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31&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; height=&quot;674&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
32  &lt;tbody&gt;
33    &lt;tr&gt;
34      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
35      &lt;/td&gt;
36      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
37      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;'In this world I will confess
38myself to be the king's true wife, and in the next they will know how
39unreasonably I am afflicted.'&lt;/font&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
40      &lt;/b&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon, 1532&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
41      &lt;/td&gt;
42      &lt;td height=&quot;39&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
43      &lt;/td&gt;
44    &lt;/tr&gt;
45    &lt;tr&gt;
46      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
47      &lt;/td&gt;
48      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
49      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
50      &amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
51      &lt;td height=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
52      &lt;/td&gt;
53    &lt;/tr&gt;
54    &lt;tr&gt;
55      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
56      &lt;/td&gt;
57      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
58      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
59      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragoncardinal.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Katharine of Aragon&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;114&quot; width=&quot;443&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
60      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
61      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragonsittow1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;portrait of Katharine of Aragon by Michael Sittow, c1502&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;541&quot; width=&quot;351&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
62      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;portrait of Katharine of Aragon by
63      Michael Sittow, c1502&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
64      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;The youngest surviving child of
65the 'Catholic Kings' of Spain, Katharine was born on 16 December 1485,
66the same year that Henry VII established the Tudor dynasty.&amp;nbsp; At
67the age of three, she was betrothed to his infant son, Prince
68Arthur.&amp;nbsp; In 1501, shortly before her sixteenth birthday, Katharine
69sailed to England.&amp;nbsp; But her marriage to Arthur lasted less than
70six months and was supposedly never consummated.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was
71then betrothed to Arthur's younger brother, Prince Henry.&amp;nbsp; When he
72became king in 1509, at the age of eighteen, he promptly married
73Katharine and they lived together happily for many years.&amp;nbsp; But
74their marriage produced just one living child, a daughter called Mary,
75and Henry was desperate for a male heir.&amp;nbsp; He also fell deeply in
76love with another woman.&amp;nbsp; Cast aside, Katharine fought against
77great odds to deny Henry an annulment.&amp;nbsp; But the king would not be
78denied and when the Catholic church would not grant the annulment, he
79declared himself head of a new English church.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was
80banished from court and died on 7 January 1536, broken-hearted but
81still defiant.&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
82      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
83      &lt;blockquote&gt;
84        &lt;blockquote&gt;
85          &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpsamepagelink_#Biography&quot;&gt;
86          &lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;Read the biography of Katharine of Aragon.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
87        &lt;/blockquote&gt;
88        &lt;blockquote&gt;
89          &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
90Primary Sources&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
91Read &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;letters
92written by Katharine&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;an account of her
93coronation&lt;/a&gt; at Westminster Abbey.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
94          &lt;br&gt;
95          &lt;b&gt;Secondary Sources&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;Read JA Froude's 1891 work &lt;i&gt;
96          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Divorce
97          of Catherine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
98          &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;Visit &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor England:
99Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of Katharine.&lt;br&gt;
100Visit the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen
101Mary I site&lt;/a&gt; to learn more about Katharine's daughter.&lt;/p&gt;
102          &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
104          &lt;/b&gt;Meet other Six Wives enthusiasts at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Ladies All: A Fanlisting for
105the Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
106          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt; Tudor Talk
107          &lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;This email discussion list is sponsored by;br&gt;
109          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Reign of
110the Tudors&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is a role-playing game set in 16th century
111England.&amp;nbsp; If you would like to 'play' Jane Grey or Anne Boleyn or
112other Tudors, click the link to join.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
113        &lt;/blockquote&gt;
114        &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
