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14    <Metadata name="Content">Secondary Sources: The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, by JA Froude: Chapter One</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Secondary Sources: The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, by JA Froude: Chapter One</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">Secondary Sources: The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, by JA Froude: Chapter Four</Metadata>
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31&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
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45    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
46    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;7&quot;&gt;The Divorce of&lt;br&gt;Catherine of Aragon&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
47    &lt;font size=&quot;5&quot;&gt;by
48    JA Froude, 1891&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
49    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
50    &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragon-new1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon by Lucas Horenbout&quot; width=&quot;325&quot; height=&quot;321&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
51    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
52  &lt;/tr&gt;
55  &lt;blockquote&gt;
56    &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;
57    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;
58    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;
59    &lt;div align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;
60      &lt;b&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;CHAPTER FOUR&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
61    &lt;blockquote&gt;
62      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;Anne Boleyn -- Letters to her from the
63      &lt;font class=&quot;highlight_yellow&quot;&gt;King&lt;/font&gt; -- The Convent at Wilton -- The
64      Divorce -- The Pope's promises -- Arrival of Campeggio in England --
65      Reception at the Bridewell Palace -- Proposal to Catherine to take the
66      veil -- Her refusal -- Uncertainty of the succession -- A singular
67      expedient -- Alarms of Wolsey -- The true issue -Speech of the
68      &lt;font class=&quot;highlight_yellow&quot;&gt;King&lt;/font&gt; in the City -- Threats of the
69      Emperor -- Defects in the Bull of Pope Julius -- Alleged discovery of a
70      brief supplying them -- Distress of Clement. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
71    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
72    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;THE marriage with Anne Boleyn was now a fixed
73    idea in &lt;font class=&quot;highlight_yellow&quot;&gt;Henry&lt;/font&gt;'s mind. He had become
74    passionately attached to her, though not perhaps she to him. The evidence of
75    his feeling remains in a series of letters to her -- how preserved for
76    public inspection no one knows. Some of them were said to have been stolen
77    by Campeggio. Perhaps they were sold to him; at any rate, they survive. A
78    critic in the &amp;quot;&lt;i&gt;Edinburgh Review&lt;/i&gt;&amp;quot; described them as such as &amp;quot;might
79    have been written by a pot-boy to his girl.&amp;quot; The pot-boy must have been a
80    singular specimen of his kind. One, at any rate, remains to show that,
81    though &lt;font class=&quot;highlight_yellow&quot;&gt;Henry&lt;/font&gt; was in love, he did not
82    allow his love to blind him to his duty as a prince. The lady, though
83    obliged to wait for the full gratification of her ambition, had been using
84    her influence to advance her friends, while Wolsey brought upon himself the
85    rebuke of his master by insufficient care in the distribution of Church
86    patronage. The correspondence throws an unexpected light upon the
87    &lt;font class=&quot;highlight_yellow&quot;&gt;King&lt;/font&gt;'s character. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
88    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;The Abbess of Wilton had died. The situation
89    was a pleasant one. Among the sisters who aspired to the vacant office was a
90    certain Eleanor Carey, a near connection of Anne, and a favourite with her.
91    The appointment rested virtually with the Crown. The Lady Anne spoke to the
92    King. The King deputed Wolsey to inquire into the fitness of the various
93    candidates, with a favourable recommendation of Eleanor Carey's claims. The
94    inquiry was made, and the result gives us a glimpse into the habits of the
95    devout recluses in these sacred institutions.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
96    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;As for the matter of Wilton,&amp;quot; wrote Henry to
97    Anne, &amp;quot;my Lord Cardinal here had the nuns before him, and examined them in
98    the presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had
99    Abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different
100    priests, and has since been kept not long ago by a servant of Lord Broke
101    that was. Wherefore I would not for all the gold in the world clog your
102    conscience nor mine, to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly
103    demeanour, nor I trust you would not that, neither for brother nor sister, I
104    should so distain mine honour or conscience. And as touching the Prioress
105    [Isabella Jordan] or Dame Eleanor's elder sister, though there is not any
106    evident cause proved against them, and the Prioress is so old that of many
107    years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you
108    pleasure I have done that neither of them shall have it, but that some other
109    good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be
110    better reformed, whereof I assure you it hath much need, and God much the
111    better served.&amp;quot; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
112    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;This letter is followed by another to the
113    Cardinal. Wolsey, in whose hands the King had left the matter, in a second
114    letter which is lost, instead of looking out for the &amp;quot;good and well-disposed
115    woman,&amp;quot; though IsaBella Jordan's reputation was doubtful, yet chose to
116    appoint her, and the King's observations upon this action of his are worth
117    attending to, as addressed by such a person as Henry is supposed to have
118    been to a Cardinal Archbishop and Legate of the Holy See. Many of the
119    letters signed by the King were the composition of his ministers and
120    secretaries. This to Wolsey was his own. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
121    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;The great affection and love I bear you,
122    causeth me, using the doctrine of my Master, &lt;i&gt;quem diligo castigo,&lt;/i&gt;
123    thus plainly as now ensueth to break to you my mind, ensuring you that
124    neither sinister report, affection to my own pleasure, interest, nor
125    mediation of any other body beareth part in this case, wherefore whatsoever
126    I do say, I pray you think it spoken of no displeasure, but of him that
