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14    <Metadata name="Content">Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor: Biography, Portrait, Primary Sources Mary Tudor sister of King Henry VIII grandmother of Lady Jane Grey</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor: Biography, Portrait, Primary Sources</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor: Biography, Portrait, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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34&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
35  &lt;tr&gt;
36    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
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48    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
49    &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/brandon1.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Cloth of Gold and Cloth of Frieze&quot; width=&quot;492&quot; height=&quot;116&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
50    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
51    &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/brandon2.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Charles Brandon and Princess Mary Tudor&quot; width=&quot;494&quot; height=&quot;65&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
52    &lt;blockquote&gt;
53      &lt;hr&gt;
54    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
55    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
56    &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/brandonpage2.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;The marriage portrait of Charles Brandon and Princess Mary Tudor&quot; width=&quot;324&quot; height=&quot;363&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
57    &lt;blockquote&gt;
58      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;FONT size=+1 face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, was Henry VIII's closest
60friend.&amp;nbsp; Brandon's father was Henry VII's standard-bearer at the Battle of
62Bosworth Field and died defending the future king.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII repaid his
64loyalty by educating young Charles with his own children, and from the beginning
66Charles and the future Henry VIII were devoted friends.&amp;nbsp; But their
68friendship was sorely tested when Brandon secretly married Henry's favorite
70sister, the beautiful Princess Mary Tudor.&amp;nbsp; At this page, you can learn
72more about their romantic story and its aftermath.&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
73    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
74    &lt;/td&gt;
75    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
76  &lt;/tr&gt;
79  &lt;blockquote&gt;
80    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
82&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;Charles Brandon had an inauspicious beginning and his rise to wealth and
83prominence was due largely to two things: his father's death at Bosworth Field
84and his own personal magnetism.&amp;nbsp; Upon his death in 1545, Brandon was
85perhaps the only person in England who had successfully retained Henry VIII's
86affection for over forty turbulent years. &lt;/font&gt;
87&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; His father was William Brandon, Henry Tudor's standard
88bearer at Bosworth Field in 1485.&amp;nbsp; He was reportedly killed there by
89Richard III himself.&amp;nbsp; Around 1480 or so, William had married the daughter
90and heiress of Sir Henry Bruyn of South Ockendon in Essex.&amp;nbsp; But unlike his
91respectable, middle-class forebears who had led exemplary and cautious
92lives, William had a tasste for politics.&amp;nbsp; When the Duke of Gloucester
93seized the throne in 1483 and declared himself Richard III, William and his
94younger brother Thomas decided to make a stand.&amp;nbsp; They joined the duke of
95Buckingham's rebellion; it failed and the brothers fled to Brittany where they
96joined other Lancastrian exiles who supported Henry Tudor, the earl of Richmond.
99&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When William fled England, his wife was already
100pregnant.&amp;nbsp; Charles Brandon was born sometime in late 1483 or early
1011484.&amp;nbsp; His mother died in childbirth and, upon his grandfather's death in
1021491, the orphaned boy went to the royal court.&amp;nbsp; This was the custom of the
103time but since Brandon was not heir to an important title or great wealth, his
104case was decided more on sentiment.&amp;nbsp; He had a claim on Henry Tudor's affections
105since his father had died in his service.&amp;nbsp; That demonstration of loyalty at
106Bosworth meant a great deal to the first Tudor king.&amp;nbsp; Since Charles was
107just two years older than Henry's first son, Prince Arthur, it is probable that
108they were playmates. &lt;/font&gt;
109&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When Arthur married the Spanish princess Katharine of
110Aragon in 1502, his court moved to Ludlow Castle in the Welsh Marches, the
111traditional seat of the Prince of Wales.&amp;nbsp; Charles did not accompany the
112royal couple but remained in London as companion to Arthur's younger
113brother, Henry duke of York. &lt;/font&gt;
114&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Though seven years older than Henry, Charles shared his
115most prominent characteristics - natural athleticism, robust physical health
116(unlike the delicate Arthur), and a devotion to all sports (wrestling, hunting,
