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14    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Content">Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits with commentary, Primary Sources Elizabeth Tudor 1533 to 1603 The Virgin Queen Gloriana</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits with commentary, Primary Sources Elizabeth Tudor 1533 to 1603 The Virgin Queen Gloriana</Metadata>
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34&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
35  &lt;tr&gt;
36    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
37    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
38    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
39  &lt;/tr&gt;
40  &lt;tr&gt;
41    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
42    &lt;td width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
43    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
44    &lt;IMG height=98 alt=&quot;Queen Elizabeth I&quot;
45      src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz1-queenuse.gif&quot; width=422&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
46    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
47  &lt;/tr&gt;
48  &lt;tr&gt;
49    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
50    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;
51    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
52    &lt;IMG height=427 alt=&quot;crop from the famous 'Armada Portrait' of Elizabeth I&quot;
53      src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz5-mainpic.jpg&quot; width=325 border=2&gt;&lt;blockquote&gt;
54    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;
55    &amp;nbsp;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
56      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Visit
57        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Elizabethan
58      Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of the queen and her courtiers, with
59      commentary.&lt;BR&gt;Read poems, letters, and speeches by the queen at &lt;A
60      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Primary
61      Sources&lt;/A&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
62      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
63      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Read ES Beesly's 1892 biography of Queen
64        Elizabeth I at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
65        Secondary Sources&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;Visit &lt;A
66      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;the Anne
67      Boleyn website&lt;/A&gt; to learn more about Elizabeth's mother.&lt;BR&gt;Visit &lt;A
68      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;the Mary,
69      queen of Scots website&lt;/A&gt; to learn more about Elizabeth's
70      cousin.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;Test your knowledge of Elizabeth's life and times at &lt;A
71      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor
72      Quizzes&lt;/A&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
73      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
74      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Meet other Elizabethan enthusiasts at
75        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Virgin Queen
76        fanlisting&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
77      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
78      &lt;/td&gt;
79    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
80  &lt;/tr&gt;
84  &lt;blockquote&gt;
85    &lt;blockquote&gt;
86      &lt;hr&gt;
87    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
88  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
89  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'She is certainly a great Queen and were she only a Catholic
90  she would be our dearly beloved.&amp;nbsp; Just look how well she governs!&amp;nbsp;
91  She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island, and yet she makes
92  herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all....&amp;nbsp; Our
93  children would have ruled the whole world.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;I&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;
94  Pope Sixtus V describes Elizabeth, c1588&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/I&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
95  &lt;blockquote&gt;
96    &lt;blockquote&gt;
97      &lt;hr&gt;
98      &lt;p&gt;When news of the execution of Mary, queen of Scots reached Europe, it
99      gave Philip II of Spain yet another reason to look askance at his former
100      sister-in-law.&amp;nbsp; English harassment of Spanish shipping and their
101      support of rebellions against his rule had long angered him.&amp;nbsp; He had