115      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
116      &lt;/td&gt;
117      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
118      &lt;/td&gt;
119    &lt;/tr&gt;
120  &lt;/tbody&gt;
123  &lt;blockquote&gt;
124    &lt;blockquote&gt;
125      &lt;blockquote&gt;
126        &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
127        &lt;p&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
128        &lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'My tribulations are so great, my life so
129disturbed by the plans daily invented to further the king's wicked
130intention, the surprises which the king gives me, with certain persons
131of his council, are so mortal, and my treatment is what God knows, that
132it is enough to shorten ten lives, much more mine.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;
133        &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon to Charles V, November 1531&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
134        &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
135      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
136    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
137    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Biography&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
138Katharine was born on 16 December 1485 at Alcala de Henares, in the
139archbishop of Toledo's palace.&amp;nbsp; Her early life promised a future
140of splendor and success, if not personal happiness.&amp;nbsp; Her parents,
141Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, were legends throughout
142Europe.&amp;nbsp; Their marriage had united the kingdom of Spain and
143together they had driven the Moors from Granada.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's
144mother was deeply pious and very intelligent.&amp;nbsp; Her children, even
145the daughters, received excellent educations.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's brother
146Juan and sister Joanna were married off into the powerful Hapsburg
147family and two other sisters, Isabella and Maria, would each marry the
148king of Portugal.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was promised to England; the
149betrothal contract was finalized before her fourth birthday.&amp;nbsp; The
150island nation, so long torn between Plantagenet cousins vying for the
151throne, was now ruled by Henry Tudor.&amp;nbsp; He had married the daughter
152of the former Plantagenet king, Edward IV, and in 1486 had a male heir
153and a desire to establish the stability and validity of his new
154dynasty.&amp;nbsp; A match with a Spanish princess would give him
155both.&amp;nbsp; And so Katharine, proud and solemn and accompanied by a
156vast dowry, came to England in 1501.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
157    &lt;p&gt; She
158wed Prince Arthur within a few weeks of her arrival.&amp;nbsp; It was a
159grand celebration; all of London rejoiced and there was every
160expectation of a glorious future for both husband and wife.&amp;nbsp; They
161left for Ludlow Castle, the government seat of the Prince of Wales, and
162within six months Arthur was dead.&amp;nbsp; It was the dreaded sweating
163sickness.&amp;nbsp; The news devastated his parents.&amp;nbsp; Katharine
164returned to London but was not sent home.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII was already
165writing to her parents about another marriage.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
166    &lt;p&gt;Katharine was now promised to Arthur's younger brother,
167Henry.&amp;nbsp; Born 28 June 1491, he was almost six years younger than
168Katharine.&amp;nbsp; But he was robust and healthy, and already regarded as
169a precocious intellect.&amp;nbsp; Before his brother's death, he had been
170destined for the church and educated accordingly.&amp;nbsp; But now he was
171the future king and as such he needed a future wife.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII
172betrothed young Henry to his brother's widow, a plan which required a
173papal dispensation.&amp;nbsp; Ferdinand, at odds with France, was anxious
174to please his English ally; Isabella's piety may have ruined the plan
175but she was dying and did not protest.&amp;nbsp; Katharine and her duenna,
176Dona Elvira, both wrote that her marriage to Arthur had never been
177consummated.&amp;nbsp; Pope Julius II granted the dispensation.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
178    &lt;p&gt;The new betrothal may have been spurred by Henry VII's legendary
179avarice.&amp;nbsp; Katharine had brought half of her dowry with her upon
180marriage to Arthur; if she returned home, her marriage contract
181required that the dowry be returned.&amp;nbsp; Also, her inheritance as
182dowager Princess of Wales was substantial.&amp;nbsp; If she left England,
183so would that steady income.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
184    &lt;p&gt;Katharine herself &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;wrote to her father&lt;/a&gt;
185that she had no wish to remain in England but she would obey his
186decision.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she had already learned enough of Henry VII's
187character to know she would be shabbily treated.&amp;nbsp; Despite her
188royal position, she lived in poverty.&amp;nbsp; The Spanish ambassador was
189forced to buy her necessities and she was unable to pay her
190attendants.&amp;nbsp; And soon enough Henry VII was implying that he would
191break the Spanish betrothal.&amp;nbsp; Katharine spent the next seven years
192in a state of political limbo.&amp;nbsp; And when he turned fourteen, Henry
193VII had his son publicly repudiate the betrothal, claiming that the
194marriage contract was made without his knowledge or consent.&amp;nbsp; Yet
195Katharine remained in England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
196    &lt;p&gt;In 1509, the situation was resolved with startling speed.&amp;nbsp;
197Henry VII died and his eighteen year old son became king.&amp;nbsp;
198Handsome, proud, and imbued with the romantic spirit of chivalry, he
199promptly married Katharine.&amp;nbsp; Did he marry her out of a sense of