117tilting and jousting, etc.)&amp;nbsp; During these adolescent years, the two boys
118laid the foundation for a lifelong friendship.&amp;nbsp; Arthur died just months
119after his wedding and, in 1509, the duke of York succeeded to the throne.&amp;nbsp;
120This marked the real beginning of Charles Brandon's rise to prominence and
121privilege. &lt;/font&gt;
122&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But before 1509, young Charles had undergone an
123embarrassing marital situation which revealed his ambition and
124callousness.&amp;nbsp; In 1505, he had become engaged to Anne Browne, a young woman
125of impressive lineage; her father was  Anthony Browne, Governor of Calais,
126and her mother was Lucy Neville, niece of the 'Kingmaker.'&amp;nbsp; Charles and
127Anne were betrothed &lt;I&gt;per verba de praesenti&lt;/I&gt;, a binding contract under
128canon law.&amp;nbsp; In such cases, there was no ceremony or witnesses; as one can
129imagine, this led to several unpleasant cases of men and (more rarely) women
130repudiating their betrothed &lt;I&gt;if&lt;/I&gt; they lacked proper respect for church
131law.&amp;nbsp; Charles apparently did.&amp;nbsp; He and Anne slept together, as
132evidenced by the birth of a daughter in 1506, but he did not marry her.&amp;nbsp;
133Instead, he married her aunt, a very wealthy widow named Margaret Neville
134Mortimer.&amp;nbsp; The marriage was never taken seriously due to its mercenary
135nature and, more importantly, legal action begun by Anne's angry family.&amp;nbsp;
136Eventually, the Mortimer marriage was annulled due to the previous contract and
137Charles married Anne in a well-attended public ceremony.&amp;nbsp; They had another
138daughter in 1510; Anne Browne died just two years later. &lt;/font&gt;
139&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; By late 1512, Charles had recovered from his grief enough
140to contemplate yet another union.&amp;nbsp; This was perhaps even more mercenary
141since his betrothed was an eight-year-old orphan.&amp;nbsp; It was common practice
142for the Crown to assume guardianship of an orphaned minor child who had
143inherited property.&amp;nbsp; The Crown then sold the guardianship to the highest
144bidder, often the child's own relatives who wanted to receive the property
145revenues until the child came of age and decide whom they would marry.&amp;nbsp;
146Charles had been given the wardship of Elizabeth Grey, the heiress to Lord Lisle
147of Sparsholt in Berkshire.&amp;nbsp; This, along with various offices, grants &amp;amp;
148pensions, was a mark of Henry's continued favor.&amp;nbsp; In early 1513, Charles
149announced his engagement to the girl and, on 15 May 1513, the king created him
150Viscount Lisle, in right of his betrothed wife.&amp;nbsp; Charles Brandon finally
151had a noble title and even more property. &lt;/font&gt;
152&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; That same year, the new Lord Lisle accompanied the king to
153France and also helped entertain the Hapsburg Emperor Maximilian and his
154twice-widowed, 33-year-old daughter, Margaret, Regent of the Netherlands.&amp;nbsp;
155For Henry, the meeting was also a diplomatic necessity since, in 1508, his
156father had entered into a formal contract of marriage between his youngest
157daughter, Mary, and Maximilian's son, Charles of Castile.&amp;nbsp; But over the
158next few years, little mention had been made of the contract.&amp;nbsp; Henry used
159the visit to broach the subject; the end result was an agreement that Princess Mary and Charles
160would wed in 1514, after Charles had reached his 14th birthday. &lt;/font&gt;
161&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, Lord Lisle made a fool of himself by flirting
162with Margaret.&amp;nbsp; There is little chance she truly favored him, and certainly
163none that she planned to marry him, but they flirted, Henry translating for his
164friend.&amp;nbsp; Once again, Charles Brandon was demonstrating his heavy-handed
165flair for the ladies.&amp;nbsp; In the end, he greatly offended Margaret by
166encouraging gossip about their meeting.&amp;nbsp; In particular, it stressed her
167attraction to him and a possible marriage.&amp;nbsp; As a Hapsburg princess, she was
168not amused and Henry VIII was forced to make a public apology.&amp;nbsp; But he was
169not angry with his friend; on 1 February 1514, he created Charles the duke of
170Suffolk, the title once held by the Yorkist de la Poles.&amp;nbsp; He also received
171the majority of their confiscated estates.&amp;nbsp; This elevation was remarkable;
172it meant that Suffolk was one of only three dukes in the kingdom.&amp;nbsp; The
173other two were Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk (reinstated to the title after his
174victory at Flodden in 1513), and Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham and
175descendant of Edward III.&amp;nbsp; Of course, many were surprised that a yeoman's
176son was now one of their greatest peers but Brandon's friendship with Henry
177explained matters.&amp;nbsp; In Europe, it was said that
178&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Cardinal Wolsey&lt;/a&gt; and Brandon truly
179ruled England through influence upon Henry VIII. &lt;/font&gt;
180&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1514 as well, the usual tangle of European diplomacy
181had made Henry distrustful of the Hapsburgs.&amp;nbsp; Also, the deadline for
182Charles of Castile's marriage to Princess Mary had come and passed with only
183dismissive explanations from the emperor.&amp;nbsp; So when Louis XII of France