102      tried diplomacy; it had been successful enough until Elizabeth's
103      Protestant councilors grew suspicious of his motives and angry over his
104      treatment of continental Protestants.&amp;nbsp; After diplomacy came a gradual
105      cooling between the countries; Philip even tried his hand at encouraging
106      Irish rebellions against Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; And Philip grew increasingly
107      pious as the years passed, and thus more inclined to take the
108      excommunication of 1570 more seriously.&lt;/p&gt;
109    &lt;p&gt;
110    &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/philipos-crop.jpg&quot; lowsrc=&quot;; width=&quot;155&quot; height=&quot;282&quot; align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;Serious consequences were avoided for the first thirty years of
111    Elizabeth's rule due to her own prevarication and Philip's more pressing
112    problems.&amp;nbsp; But as the 1580s began, it was clear that something must
113    give.&amp;nbsp; Philip could no longer afford the blatant piracy of the English,
114    publicly disavowed but privately approved by Elizabeth (who always received
115    the largest share of profits.)&amp;nbsp; She had even gone so far as to knight
116    her greatest pirate, Sir Francis Drake, in 1581.&amp;nbsp; Four years later, the
117    English openly supported the Netherlands when it revolted against Philip, a
118    dangerous but popular policy for Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; Furthermore, Philip had
119    long claimed the throne of Portugal but had only recently seized it by force
120    of arms.&amp;nbsp; If he wished to maintain control, he needed to defend the
121    rich and wide-ranging Portuguese colonies.&lt;/p&gt;
122    &lt;p&gt;Philip also needed to end the Protestant menace to Europe.&amp;nbsp; He
123    supported plans to free Mary, queen of Scots and place her on the English
124    throne.&amp;nbsp; His ambassador Mendoza had been peripherally involved in the
125    Babington Plot and was expelled from England as a result.&amp;nbsp; Many of
126    Elizabeth's councilors, most importantly the influential Robert Dudley, had
127    advocated a tougher approach to Spanish meddling.&amp;nbsp; But always the
128    queen, mindful of her treasury and always desiring peace, had held back.&amp;nbsp;
129    She would send a few troops and some money, but little else.&amp;nbsp; Philip,
130    however, had less love of peace and a more pressing piety.&amp;nbsp; England
131    would be brought back into the Catholic fold, as the pope had commanded in
132    1570.&amp;nbsp; The execution of Mary, queen of Scots in early 1587 gave him
133    added impetus to act.&amp;nbsp; The English had sought to publicize Mary's
134    various crimes, but most Europeans, even the Scots who had applauded her
135    overthrow years ago, preferred the more tragic image of an innocent queen
136    trapped by Elizabeth's wily councilors.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
137    &lt;p&gt;Philip spent much of 1587 finally preparing his long-rumored 'Armada'
138    against England.&amp;nbsp; While Elizabeth's council had long warned her of this
139    possibility, Philip's own advisors believed he could ill afford this new
140    battle.&amp;nbsp; The Spanish fleet and army had fought too long and hard over
141    the years.&amp;nbsp; They comprised the largest and best-prepared army and navy
142    in the world; they had been successful against the Turks, had watched their
143    traditional enemy, France, succumb to internal religious turmoil, had seized
144    Portugal, and fought throughout the Low Countries.&amp;nbsp; But victories could
145    be as tiresome and expensive as defeats.&amp;nbsp; Morale was low and leadership
146    was lacking.&lt;/p&gt;
147    &lt;p&gt;Philip's advisors consistently stressed the expense of the proposed
148    battle.&amp;nbsp; But for the king, expenses were driving him to fight.&amp;nbsp; He
149    needed to stop the English from seizing Spanish ships filled with precious
150    coin and goods.&amp;nbsp; Each loss was a further blow to a nearly empty
151    treasury.&amp;nbsp; There was no better time to fight than now, he declared, for
152    the murder of Mary Stuart had at last united European opinion against
153    Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; In July 1587, he received official approval from the pope
154    for the invasion, provided England returned to Catholicism.&amp;nbsp; The pope
155    even agreed to allow Philip to choose the next English ruler.&amp;nbsp; It would
156    in all likelihood be the Spanish king himself for he claimed descent from
157    the famous Edward III.&lt;/p&gt;
158    &lt;p&gt;As further impetus to Philip, even as he negotiated approval of the
