhappy with the birth of Mary; he assured
228ambassadors that if it were a daughter this time, a son would surely
229follow.&amp;nbsp; But it was soon clear there would be no sons.&amp;nbsp; The
230age difference between he and Katharine was now more noticeable.&amp;nbsp;
231The queen, struggling with frequent pregnancies and constant stress,
232looked older than her years.&amp;nbsp; Henry was a far more prudent king
233than most; he had just two serious affairs during his marriage to
234Katharine.&amp;nbsp; But one of his mistresses, Elizabeth Blount, bore him
235a son.&amp;nbsp; It was clear he could have sons, but the queen could
236not.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
237    &lt;p&gt;By 1527, the question of the succession was the most pressing
238issue facing the king.&amp;nbsp; Two years before, he had titled his
239illegitimate son the duke of Richmond and granted him vast estates.&amp;nbsp;
240Many, Katharine included, believed this was a preliminary step to
241naming him heir to the throne.&amp;nbsp; This never occurred and Richmond
242would die in 1536, but - until then - it was a possibility.&amp;nbsp; Henry
243sent Princess Mary to Ludlow Castle as Princess of Wales and his
244official heir, but even that did not stop the rumors or her mother's
245concerns.&amp;nbsp; Katharine confronted Henry; he responded angrily and
246dismissed several of her beloved Spanish attendants.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
247    &lt;p&gt;The king by now had hopes of a legitimate heir.&amp;nbsp; He had
248fallen in love the year previously with a young Englishwoman, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhtml%5ffiles%2fboleyn.html&quot;&gt;Anne Boleyn&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
249She was the sister of a former mistress and refused to take that
250position herself.&amp;nbsp; Henry, who was also deeply pious and a student
251of theology, now took a closer look at his marriage to Katharine.&amp;nbsp;
252In particular, he looked at the text in Leviticus which seemed to
253directly reference his own life - 'If a man shall take his brother's
254wife it is an unclean thing..... they shall be childless.'(Leviticus,
255XX, 21)&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
256    &lt;p&gt;Of course, they were not childless but a daughter was not the
257heir he needed.&amp;nbsp; No woman had attempted to rule England since the
258disastrous Matilda centuries&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragonhorenbout1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon by Lucas Horenbout&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;324&quot; width=&quot;329&quot;&gt; before.&amp;nbsp; Henry now firmly believed
259that his incestuous marriage had been doomed from the start.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
260    &lt;p&gt;But how could he annul the marriage?&amp;nbsp; He needed to convince
261the current pope, Clement VII, that the dispensation of his predecessor
262was inadequate.&amp;nbsp; It directly contradicted the Bible and had no
263merit.&amp;nbsp; This should have been a simple enough matter.&amp;nbsp; Royal
264marriages had been annulled for far less.&amp;nbsp; But Katharine's nephew,
265Charles V, was the Holy Roman Emperor and he had no intention of
266allowing his aunt to be cast off.&amp;nbsp; This was not out of personal
267love or loyalty, but a purely political stance.&amp;nbsp; And after the
2681527 'sack of Rome', Charles controlled the pope.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
269    &lt;p&gt;Henry was soon thwarted, despite extensive work by Wolsey and
270other advisers.&amp;nbsp; For her part, Katharine was kept in the dark for
271as long as the king could manage it.&amp;nbsp; But she was no fool.&amp;nbsp;
272She knew of the romance between her husband and Mistress Boleyn; she
273knew Henry avoided her company, though he was scrupulous about
274attending official functions with her.&amp;nbsp; He had always respected
275her unassailable dignity and eloquence.&amp;nbsp; He did not wish to fight
276Katharine; he wanted an amicable end to their union and he was prepared
277to be generous.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
278    &lt;p&gt;When news of his intentions became official, she was given
279counsel but only that chosen by the king.&amp;nbsp; She turned to the
280Spanish ambassador and close friends at court for support.&amp;nbsp; Anne
281Boleyn was not popular and Katharine was a respected and beloved
282queen.&amp;nbsp; The king soon came under popular scorn for his
283plans.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
284    &lt;p&gt;But Henry was as firmly convinced of the righteousness of his
285cause as Katharine was of hers.&amp;nbsp; He had read the Bible; he had
286debated the issue with prominent theologians; he even sponsored
287hearings of the case at European universities.&amp;nbsp; Both king and pope
288knew there was a valid basis for the annulment, and a pressing national
289need for it.&amp;nbsp; Clement could have granted it without troubling his
290conscience.&amp;nbsp; And with the spread of Lutheranism in the German
291states, Clement had no wish to antagonize the loyal and devoted king of
292England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
293    &lt;p&gt;But the English king could not be helped at the Holy Roman Emperor's