184offered a peace treaty to England, Henry was eager to accept it.&amp;nbsp; Louis
185considerably sweetened the offer by offering to wed the Princess Mary.&amp;nbsp; For
186Henry, this was a diplomatic coup.&amp;nbsp; For his sister, of course, it was
187considerably different. &lt;/font&gt;
188&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary Tudor, born 18 March 1495, was the baby of the Tudor
189family and widely considered the most beautiful princess of her time.&amp;nbsp; She
190shared her brother Henry's exuberance for spectacle and was the star of his
191court.&amp;nbsp; Like him, she loved dancing, masques, and parties; they were also
192close emotionally.&amp;nbsp; So when Henry told her that she would marry the widowed
193King of France, a man in his fifties with gout and a pock-marked face, she
194poured out her heart.&amp;nbsp; Certainly she would do her duty as a Princess, she
195told Henry, but when the marriage was over, she wanted to choose her next spouse
196- and choose him for love alone.&amp;nbsp; Itt was an extraordinary demand for any
197woman of that time but Henry VIII loved his sister and he agreed.&amp;nbsp;
198Why?&amp;nbsp; Partly because he loved her but also because he wanted her to leave
199for France peacefully and willingly; and also, perhaps more troubling, because
200she had confessed her secret love to him.&amp;nbsp; It was none other than his best friend, Charles
201Brandon. &lt;/font&gt;
202&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary had enjoyed unprecedented freedom at Henry VIII's
203court.&amp;nbsp; Just fourteen when her father died, she had spent the next five
204years virtually unchaperoned in his hectic court, her brother openly encouraging
205her participation in every event.&amp;nbsp; In 1514, she was nineteen years old,
206very beautiful, and very willful.&amp;nbsp; She had developed an attachment to
207Charles Brandon; she had known him all her life.&amp;nbsp; It may have begun as a
208child's awe of a robust, attractive man, successful in all sports (so important
209at the Tudor court) and very charming.&amp;nbsp; But it had changed into something
210more and, by 1514, most of the king's inner circle knew of her affection.&amp;nbsp;
211There was no scandal, however.&amp;nbsp; Mary believed her brother's promise and
212married the aged Louis XII at Greenwich Palace on 13 August 1514.&amp;nbsp; The Duc
213de Longueville acted as the king's proxy in every respect; he even lay down on a
214bed with Mary and touched her body with his naked leg, thus 'consummating' the
215marriage.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary enjoyed herself at her wedding festivities and its
216attendant celebrations.&amp;nbsp; It would have been impossible to feel
217otherwise.&amp;nbsp; She had a splendid trousseau, marvelous jewels sent over from
218France, and all the honors due to the queen of France.&amp;nbsp; All contemporary
219accounts remark on her great beauty, particularly her clear complexion and long
220red-gold hair, the Tudor trademark.&amp;nbsp; Her husband was eager to see her,
221telling the English ambassador that he had many gifts for his bride and expected
222a kiss for each one. &lt;/font&gt;
223&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary eventually traveled from Dover to Boulogne on 2
224October, after waiting weeks for stormy weather to end.&amp;nbsp;  She actually left in the
225midst of more storms since Henry VIII had grown bored waiting for them to
226end.&amp;nbsp; Upon her departure, she kissed her brother and reminded him of his
227promise about her future.&amp;nbsp; Henry, eager to leave, committed her to God and
228her husband and left.&amp;nbsp; There were fourteen ships in Mary's retinue but the
229weather was so terrible that only four reached port on time; the rest docked at
230various ports on the French coast.&amp;nbsp; Poor Mary, suffering from seasickness
231and constant rain, was carried ashore by one of her gentlemen, Sir Christopher
232Garnish.&amp;nbsp; She journeyed from Montreuil to Abbeville and contemporary
233chroniclers recorded her outfit; they were much impressed with her beauty and
234charm.&amp;nbsp; She wore cloth of gold on crimson with tight sleeves in the English style and a
235hat of crimson silk which she wore cocked over one eye.&amp;nbsp; Her husband met
236her at a carefully arranged 'accident' outside Abbeville and, on 9 October, they
237married in that city. &lt;/font&gt;
238&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The marriage lasted for eighty-two days.&amp;nbsp; On 31
239December 1514, Louis died quite abruptly.&amp;nbsp; Despite his ill health, he had
240been notably active during his marriage.&amp;nbsp; This may have contributed to
241his demise; he boasted that on their wedding night, he had 'crossed the river'
242three times.&amp;nbsp; Before his death, he was visited by the duke of Suffolk on a
243diplomatic trip and Charles wrote to Henry that his sister was discreet and
244dignified.&amp;nbsp; This undoubtedly relieved both men; they had perhaps wondered
245how Mary would greet her true love.&amp;nbsp; Mary, however, was aware of her
246position as Queen of France and, during her brief marriage, conducted herself
247with aplomb. &lt;/font&gt;
248&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The King of France's death changed her world
249considerably.&amp;nbsp; Now a queen dowager in a foreign country she had barely
250begun to settle in, she was suddenly pushed into strict seclusion for 40
251days.&amp;nbsp; This was French custom; after all, the widowed queen might be