159    invasion with the pope, Drake led an expedition into Spain itself, seizing
160    and destroying many vessels.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth protested that Drake had acted
161    without her knowledge; this may have been true.&amp;nbsp; Certainly the queen
162    had no desire for war.&amp;nbsp; But her protestations did not matter.&amp;nbsp; It
163    was an audacious act which could not go unpunished.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
164    &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth, of course, knew of the Spanish army lodged in the Low
165    Countries, so close to English shores and able to intercept English
166    shipping.&amp;nbsp; When word came that these forces were being steadily
167    increased and an armada of Spanish ships was being prepared for battle, she
168    could no longer debate and hesitate.&amp;nbsp; The impending threat was too
169    obvious to ignore.&lt;/p&gt;
170    &lt;p&gt;Yet what could England do against the great Spanish fleet?&amp;nbsp; All of
171    Europe, and many Englishmen, believed England could not withstand the
172    overwhelming Spanish force.&lt;/p&gt;
173      &lt;hr&gt;
174    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
175  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
176  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved
177    myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in
178  the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects... I know I have the body but of
179  a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a
180  king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince
181  of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm...'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
182  &lt;/font&gt; &lt;i&gt;
183    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;from Elizabeth I's speech to the troops at Tilbury, 1588&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
184  &lt;blockquote&gt;
185    &lt;blockquote&gt;
186      &lt;hr&gt;
187    &lt;p&gt;The Armada which sailed against England is sometimes called 'The
188    Invincible Armada', but its correct name is La Armada Grande.&amp;nbsp; Its
189    supreme commander was the duke of Medina Sidonia, a nobleman who had done
190    all he could to avoid this appointment.&amp;nbsp; He spent hours urging Philip,
191    in the most polite and obsequious way possible,
192    to find someone else, pointing out his own lack of experience in naval
193    matters.&amp;nbsp; But the king would not listen.&amp;nbsp; Spain's greatest naval
194    commander Don Alvaro de Bazan the elder, the marquess of Santa Cruz, had
195    died and there had been a long, fruitless search for a suitable replacement.&amp;nbsp;
196    The conscientious Medina Sidonia was Philip's choice, much to the duke's
197    everlasting regret.&lt;/p&gt;
198    &lt;p&gt;The Armada sailed from Lisbon on 20 May 1588, a grand procession of 130
199    ships and over 30,000 men.&amp;nbsp; However, half of the vessels were transport
200    ships and the majority of men were soldiers, not sailors.&amp;nbsp; Medina
201    Sidonia was to sail to Flanders, where he would join the prince of Parma who
202    waited with more soldiers and transports.&amp;nbsp; But the Armada stopped first
203    in Corunna for some repair work and Medina Sidonia wrote to Philip, asking
204    for the invasion to be postponed indefinitely.&amp;nbsp; The king was adamant,
205    however, and the fleet sailed to Flanders.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
206    &lt;p&gt;Their arrival was expected and observed by the English.&amp;nbsp; Under the
207    command of Lord Howard, they set out from Plymouth, under cover of night.&amp;nbsp;
208    They managed to destroy some of the chief Spanish ships so that, with
209    reinforcements, their numbers roughly equaled the Spanish.&amp;nbsp; More
210    importantly, in terms of command and gunnery, the English had a far superior
211    advantage.&amp;nbsp; By the time of the great battle off Gravelines, each fleet
212    had roughly sixty warships.&amp;nbsp; The Spaniards fought heroically, but
213    Howard was relentless.&amp;nbsp; The English ships were more agile and their
214    commanders more inventive.&amp;nbsp; They did not allow the Spanish time to regroup
215    and refit.&amp;nbsp; Only one Spanish ship was captured but several sank or ran
216    ashore.&amp;nbsp; Medina Sidonia decided to lead the remaining fleet home,
217    sailing along the north of Scotland and Ireland.&amp;nbsp; They met constant
218    storms and rough seas, and not one pilot remained in the whole fleet.&amp;nbsp;
219    Each passing storm destroyed more ships until, when the Armada finally
220    limped home in the mid-September, half the fleet and most of its men were