200obligation?&amp;nbsp; Was it because, as he later claimed, he wished to
201respect his father's last wish?&amp;nbsp; Were political councilors
202encouraging the Spanish alliance?&amp;nbsp; Or did he love the dignified
203and lovely young princess?&amp;nbsp; It is impossible to know.&amp;nbsp; But
204they certainly acted like a loving and affectionate couple, far beyond
205typical royal marriages.&amp;nbsp; There were public displays of affection,
206declarations of love and respect, and for a long while she was also a
207close political adviser.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
208    &lt;p&gt;Henry VIII's court was full of gaiety and celebration.&amp;nbsp; It
209was a welcome change from the austerity of his father's rule.&amp;nbsp;
210Katharine proved herself to be the perfect consort, even when politics
211led her father to humiliate and betray Henry.&amp;nbsp; Katharine
212recognized that she must choose between unwavering support of her
213father and loyalty to her husband.&amp;nbsp; She chose Henry, though his
214Lord Chancellor, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Cardinal
215Wolsey&lt;/a&gt;, never trusted her and instead favored an Anglo-French
216alliance.&amp;nbsp; His influence, and Henry's own suspicions, led the king
217to disregard her political advice.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
218    &lt;p&gt;Katharine's primary duty was both personal and political - to
219bear children, as many as possible and preferably sons.&amp;nbsp; This was
220especially important in England since Henry VIII was the sole surviving
221son of his father.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was far from barren and did her
222best; in the first nine years of their marriage, she conceived at least
223six times.&amp;nbsp; She miscarried twice, once delivered a stillborn
224daughter, and two sons died within weeks.&amp;nbsp; The only surviving
225child was a daughter, Princess Mary, born in 1516.&amp;nbsp; Katharine's
226last recorded pregnancy was in 1518, when she was thirty-three years
227old.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
228    &lt;p&gt;Henry was not unhappy with the birth of Mary; he assured
229ambassadors that if it were a daughter this time, a son would surely
230follow.&amp;nbsp; But it was soon clear there would be no sons.&amp;nbsp; The
231age difference between he and Katharine was now more noticeable.&amp;nbsp;
232The queen, struggling with frequent pregnancies and constant stress,
233looked older than her years.&amp;nbsp; Henry was a far more prudent king
234than most; he had just two serious affairs during his marriage to
235Katharine.&amp;nbsp; But one of his mistresses, Elizabeth Blount, bore him
236a son.&amp;nbsp; It was clear he could have sons, but the queen could
237not.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
238    &lt;p&gt;By 1527, the question of the succession was the most pressing
239issue facing the king.&amp;nbsp; Two years before, he had titled his
240illegitimate son the duke of Richmond and granted him vast estates.&amp;nbsp;
241Many, Katharine included, believed this was a preliminary step to
242naming him heir to the throne.&amp;nbsp; This never occurred and Richmond
243would die in 1536, but - until then - it was a possibility.&amp;nbsp; Henry
244sent Princess Mary to Ludlow Castle as Princess of Wales and his
245official heir, but even that did not stop the rumors or her mother's
246concerns.&amp;nbsp; Katharine confronted Henry; he responded angrily and
247dismissed several of her beloved Spanish attendants.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
248    &lt;p&gt;The king by now had hopes of a legitimate heir.&amp;nbsp; He had
249fallen in love the year previously with a young Englishwoman, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhtml%5ffiles%2fboleyn.html&quot;&gt;Anne Boleyn&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
250She was the sister of a former mistress and refused to take that
251position herself.&amp;nbsp; Henry, who was also deeply pious and a student
252of theology, now took a closer look at his marriage to Katharine.&amp;nbsp;
253In particular, he looked at the text in Leviticus which seemed to
254directly reference his own life - 'If a man shall take his brother's
255wife it is an unclean thing..... they shall be childless.'(Leviticus,
256XX, 21)&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
257    &lt;p&gt;Of course, they were not childless but a daughter was not the
258heir he needed.&amp;nbsp; No woman had attempted to rule England since the
259disastrous Matilda centuries&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragonhorenbout1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon by Lucas Horenbout&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;324&quot; width=&quot;329&quot;&gt; before.&amp;nbsp; Henry now firmly believed
260that his incestuous marriage had been doomed from the start.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
261    &lt;p&gt;But how could he annul the marriage?&amp;nbsp; He needed to convince
262the current pope, Clement VII, that the dispensation of his predecessor
263was inadequate.&amp;nbsp; It directly contradicted the Bible and had no
264merit.&amp;nbsp; This should have been a simple enough matter.&amp;nbsp; Royal
265marriages had been annulled for far less.&amp;nbsp; But Katharine's nephew,
266Charles V, was the Holy Roman Emperor and he had no intention of
267allowing his aunt to be cast off.&amp;nbsp; This was not out of personal
268love or loyalty, but a purely political stance.&amp;nbsp; And after the
2691527 'sack of Rome', Charles controlled the pope.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
270    &lt;p&gt;Henry was soon thwarted, despite extensive work by Wolsey and
271other advisers.&amp;nbsp; For her part, Katharine was kept in the dark for
272as long as the king could manage it.&amp;nbsp; But she was no fool.&amp;nbsp;
273She knew of the romance between her husband and Mistress Boleyn; she
274knew Henry avoided her company, though he was scrupulous about