252pregnant and the child's paternity must be certain.&amp;nbsp; Mary was not pregnant
253but she was sent to the Hotel de Cluny for her period of mourning, without even
254the comfort of her English attendants.&amp;nbsp; The new king, Francois, had
255appointed several Frenchwomen to attend her and dismissed her women.&amp;nbsp; May
256was undoubtedly terrified.&amp;nbsp; She was closed off from the world, shut behind
257heavy black drapes, and once more a pawn for her brother.&amp;nbsp; Would Henry
258arrange another marriage or would he keep his promise?&amp;nbsp; Frantic, Mary wrote
259to him from Cluny in early January 1515, just two weeks after her husband's
260death; she begged him to contact Francois and have her sent home to England and
261reminded him:&amp;nbsp; &quot;Sir, I beseech your grace that you will keep all the
262promises that you promised me when I took my leave of you by the
263waterside.&amp;nbsp; Sir, your grace knoweth well that I did marry for your pleasure
264at this time and now I trust you will suffer me to marry as me liketh for to
265do... wherefore I beseech your grace for to be a good lord and brother unto
266me.&quot;&amp;nbsp; If Henry did not keep his promise, Mary said she would enter a
267nunnery and &quot;never no man shall know joy of me.&quot; &lt;/font&gt;
268&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary also had to deal with visits from the new French
269king, Francois I.&amp;nbsp; He was twenty-one and knew the English-French alliance
270was breaking down.&amp;nbsp; He did not want Mary wed by Henry to some Hapsburg
271prince.&amp;nbsp; He suggested two of his own kinsmen as husbands and then hinted
272that Henry was trying to marry her to Charles of Castile again.&amp;nbsp; Alone and
273in a fragile state, Mary was terribly frightened; Francois's words touched on
274her greatest fears.&amp;nbsp; She eventually confessed her love for Suffolk to
275Francois.&amp;nbsp; Surprisingly, she found him sympathetic and kind.&amp;nbsp; He
276promised to help secure her future happiness, a promise which Mary found
277generous and Francois found opportunistic.&amp;nbsp; For, by this time, he knew the
278duke of Suffolk was on his way to France to bargain for Mary's return,
279specifically the return of her jewels, plate, and dower rights.&amp;nbsp; With the
280dowager queen's confession, Francois had a powerful bargaining tool &lt;i&gt;and&lt;/i&gt; peace
281of mind - if Mary wed her English duke, she was no longer Henry's political
282pawn. &lt;/font&gt;
283&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Charles had been sent to France by Henry, specifically
284promising to keep his relations with the widow on a formal basis.&amp;nbsp; Henry
285had no reason to distrust him.&amp;nbsp; Charles was his creation, dependent on him
286for everything, and also ambitious.&amp;nbsp; Why would he bite the hand that so
287generously fed him?&amp;nbsp; So Suffolk departed on his most important mission
288ever; it was well-known that the matter would be complicated.&amp;nbsp; The French
289would not want to surrender any property to Mary and she would naturally want
290her rightful share.&amp;nbsp; Beyond that, perhaps Henry meant to keep his
291promise.&amp;nbsp; After all, he knew his sister's feelings - and now he sent her
292true love to bring her home.&amp;nbsp; But rattled by Francois's suggestions of a
293Hapsburg marriage, Mary was set on a course which nearly ruined her and Suffolk.
296&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Suffolk arrived on 27 January; five days later, he met
297Francois at Senlis.&amp;nbsp; Francois summoned Suffolk to a private audience and
298bluntly dropped his bombshell - the duke had come to marry the Dowager Queen,
299had he not?&amp;nbsp; Poor Suffolk was taken aback and protested vehemently.&amp;nbsp;
300Francois went on to share Mary's confession and reassure the duke.&amp;nbsp; He was
301their friend, Francois said, and he would write to the English king and explain
302all.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk took no chances; he dashed off his own account of the
303interview to Wolsey and then went to see Mary.&amp;nbsp; It was a most emotional
304reunion.&amp;nbsp; She accused him of taking her to England only to have her married
305off again against her will.&amp;nbsp; He protested but she would have none of
306it.&amp;nbsp; She issued an ultimatum - either marry me now or never marry me at
307all.&amp;nbsp; There would be no better time, she said, for he had jealous enemies
308on the Privy Council who would prevent it in England.&amp;nbsp; She had her
309brother's explicit promise that she could follow her heart and Henry knew her
310greatest desire.&amp;nbsp; What was the risk for him, anyway?&amp;nbsp; She was a
311princess and queen, very beautiful, and imperious.&amp;nbsp; Why would any man deny
312her?&amp;nbsp; Suffolk was understandably torn between his obedience to Henry and
313his desire for Mary. &lt;/font&gt;
314&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But he was always ambitious and rarely foolish.&amp;nbsp; He
315knew that Mary would be a great prize; after all, he harbored no overt dynastic
316ambitions but six years of marriage had produced no living child for Henry
317VIII.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps Suffolk and Mary would create a new royal line.&amp;nbsp; And
318she was a royal princess and queen, just twenty years old and madly in love with
319him.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk was swayed by tears and ambition and, sometime in February
3201515, they married secretly at the Cluny chapel. &lt;/font&gt;