221    gone.&lt;/p&gt;
222    &lt;p&gt;The defeat of the Armada was justly celebrated in Elizabeth's time.&amp;nbsp;
223    It continues to be one of the most famous naval victories in history.&amp;nbsp;
224    There is an engaging aspect to the whole story - the English fleet taking on
225    the greatest naval power in the world and, against all odds, winning a
226    stunning victory.&amp;nbsp; The psychological effect upon both nations was
227    enormous.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
228    &lt;p&gt;Yet, upon closer inspection, the victory was neither as unexpected or
229    immediately successful as is often believed.&amp;nbsp; The English navy had
230    always been superior in tactics and gunnery than the Spanish, but had
231    suffered from Elizabeth's penny-pinching support.&amp;nbsp; They simply never
232    had enough money to build the ships and pay the sailors needed to become a
233    world-class naval power.&amp;nbsp; The Spanish took so long to rebuild their
234    navy that England finally had their opportunity, and they seized it with
235    enthusiasm.&amp;nbsp; England would become the undisputed master of the seas.&lt;/p&gt;
236    &lt;p&gt;But Spain was not nearly finished as a world power.&amp;nbsp; Barely two
237    years after the Armada, they were virtually omnipotent in European affairs.&amp;nbsp;
238    The religious turmoil in France had weakened their traditional enemy to such
239    an extent that Spain stood unchallenged until 1598, when Henri of Navarre
240    converted to Catholicism.&amp;nbsp; The balance of power in Europe was thus
241    restored.&amp;nbsp; But Spain's army continued to grow until their dominance of
242    land warfare equaled England's naval power.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
243    &lt;p&gt;For Elizabeth, of course, the most important development was the most
244    immediate - a brilliant victory over her greatest enemy, whose threats to
245    invade had haunted most years of her reign.&amp;nbsp; She could breathe a
246    much-deserved sigh of relief.&amp;nbsp; And she deserved no small credit for the
247    success.&amp;nbsp; Her speech to the troops at Tilbury, rallying them to fight,
248    remains justly famous; it is among her most stirring:&lt;/p&gt;
249      &lt;blockquote&gt;
250    &lt;p&gt;My loving people,
251    We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed
252    how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I
253    assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving
254    people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I
255    have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and
256    good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see,
257    at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the
258    midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down
259    for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even
260    in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I
261    have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and
262    think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare
263    to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall
264    grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general,
265    judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know
266    already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We
267    do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the
268    mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never
269    prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your
270    obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the
271    field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God,
272    of my kingdom, and of my people. &lt;br&gt;
274      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
275    &lt;p&gt;She enjoyed a renaissance of sorts among her people after the Armada.&amp;nbsp;
276    She had already ruled for thirty years.&amp;nbsp; Those years of peace and
277    general prosperity had led to an inevitable resentment amongst her subjects,
278    particularly the young noblemen who now dominated her court.&amp;nbsp; They
279    wanted adventure, glory, grand military exploits; they were fervent
280    nationalists who wanted England to finally challenge the great powers of
281    Europe; they believed themselves capable of anything.&amp;nbsp; And Elizabeth,
282    nearing sixty, would regard them with either amusement or anger.&amp;nbsp; They
283    did not know the price of war, she would complain; they did not understand
284    how difficult it had been to bring peace and security to England.&amp;nbsp; They
285    had not lived through the tumultuous reigns of her father and siblings.&amp;nbsp;