275attending official functions with her.&amp;nbsp; He had always respected
276her unassailable dignity and eloquence.&amp;nbsp; He did not wish to fight
277Katharine; he wanted an amicable end to their union and he was prepared
278to be generous.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
279    &lt;p&gt;When news of his intentions became official, she was given
280counsel but only that chosen by the king.&amp;nbsp; She turned to the
281Spanish ambassador and close friends at court for support.&amp;nbsp; Anne
282Boleyn was not popular and Katharine was a respected and beloved
283queen.&amp;nbsp; The king soon came under popular scorn for his
284plans.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
285    &lt;p&gt;But Henry was as firmly convinced of the righteousness of his
286cause as Katharine was of hers.&amp;nbsp; He had read the Bible; he had
287debated the issue with prominent theologians; he even sponsored
288hearings of the case at European universities.&amp;nbsp; Both king and pope
289knew there was a valid basis for the annulment, and a pressing national
290need for it.&amp;nbsp; Clement could have granted it without troubling his
291conscience.&amp;nbsp; And with the spread of Lutheranism in the German
292states, Clement had no wish to antagonize the loyal and devoted king of
293England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
294    &lt;p&gt;But the English king could not be helped at the Holy Roman Emperor's
295    expense.&amp;nbsp; This was soon made abundantly clear.&lt;/p&gt;
296    &lt;p&gt;The pope prevaricated; he could do little else.&amp;nbsp; And for
297several years, the 'King's Great Matter' consumed England and
298fascinated Europe.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
299    &lt;p&gt;Henry inevitably tired of the endless parade of papal legates
300and repetitious hearings.&amp;nbsp; He was growing older and Anne was
301growing impatient.&amp;nbsp; Her youth was being wasted to no purpose, she
302told the king.&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, Katharine encouraged Mary to be
303obstinate in protecting her rights as princess.&amp;nbsp; Mary lost her
304father's favor and was forbidden to visit her mother.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
305    &lt;p&gt;Finally, in 1533, Henry did the only thing he could to end the
306marriage - he rejected the authority of the Holy See and declared
307himself Supreme Head of a new Church of England.&amp;nbsp; His archbishop
308of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, issued the long-awaited decree of
309nullity.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was no longer queen of England but 'Princess
310dowager of Wales'.&amp;nbsp; Princess Mary was now illegitimate, and rumors
311spread that Anne Boleyn had finally succumbed to the king and was
312pregnant.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
313    &lt;p&gt; Katharine was exiled from court and to a
314succession of damp and unpleasant castles.&amp;nbsp; She had but a handful
315of servants for few would call her queen and she refused to be called
316princess.&amp;nbsp; It was a mark of her early education that she was meek,
317deeply pious and believed in obedience to her husband - but she was
318also a proud and intelligent princess of Spain.&amp;nbsp; She would never
319allow her dignity, or that of her daughter, to be destroyed.&amp;nbsp; In
320the end, this stubborn spirit did both her and Mary far more harm than
321good.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was undoubtedly truthful when she declared her
322marriage to Arthur unconsummated but the truth was cold comfort in the
323last years of her life.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
324    &lt;p&gt;Her final years were lonely and sad; the Spanish ambassador kept
325her informed of outside events and smuggled letters to her daughter,
326but she was often ill and at prayer.&amp;nbsp; The wrongs she had suffered
327from Henry filled her with sadness rather than anger.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she
328was inspired by her motto, Humble and Loyal, for that is how she
330    &lt;p&gt;She died at Kimbolton Castle on 7 January 1536, three weeks
331after her fiftieth birthday.&amp;nbsp; There were rumors that she had been
332poisoned.&amp;nbsp; But if Henry had been so inclined, he would have
333attempted it years before and spared himself much trouble.&amp;nbsp; A
334lingering illness and the psychological effects of her exile were the
335obvious causes.&amp;nbsp; She was buried at Peterborough Abbey with all the
336ceremony befitting the widow of the prince of Wales.&amp;nbsp; Henry did
337not attend the funeral; we do not know if he read Katharine's &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;last letter&lt;/a&gt; to
338him.&amp;nbsp; It was a love letter and she signed it 'Katherine the
339Queen'.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
340    &lt;p&gt;The tragedy of their annulment was that both he and Katharine
341were equally convinced of their causes.&amp;nbsp; For the modern reader,
342both arguments are persuasive.&amp;nbsp; It is an ironic footnote to her
343life story that Katharine, such a devoted and pious Catholic,
344unintentionally brought the Reformation to England.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
346  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
347  &lt;center&gt;
348  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;to the Six
349Wives main page&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
350  &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;to
351Tudor England&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
352  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt; to Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
353  &lt;/center&gt;
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356&lt;noscript&gt;&lt;img src=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;el=direct&amp;amp;href=; alt=&quot;setstats&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; width=&quot;1&quot; height=&quot;1&quot;&gt;&lt;/noscript&gt;
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