321&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The consequences were rapid and hardly comforting.&amp;nbsp;
322Francois demanded Suffolk's acquiescence in several disputes over Mary's dowry
323as payment for their 'secret.'&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, &lt;A
324href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Wolsey&lt;/A&gt; and
325Henry wanted the duke to be firm and reject all the French king's demands.&amp;nbsp;
326Furthermore, news of the wedding was circulating throughout Paris and Mary
327suspected she might be pregnant.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk knew he could no longer delay
328confession and wrote to Wolsey, now Archbishop of York.&amp;nbsp; He wanted to
329arrange a more public wedding ceremony since he knew their secret wedding could
330easily be invalidated; certainly he knew that better than most.&amp;nbsp; And he
331feared that the king's council was urging an annulment.&amp;nbsp; Many didn't
332consider Suffolk a fit match for a princess and others wanted to promote
333pro-Hapsburg policy of which Mary's remarriage could play a part. &lt;/font&gt;
334&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But most important was Henry's reaction.&amp;nbsp; How would
335he consider the betrayal of his best friend and favorite sister?&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;P&gt;
336&lt;HR width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
338&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;Henry's reaction was not favorable.&amp;nbsp; Brandon had written to Wolsey for
339support and he received a prompt reply but it hardly comforted him; the king
340could not believe his most trusted friend had betrayed him but, if it were true,
341the newlyweds had to pay a stiff penalty - literally.&amp;nbsp; They must pay back
342Mary's marriage portion in annual installments of 4000 pds, leaving her just
3436000 pds to live on.&amp;nbsp; She must return all the plate and jewels she had
344taken to France as her dowry as well as the many gifts King Louis had given her.
347&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Beyond that, they must hasten to beg the king for
348forgiveness.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk and Mary did just that, both blaming her for the
349hasty marriage.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk wrote:&amp;nbsp; &quot;Sir, for the passion of God, let it
350not be in your heart against me, and rather than you should hold me in mistrust,
351strike off my head and let me not live.&quot;&amp;nbsp; Mary knew her brother well so,
352along with her letter, she sent him the most sumptuous jewel Louis had given her
353- a diamond called the Mirror of Naples wwhich formed part of the French crown
354jewels.&amp;nbsp; She assured her brother that she had not acted out of 'sensual
355appetite'; instead, she had been subject to 'consternation, fear and doubt'
356which made her force Suffolk's hand.&amp;nbsp; Henry did not reply.&amp;nbsp; Francois
357eventually allowed her to keep some of Louis's gifts and, on 16 April, they set
358out for the French coast.&amp;nbsp; Mary wrote to Henry again at Calais, telling him
359that she was now under his jurisdiction since Calais was an English possession
360and that she would not sail for England until he gave permission.&amp;nbsp; She
361reminded him of 'the great and tender love' they had always shared and promised
362to remain in Calais if that is what he wished. &lt;/font&gt;
363&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; It was not.&amp;nbsp; Henry sent permission for them to cross the
364Channel in early May and met them privately at the manor of Barking outside
365London.&amp;nbsp; There is no record of that meeting, of course, and one must assume
366that Wolsey had perhaps exaggerated Henry's displeasure since he wanted
367Suffolk's gratitude.&amp;nbsp; Henry was willing enough to forgive his best friend
368and favorite sister, &lt;i&gt;after&lt;/i&gt; she turned over all her jewels and plate from France
369and signed a contract to repay the 24000 pds spent on her first marriage in the
370annual installments of 4000 pds.&amp;nbsp; It was obvious that Henry was not
371surprised by the marriage; he was mostly angry at Suffolk for breaking his word.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;
372    &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/brandonpage1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;another version of the Brandon marriage portrait&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; width=&quot;300&quot; height=&quot;363&quot;&gt;&lt;P&gt;
373    &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Suffolk and Mary were wed again at Greenwich Palace on 13
374May with Henry and
375&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Katharine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;
376in attendance.&amp;nbsp; There was feasting and celebration but it was strictly a
377family affair and foreign ambassadors wondered if they should congratulate the
378couple.&amp;nbsp; After all, the situation was odd and there were some (mostly on
379the king's council) who disapproved of the match.&amp;nbsp; But, for the most part,
380there were no hard feelings or grudges.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk was a popular man,
381good-looking and charming, and few - even in Tudor England - could resist such a
382grand love story.&amp;nbsp; After all, they had risked everything to be
383together.&amp;nbsp; Before long, the Suffolks were back in the king's good