286    They did not remember the bitter religious divide, which even now she only
287    bridged with her inestimable charm and intellect.&amp;nbsp; England was at peace
288    and her young courtiers chafed at peace.&amp;nbsp; But for the queen, peace was
289    her greatest gift to her 'loving people.'&amp;nbsp; She knew its importance, the
290    dear price it had cost her.&amp;nbsp; 'To be a King and wear a crown is a thing
291    more pleasant to them that see it, than it is pleasant to them that bear
292    it,' she remarked in her Golden Speech of 1601.&lt;/p&gt;
293    &lt;p&gt;But she also knew those young courtiers disagreed, however much they
294    fawned over her, pretending she was still the young queen of thirty.&amp;nbsp;
295    Elizabeth was content to play the game for her vanity would not allow
296    otherwise.&amp;nbsp; To grow old was a curse to her, she remarked; 'I am not
297    sick, I feel no pain, yet I pine away.'&amp;nbsp; To have a young mind in an old
298    body was another common lament.&amp;nbsp; She felt the loss of her youth keenly
299    and did what she could to create a timeless role for herself.&amp;nbsp; She wore
300    wigs and heavy make-up and still dressed in the opulent gowns of a maid, a
301    fetching style when she was younger but now merely a reminder of her lack of
302    marriage and family.&amp;nbsp; Her older subjects understood her melancholy; of
303    the younger ones, Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Bacon were clever
304    enough to guess its cause.&amp;nbsp; But most did not.&lt;/p&gt;
305    &lt;p&gt;And the queen no longer had the comfort of loyal Cecil and her beloved
306    Dudley.&amp;nbsp; Though Dudley had commanded the troops at Tilbury, he had died
307    barely a month afterwards.&amp;nbsp; Cecil was now very old and had ceded much
308    of his influence to his ambitious son Robert and Sir Francis Walsingham, who
309    died in 1590.&amp;nbsp; The queen thus turned to another favorite, a young man
310    who was a last link to Dudley.&amp;nbsp; His name was Robert Devereux, earl of
311    Essex; he was Dudley's stepson and his mother was Elizabeth's cousin,
312    Lettice Knollys.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
313    &lt;p&gt;Essex remains one of the more interesting courtiers of Elizabeth's later
314    years.&amp;nbsp; He was the mortal enemy of Raleigh (who found him arrogant and
315    overbearing) and close friends with Bacon.&amp;nbsp; He became the great
316    favorite of Elizabeth's later years because, for a while, he was the ablest
317    flirt and wit at court.&amp;nbsp; But his ambitions went far beyond being the
318    queen's 'wild-horse'.&amp;nbsp; In this, he was encouraged by his flighty mother
319    and sycophantic admirers.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
320    &lt;p&gt;Essex believed in the primacy of the nobility at Elizabeth's court and
321    disliked the influence of Cecil and his son, Robert, and other 'upstarts'
322    such as Raleigh.&amp;nbsp; He was too proud, which the queen - depending upon
323    her mood - found endearing or infuriating.&amp;nbsp; And he dreamed of military
324    glory, badgering the queen to send him to Ireland to quell rebellions or
325    with the navy to harass Spanish ships.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth often refused; she
326    genuinely enjoyed his company and would not risk his life.&amp;nbsp; And when
327    she did succumb, Essex performed disastrously.&amp;nbsp; Though a daring and
328    brave soldier, he was a terrible commander and his exploits cost the frugal
329    queen dearly.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
330    &lt;p&gt;His worst offense, however, was a slip of the tongue.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth
331    would respond to Essex's tantrums by banishing him to the country until he
332    begged forgiveness.&amp;nbsp; Once, he decided to pretend illness instead.&amp;nbsp;
333    When news of his condition reached Elizabeth, she sent a letter asking after
334    his health - but nothing more.&amp;nbsp; Someone mentioned the queen's
335    conditions for letting him return.&amp;nbsp; Infuriated, Essex cried out, 'Her
336    conditions!&amp;nbsp; Her conditions are as crooked as her carcase.'&amp;nbsp; Those
337    words reached the queen and she never forgot them.&lt;/p&gt;
338    &lt;p&gt;Essex did return to court.&amp;nbsp; But his subsequent behavior was
339    outlandish and insulting; he even dared to turn his back on Elizabeth during
340    a council meeting.&amp;nbsp; The final blow came when he led a rebellion against
341    the queen.&amp;nbsp; With his friend, the earl of Southampton, he planned to
342    gather a small army and seize the queen and throne.&amp;nbsp; When captured, as