294    expense.&amp;nbsp; This was soon made abundantly clear.&lt;/p&gt;
295    &lt;p&gt;The pope prevaricated; he could do little else.&amp;nbsp; And for
296several years, the 'King's Great Matter' consumed England and
297fascinated Europe.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
298    &lt;p&gt;Henry inevitably tired of the endless parade of papal legates
299and repetitious hearings.&amp;nbsp; He was growing older and Anne was
300growing impatient.&amp;nbsp; Her youth was being wasted to no purpose, she
301told the king.&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, Katharine encouraged Mary to be
302obstinate in protecting her rights as princess.&amp;nbsp; Mary lost her
303father's favor and was forbidden to visit her mother.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
304    &lt;p&gt;Finally, in 1533, Henry did the only thing he could to end the
305marriage - he rejected the authority of the Holy See and declared
306himself Supreme Head of a new Church of England.&amp;nbsp; His archbishop
307of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, issued the long-awaited decree of
308nullity.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was no longer queen of England but 'Princess
309dowager of Wales'.&amp;nbsp; Princess Mary was now illegitimate, and rumors
310spread that Anne Boleyn had finally succumbed to the king and was
311pregnant.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
312    &lt;p&gt; Katharine was exiled from court and to a
313succession of damp and unpleasant castles.&amp;nbsp; She had but a handful
314of servants for few would call her queen and she refused to be called
315princess.&amp;nbsp; It was a mark of her early education that she was meek,
316deeply pious and believed in obedience to her husband - but she was
317also a proud and intelligent princess of Spain.&amp;nbsp; She would never
318allow her dignity, or that of her daughter, to be destroyed.&amp;nbsp; In
319the end, this stubborn spirit did both her and Mary far more harm than
320good.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was undoubtedly truthful when she declared her
321marriage to Arthur unconsummated but the truth was cold comfort in the
322last years of her life.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
323    &lt;p&gt;Her final years were lonely and sad; the Spanish ambassador kept
324her informed of outside events and smuggled letters to her daughter,
325but she was often ill and at prayer.&amp;nbsp; The wrongs she had suffered
326from Henry filled her with sadness rather than anger.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she
327was inspired by her motto, Humble and Loyal, for that is how she
328remained.&lt;/p&gt;
329    &lt;p&gt;She died at Kimbolton Castle on 7 January 1536, three weeks
330after her fiftieth birthday.&amp;nbsp; There were rumors that she had been
331poisoned.&amp;nbsp; But if Henry had been so inclined, he would have
332attempted it years before and spared himself much trouble.&amp;nbsp; A
333lingering illness and the psychological effects of her exile were the
334obvious causes.&amp;nbsp; She was buried at Peterborough Abbey with all the
335ceremony befitting the widow of the prince of Wales.&amp;nbsp; Henry did
336not attend the funeral; we do not know if he read Katharine's &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletters.html&quot;&gt;last letter&lt;/a&gt; to
337him.&amp;nbsp; It was a love letter and she signed it 'Katherine the
338Queen'.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
339    &lt;p&gt;The tragedy of their annulment was that both he and Katharine
340were equally convinced of their causes.&amp;nbsp; For the modern reader,
341both arguments are persuasive.&amp;nbsp; It is an ironic footnote to her
342life story that Katharine, such a devoted and pious Catholic,
343unintentionally brought the Reformation to England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
344&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
345  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
346  &lt;center&gt;
347  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fwives.html&quot;&gt;to the Six
348Wives main page&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
349  &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor.html&quot;&gt;to
350Tudor England&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
351  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt; to Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
352  &lt;/center&gt;
353&lt;/blockquote&gt;
354&lt;!-- text below generated by server. PLEASE REMOVE --&gt;&lt;!-- Counter/Statistics data collection code --&gt;&lt;script language=&quot;JavaScript&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/geov2.js&quot;&gt;&lt;/script&gt;&lt;script language=&quot;javascript&quot;&gt;geovisit();&lt;/script&gt;&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/visit.gif&quot; border=&quot;0&quot;&gt;
355&lt;noscript&gt;&lt;img src=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;el=direct&amp;amp;href=http://visit.webhosting.yahoo.com/visit.gif?us1180480931&quot; alt=&quot;setstats&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; width=&quot;1&quot; height=&quot;1&quot;&gt;&lt;/noscript&gt;
356</Content>
357</Section>
358</Archive>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the browser.