384graces.&amp;nbsp; They are recorded as extending all the great court celebrations of
385the next few years.&amp;nbsp; Mary's pregnancy in France had been a false alarm but
386she did become pregnant a few months later.&amp;nbsp; In fact, she was now pregnant
387along with her sister-in-law Katharine.&amp;nbsp; Due to the queen's history of
388miscarriages and stillbirths, few were hopeful of the outcome; but, on 18
389February 1516, she gave birth to her only surviving child, a princess called
390Mary after her aunt.&amp;nbsp; The new duchess of Suffolk, however, was more
391fortunate - on 11 March 1516, she gave birth to a healthy baby boy called Henry
392after the king.&amp;nbsp; Henry and Wolsey stood as the child's godfathers. &lt;/font&gt;
393&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary and Henry's older sister Margaret of Scotland visited
394that summer, bringing her six-month-old daughter, Lady Margaret Douglas.&amp;nbsp;
395She had been in Scotland for thirteen years but her visit was pleasant
396enough.&amp;nbsp; Henry had never tired of lecturing Margaret on morality (she had
397married the Earl of Angus after James of Scotland's death at Flodden); this, of
398course, is laughable when one considers his own matrimonial career.&amp;nbsp; But
399Margaret's visit was some ten years before Anne Boleyn entered Henry's
400life.&amp;nbsp; In 1516, the king was just seven years into his reign, still
401handsome and bluff.&amp;nbsp; Still, Margaret had little in common with her siblings
402after her years away; also, her first husband had been killed by the English at
403Flodden Field. &lt;/font&gt;
404&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary Tudor was far closer to her foreign sister-in-law
405than to Margaret.&amp;nbsp; After all, she and Katharine had spent their formative
406years together.&amp;nbsp; When, in 1517, Katharine went on a pilgrimage to pray for
407a son, Mary accompanied her.&amp;nbsp; Both Mary and Brandon understood the queen's
409heartfelt desire to bear her husband a prince and successor and were
410sympathetic supporters.&amp;nbsp; There was a passing cloud in 1516 - Mary's revenues
411from France had fallen off and she was behind in payment of her debt - but the
412cloud passed quickly.&amp;nbsp; In early summer 1517, they were at Richmond Palace
413again.&amp;nbsp; Mary was once more pregnant and, on 16 July 1517, she went into
414labor on her way home.&amp;nbsp; A daughter was born, called Frances after the
415French king; the Suffolks
416had another daughter, Eleanor, in 1519. &lt;/font&gt;
417&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1518, Mary and Suffolk were at court again, attending
418the betrothal of the infant Princess Mary to the infant dauphin of France.&amp;nbsp;
419And they attended the famous Field of Cloth of Gold at Guines, near
420Calais in 1520.&amp;nbsp; Mary was widely considered the most beautiful woman there.&amp;nbsp;
421A French admiral commented, &quot;Madame, you are the rose of Christendom.&amp;nbsp; You
422should have stayed in France.&amp;nbsp; We would have appreciated you.&quot;&amp;nbsp; Mary
423was now in her mid-twenties and, when Katharine of Aragon was pregnant or ill, acted
424as her brother's hostess. &lt;/font&gt;
425&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Back in England, however, things began to change.&amp;nbsp; In
426the new year of 1522, Mary first met
427&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Anne Boleyn&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
428She knew Anne's older sister Mary quite well for she had been one of her
429ladies-in-waiting when Mary Tudor wed Louis XII in France.&amp;nbsp; She had also remained
430in France until dismissed by Francois.&amp;nbsp; Anne wanted to join Queen
431Katharine's household as a lady-in-waiting, a much-sought-after position.&amp;nbsp;
432It is likely that Mary repaid Mary Boleyn's service by helping Anne.&amp;nbsp;
433Certainly she may have liked the girl; Anne had spent time at the French court
434and was fashionable and high-spirited, much like Mary. &lt;/font&gt;
435&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Anne entered Katharine's service but was sent home in
436disgrace for three years.&amp;nbsp; In just a matter of months, she had managed to
437attract the attention of Henry Percy, heir to the powerful Earl of
438Northmberland.&amp;nbsp; The young couple entered into an understanding but Percy was under the guardianship of Wolsey.&amp;nbsp; The king's most trusted
439advisor and Percy's powerful father were understandably angry at the secret
440romance.&amp;nbsp; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Anne and Percy were brought to heel&lt;/a&gt;;
441there were better matches for him and she had overstepped her bounds.&amp;nbsp; Anne
442was openly furious, so much that she was banished from court.&amp;nbsp; However, she
443was allowed back in late 1525, around the time that Henry VIII was first
444beginning to contemplate his lack of heirs. &lt;/font&gt;
445&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Katharine of Aragon had delivered the Princess Mary in
4461516, when she was thirty-one years old.&amp;nbsp; Since then, there had been no other
447surviving children.&amp;nbsp; In 1525, she was forty and it was obvious she would
448have no further children.&amp;nbsp; Her husband was nervous; his dynasty was just forty
449years old.&amp;nbsp; It would not survive with just one princess as heir.&amp;nbsp; He
450knew the problem was not his fault - after all, in 1519, a mistress called