343    inevitably he was, for his supporters were few and even those deserted him,
344    Essex declared he only meant to save the queen from evil counsel.&amp;nbsp; But
345    Elizabeth, who had so often vacillated over executions, only hesitated once
346    with Essex.&amp;nbsp; He was executed on 25 February 1601.&lt;/p&gt;
347    &lt;p&gt;Despite scurrilous gossip, Elizabeth's affection for Essex was more
348    maternal than romantic.&amp;nbsp; She had no choice but to sign his
349    death-warrant but it broke her heart.&amp;nbsp; When her godson, Sir John
350    Harington, visited in the winter of 1602, he found her taste for old
351    pleasures gone.&amp;nbsp; Harington read some of his rhymes and Elizabeth, with
352    a little smile, remarked, 'When thou dost feel creeping time at thy gate,
353    these fooleries will please thee less; I am past my relish for such
354    matters.'&amp;nbsp; To the earl of Nottingham, mourning the loss of his wife,
355    she said, ' I am tied with a chain of iron about my neck.&amp;nbsp; I am tied,
356    I am tied, and the case is altered with me.'&lt;/p&gt;
357    &lt;p&gt;She mentioned Essex at times, but this was merely a symptom of her
358    awareness that all of the work and struggle of her reign had ended in
359    solitude.&amp;nbsp; She had often remarked on the essential loneliness of the
360    crown but she felt it most deeply now.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
361    &lt;p&gt;Her council, led by Robert Cecil, whose father had died in 1601, watched
362    her slow decline while preparing&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz1-oldercrop.jpg&quot; lowsrc=&quot;; alt=&quot;portrait of Elizabeth I in old age&quot; width=&quot;165&quot; height=&quot;171&quot; align=&quot;right&quot;&gt; for the future.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth still had
363    not named a successor.&amp;nbsp; She had always understood its dangerous
364    implications.&amp;nbsp; Yet there was no real doubt that she meant for James VI
365    of Scotland, son of Mary queen of Scots, to succeed her.&amp;nbsp; He had
366    married a Protestant princess and was already a father.&amp;nbsp; And he had
367    long since made his peace with Elizabeth, exchanging frequent letters and
368    accepting her political advice.&lt;/p&gt;
369    &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth retired to Richmond Palace, her 'warm, snug box' in March 1603.&amp;nbsp;
370    Her death was preceded by physical weakness and mental depression, but there
371    were no overt causes.&amp;nbsp; She was almost seventy years old, ancient for
372    her time.&amp;nbsp; She rested in a low chair by the fire, refusing to let
373    doctors examine her.&amp;nbsp; As the days passed, her condition slowly
374    worsened.&amp;nbsp; She stood for hours on end until, finally, she was persuaded
375    to lay upon cushions on the floor.&amp;nbsp; She rested there for two days, not
376    speaking.&amp;nbsp; A doctor ventured close and asked how she could bear the
377    endless silence.&amp;nbsp; She replied simply, 'I meditate.'&amp;nbsp; For the third
378    and fourth day, she continued to rest in silence, with a finger often in her
379    mouth.&amp;nbsp; Her attendants were terrified; they must move her but she
380    refused.&amp;nbsp; The younger Cecil visited and said, 'Your Majesty, to content
381    the people, you must go to bed.'&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth replied, with some of her
382    old spirit, 'Little man, little man, the word &lt;i&gt;must&lt;/i&gt; is not used to
383    princes.'&lt;/p&gt;
384    &lt;p&gt;Finally, she grew so weak that they could carry her to bed.&amp;nbsp; She
385    asked for music and, for a time, it brought some comfort.&amp;nbsp; Her
386    councilors assembled; did she have any instructions regarding the
387    succession?&amp;nbsp; She made a sign when Cecil mentioned the king of Scotland.&amp;nbsp;
388    It was enough.&amp;nbsp; He returned to his office to begin the paperwork for a
389    new ruler.&lt;/p&gt;
390    &lt;p&gt;Meanwhile, Archbishop Whitgift, whom she once called her 'little black
391    husband', arrived to pray.&amp;nbsp; He was old and his knees ached terribly,
392    but he knelt at the royal bedside until she finally slept.&amp;nbsp; She slept on into
393    the early hours of 24 March until, at last, as the courtiers watched and
394    waited, the steady breathing stopped.&amp;nbsp; 'Her Majesty departed this life,
395    mildly like a lamb, easily like a ripe apple from the tree,' John Manningham
396    was told.&lt;/p&gt;
397    &lt;p&gt;That same morning, the chief councilors rode to Whitehall where Cecil
398    drafted the proclamation of the queen's death and James's succession.&amp;nbsp;
399    He read it aloud first at Whitehall and then at St Paul's and finally