451Bessie Blount had born a son.&amp;nbsp; In summer 1525, this child, called Henry
452Fitzroy, was made the duke of Richmond and Somerset.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk was present
453at the grand ceremony.&amp;nbsp; Katharine was normally a patient, dignified wife
454but the lavish ceremony, involving all the important nobility, offended
455her.&amp;nbsp; She argued with Henry, telling him it insulted her and their daughter
456Mary.&amp;nbsp; Henry was unused to such criticism and responded by dismissing three
457of her favorite ladies.&amp;nbsp; The Suffolks were not critical of their benefactor
458since Henry had created his nephew the Earl of Lincoln at the same
459ceremony.&amp;nbsp; Also, Mary's repayment of her debt was still in limbo. &lt;/font&gt;
460&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; She was also in failing health.&amp;nbsp; She had suffered
461through the sweating sickness in 1518 and never completely recovered.&amp;nbsp; She may also have been exhibiting the first signs of the
462disease which eventually killed her; most historians believe it was
463cancer.&amp;nbsp; She was present at several court functions over the next few years
464(a summer 1526 party for European ambassadors, for example) but came to court
465with less and less frequency.&amp;nbsp; Her physical condition was deteriorating but
466she was also uncomfortable with her brother's course of action. &lt;/font&gt;
467&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1527, Henry's infatuation with Anne Boleyn had
468begun.&amp;nbsp; He was determined to annul his marriage to Katharine, arguing that
469it had never been legal in the first place.&amp;nbsp; He asserted that Katharine and
470Arthur had consummated their marriage and, once again, his old friend Suffolk
471acted in the king's interest.&amp;nbsp; He dug out some heretofore-lost memories
472that hinted at consummation.&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, Wolsey had lost Henry's trust
473because of the many delays in the annulment; the king used Suffolk to openly
474attack his once powerful advisor.&amp;nbsp; At a public hearing on the case, Suffolk banged his fist on
475the table and shouted &quot;It was never merry in England whilst we had cardinals
476among us.&quot;&amp;nbsp; Of course, Suffolk would not have dared to attack Wolsey
477without Henry's implicit support.&amp;nbsp; It was the downfall of the Cardinal.
479&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1531, Henry banished Katharine of Aragon from
480court.&amp;nbsp; He and Anne were constantly together and he made no secret of his
481intention to marry her.&amp;nbsp; The Suffolks were not happy about this but what
482could they do?&amp;nbsp; They depended on Henry for everything.&amp;nbsp; Mary made a
483cutting remark about Anne sometime in early 1532 and refused to accompany Henry
484and Anne on a state visit to France.&amp;nbsp; Her husband warned Henry that Anne
485may have slept with Sir Thomas Wyatt.&amp;nbsp; But that is all they dared.&amp;nbsp;
486They were concerned about their own family. &lt;/font&gt;
487&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; By this time, Suffolk's daughters with Anne Browne were
488wed to titled men.&amp;nbsp; His eldest daughter with Mary, the lady Frances, was
489engaged to Henry Grey third Marquess of Dorset, descendent of the famous &lt;A
491Woodville&lt;/A&gt;; before Edward IV, she had been married to a Grey and had two sons
492by him.&amp;nbsp; It was from the elder son that Henry Grey was descended.&amp;nbsp; Frances and Henry were the parents of
493&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Lady Jane
494Grey&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; The celebration of Frances's wedding to Henry Grey was held at
495the Suffolk home in London.&amp;nbsp; It was Mary's last visit to the city.&amp;nbsp;
496She was increasingly ill and also uncomfortable with her brother.&amp;nbsp; His
497favor was no longer certain.&amp;nbsp; He had married the pregnant Anne Boleyn in a
498secret ceremony.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk was put in charge of the new queen's &lt;A
500Therefore, he was not with his wife when she passed away quietly at their home
501in Westhorpe on 26 June 1533.&amp;nbsp; She was thirty-eight years old.&amp;nbsp; Her
502death was not considered important news since most people were concerned with
503the impending birth of Anne Boleyn's child, destined to be
504&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
505Mary had seen her husband in early May but his duties kept him busy; it was a
506hurried visit and she simply wasted away in the next few weeks. &lt;/font&gt;
507&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Her brother ordered requiem masses to be sung at
508Westminster Abbey but showed no other sign of mourning.&amp;nbsp; He was, after all,
509in the midst of the Reformation.&amp;nbsp; Charles Brandon did not attend the
510funeral but it was a marvelous affair.&amp;nbsp; The coffin lay in state for a month
511at Westhorpe and was interred at the church of Bury St Edmunds on 22 July.&amp;nbsp;
512The abbey church and her monument were destroyed during the dissolution of the
513monasteries.&amp;nbsp; Her coffin was saved, however, and moved to a nearby church
514called St Mary.&amp;nbsp; In 1784, it was moved yet again within that church.&amp;nbsp;
515The movers ghoulishly opened the coffin; they found a good set of teeth and two
516feet of hair which was still red-gold.&amp;nbsp; Souvenir hunters cut off pieces of
517the hair. &lt;/font&gt;
518&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary's death was perhaps most mourned in Suffolk county
519where she had been a popular and respected figure.&amp;nbsp; Her husband replaced
520her quickly enough - and, as was typical of Brandon, with aplomb.&amp;nbsp; He
521decided to marry his son's betrothed.&amp;nbsp; The girl was called Catherine
522Willoughby and she as a baroness in her own right, heiress to 15000 ducats a
523year.&amp;nbsp; She was also just fourteen-years-old, the same age as his youngest
524child.&amp;nbsp; Brandon himself was almost fifty.&amp;nbsp; But he needed money badly
525and she was very rich; he married her quite rapidly.&amp;nbsp; The exact date is unknown.&amp;nbsp;
526His and Mary's son, the eighteen-year-old Henry Brandon, Earl of Lincoln, would
527be betrothed elsewhere easily enough.&amp;nbsp; But that was not to be.&amp;nbsp; After
528his father's wedding, the young earl died, probably of the Tudor scourge,
529tuberculosis.&amp;nbsp; Brandon was not particularly grieved; six months after his
530death, he and Catherine had a son and named him Henry Brandon.&amp;nbsp; This usage
531of a dead child's name was common practice in England. &lt;/font&gt;
532&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Suffolk remained in Henry's favor.&amp;nbsp; The king gave his
533old friend the unpleasant task of persuading Katharine of Aragon to accept the
534break with Rome and the new title Princess Dowager.&amp;nbsp; He was also to move
535her to Somersham near Cambridge, a manor known for its dank and unhealthy
536atmosphere.&amp;nbsp; Katharine would not be bullied; she told Suffolk that he would
537have to bind her in ropes if he wanted to move her anywhere.&amp;nbsp; After a week
538of such talks, Suffolk left, having accomplished precious little. &lt;/font&gt;
539&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; He never saw Katharine again.&amp;nbsp; He did attend all the
540momentous events of the 1530s - he sat at the trials of
541&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Thomas More&lt;/a&gt;
542and Anne Boleyn, he was even present at the scaffold when &lt;A
543href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;she was
544beheaded&lt;/A&gt;.&amp;nbsp; He also helped lead forces to end the &lt;A
545href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Pilgrimage of Grace&lt;/A&gt;,
546one of the most serious problems of Henry's reign.&amp;nbsp; Meanwhile, his wife
547gave birth to a second son called Charles and his daughter Frances, after two
548still-births, gave birth to a healthy baby girl, named &lt;A
549href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Jane Grey&lt;/A&gt;,
550probably after Queen Jane Seymour.&amp;nbsp; The exact date of birth is not known,
551but it was probably October and eclipsed by the birth - finally! - of Henry's
552son, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Prince Edward&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; Suffolk acted as godfather to the new prince.
554&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The last years of his life were quite happy.&amp;nbsp; He and
555Catherine Willoughby were affectionate, they had two healthy sons, and the
556dissolution of the monasteries allowed the king to grant him more lands and
557pensions.&amp;nbsp; He and his wife entertained the king and his new wife
558&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Catherine
559Howard&lt;/a&gt;; and, of course, Suffolk was one the men who arrested and extracted a
560confession from that queen.&amp;nbsp; He died quite suddenly on 22 August 1545, his
561last official business being plans for an invasion of France.&amp;nbsp; But he was
562sixty years old, a good age at the time, and - once the news was known - it was
563not suurprising.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Suffolk requested a quiet funeral but the king would have
564none of it - he ordered a lavish ceremony at St George's Chapel in
565Windsor.&amp;nbsp; Henry planned and paid for the service.&amp;nbsp; It was undoubtedly
566an emotional occasion for him; after all, Charles Brandon had been his companion
567for virtually his entire life.&amp;nbsp; In fact, Suffolk was one of the few men who
568could still remember the Bluff King Hal of legend.&amp;nbsp; Henry was now
569overweight, bald, and suffering from a variety of physical ailments.&amp;nbsp; He
570would only outlive his friend by about eighteen months.&amp;nbsp; In that time, he
571had good cause to regret the death of his one true friend.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;CENTER&gt;
572&lt;P&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;
573&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Learn about
574Charles and Mary's granddaughter, Lady Jane Grey, who was queen of England for
575nine days in 1553&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;&lt;A href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;to
576Tudor Relatives&lt;/A&gt;&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;BR&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;&lt;A
577href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;to Tudor
578Citizens&lt;/A&gt;&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;P&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1 face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;A href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
579to Tudor England&lt;/A&gt;&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/CENTER&gt;
580  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
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