400    Cheapside cross.&amp;nbsp; The councilors then formally demanded entrance to the
401    Tower of London in the name of King James I of England.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth's
402    maids and ladies were still waiting in the Coffer Room at Richmond Palace.&amp;nbsp;
403    When news of the peaceful transition of power came, they began to prepare
404    for Elizabeth's funeral.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
405    &lt;p&gt;The new king received the news of his accession on 27 March, for the
406    ambitious Robert Carey had ridden at top speed to Edinburgh; his journey was
407    so quick that its speed would not be matched until 1832.&amp;nbsp; But while
408    James was initially welcomed peacefully and happily, his reign would quickly
409    turn sour.&amp;nbsp; It was not long before even Robert Cecil, who became the
410    most powerful statesman of James's reign, wrote to Harington:&lt;/p&gt;
411      &lt;blockquote&gt;
412    &lt;p&gt;You know all my former steps: good knight, rest content, and give heed to
413    one that hath sorrowed in the bright lustre of a court, and gone heavily
414    even on the best-seeming fair ground.&amp;nbsp; Tis a great task to prove one's
415    honesty, and yet not spoil one's fortune.&amp;nbsp; You have tasted a little
416    hereof in our blessed Queen's time, who was more than a man and, in troth,
417    sometimes less than a woman.&amp;nbsp; I wish I waited now in her Presence
418    Chamber, with ease at my foot, and rest in my bed.&amp;nbsp; I am pushed from
419    the shore of comfort, and know not where the winds and waves of a court may
420    bear me.&lt;/p&gt;
421      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
422    &lt;p&gt;And the common people realized their loss as well, as Godfrey Goodman,
423    bishop of Gloucester wrote:&lt;/p&gt;
424      &lt;blockquote&gt;
425    &lt;p&gt;After a few years, when we had experience of a Scottish government, the
426    Queen did seem to revive; then was her memory much magnified: such ringing
427    of bells, such public joy and sermons in commemoration of her, the picture
428    of her tomb painted in many churches, and in effect more solemnity and joy
429    in memory of her coronation than was for the coming-in of King James.&lt;/p&gt;
430      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
431    &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth's funeral procession, composed of more than a thousand
432    mourners, began on 28 April.&amp;nbsp; It was a stirring tribute to the queen,
433    never forgotten by those who witnessed its passing.&amp;nbsp; But her tomb, paid
434    for by the new king, was less impressive than that provided to his disgraced
435    mother, and cost far less.&amp;nbsp; It can still be visited in Westminster
436    Abbey, where Elizabeth rests alongside her half-sister Queen Mary I.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
437    &lt;hr&gt;
438      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
439  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
442      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'My good mistress is gone, I shall not
443    hastily put forth for a new master.'&lt;br&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Sir John Harington, Nugae Antiquae&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
444      &lt;blockquote&gt;
445        &lt;blockquote&gt;
446          &lt;blockquote&gt;
447            &lt;hr&gt;
448      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;&lt;A
449      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;to Tudor
450      Monarchs&lt;/A&gt;&lt;BR&gt;
451      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;back to
452      Queen Elizabeth I, part four&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;B&gt;&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
453      &lt;P align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;Note:&lt;/b&gt; The complicated story of Robert
454      Devereux, earl of Essex, is most beautifully told in Lytton Strachey's
455      'Elizabeth and Essex: A Tragic History'.&amp;nbsp; Strachey often wanders far
456      off course, and his psychological portrait of Elizabeth is flawed, but he
457      writes like a dream.&amp;nbsp; As for conventional biographies of Elizabeth I,
458      my favorite is by Lacey Baldwin Smith.&lt;br&gt;Thanks for
459      exploring / reading my Queen Elizabeth I website.&amp;nbsp; &lt;i&gt;-Marilee&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
460          &lt;/blockquote&gt;
461        &lt;/blockquote&gt;
464      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;last
465      revised 8 March 2004&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
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