127    would you as much good both of body and soul as you would yourself. &lt;/font&gt;
128    &lt;/p&gt;
129    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;Methinks it is not the right train of a
130    trusty loving friend and servant when the matter is put by the master's
131    consent into his arbitre and judgement -especially in a matter wherein his
132    master hath both royalty and interest, to elect and choose a person who was
133    by him defended. And yet another thing which displeaseth me more. That is to
134    cloke your offence made by ignorance of my pleasure, saying that you
135    expressly knew not my determinate mind in that behalf. Alas, my lord, what
136    can be more evident or plainer than these words, specially to a wise man
137    -'His Grace careth not who, but referreth it all to you, so that none of
138    those who either be or have been spotted with incontinence, like as by
139    report the Prioress hath been in her youth, have it;' and also in another
140    place in the letter, 'And therefore his Highness thinketh her not meet for
141    that purpose;' thirdly, in another place in the same letter by these words,
142    'And though his Grace speaketh not of it so openly, yet meseemeth his
143    pleasure is that in no wise the Prioress have it, nor yet Dame Eleanor's
144    eldest sister, for many considerations the which your Grace can and will
145    best consider.' &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
146    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;Ah, my Lord, it is a double offence both to
147    do ill and to colour it too; but with men that have wit it cannot be
148    accepted so. Wherefore, good my Lord, use no more that way with me, for
149    there is no man living that more hateth it. These things having been thus
150    committed, either I must have reserved them &lt;i&gt;in pectore,&lt;/i&gt; whereby more
151    displeasure might happen to breed, or else thus soundly and plainly to
152    declare them to you, because I do think that &lt;i&gt;cum amico et familiari
153    sincere semper est agendum,&lt;/i&gt; and especially the master to his best
154    beloved servant and friend, for in so doing the one shall be more
155    circumspect in his doing, the other shall declare and show the lothness that
156    is in him to have any occasion to be displeased with him. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
157    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;And as touching the redress of Religion
158    [convent discipline], if it be observed and continued, undoubtedly it is a
159    gracious act. Notwithstanding, if all reports be true, &lt;i&gt;ab imbecillis
160    imbecilla expectantur.&lt;/i&gt; How be it, Mr. Bell hath informed me that the
161    Prioress's age, personage and manner, &lt;i&gt;prÊ se fert gravitatem.&lt;/i&gt; I pray
162    God it be so indeed, seeing she is preferred to that room. I understand
163    furthermore, which is greatly to my comfort, that you have ordered yourself
164    to Godward as religiously and virtuously as any Prelate or father of
165    Christ's Church can do, where in so doing and persevering there can be
166    nothing more acceptable to God, more honour to yourself, nor more desired of
167    your friends, among the which I reckon myself not the least. . . . &lt;/font&gt;
168    &lt;/p&gt;
169    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;I pray you, my Lord, think it not that it is
170    upon any displeasure that I write this unto you. For surely it is for my
171    discharge before God, being in the room that I am in, and secondly for the
172    great zeal I bear unto you, not undeserved in your behalf. Wherefore I pray
173    you take it so; and I assure you, your fault acknowledged, there shall
174    remain in me no spark of displeasure, trusting hereafter you shall
175    recompense that with a thing much more acceptable to me. And thus fare you
176    well; advertising you that, thanked be God, I and all my folk be, and have
177    been since we came to Ampthill, which was on Saturday last, July 11, in
178    marvellous good health and clearness of air. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
179    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;Written with the hand of him that is, and
180    shall be your loving Sovereign Lord and friend, -- Henry R.&amp;quot;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
181    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Campeggio meanwhile was loitering on his way
182    as he had been directed, pretending illness, pretending difficulties of the
183    road. In sending him at all the Pope had broken his promise to Charles. He
184    engaged, however, that no sentence should be given which had not been
185    submitted first to Charles's approval. The Emperor, anxious to avoid a
186    complete rupture with England, let the Legate go forward, but he directed
187    Mendoza to inform Wolsey that he must defend his aunt's honour; her cause
188    was his and he would hold it as such. Wolsey, though afraid of the
189    consequence of opposing the divorce to himself and the Church, yet at heart
190    had ceased to desire it. Mendoza reported that English opinion was still
191    unfavourable, and that he did not believe that the commission would have any
192    result. The Pope would interpose delays. Wolsey would allow and recognise
193    them. Both Legates would agree privately to keep the matter in suspense. The
194    English Cardinal appeared to be against the Queen, but every one knew that
195    secretly he was now on her side. Catherine only was seriously frightened.
196    She had doubtless been informed of the secret decretal by which the Pope
197    appeared to have prejudged her cause. She supposed that the Pope meant it,
198    and did not understand how lightly such engagements sate upon him. The same
199    Clement, when Benvenuto Cellini reproached him for breaking his word,
200    replied, smiling, that the Pope had power to bind and to loose. Catherine
201    came before long to know him better and to understand the bearings of this
202    singular privilege; but as yet she thought that words meant what they seemed
203    to say. When she heard that Campeggio was actually coming, she wrote
204    passionately to the Emperor, flinging herself upon him for protection.
205    Charles calmed her alarm. She was not, he said, to be condemned without a
206    hearing. The Pope had assured him that the Legates should determine nothing
207    to her detriment. The case should be decided at Rome, as she had desired.
208    Campeggio's orders were to advise that it should be dropped. Apart from his
209    present infatuation, the King was a good Christian and would act as one. If
210    he persisted, she might rely on the Pope's protection. She must consent to
211    nothing which would imply the dissolution of her marriage. If the worst
212    came, the King would be made conscious of his duties.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;a onclick=&quot;return pageTxt_href_onClick(this,true);&quot; href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
213    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
214    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;In the middle of October the Legate arrived.
215    He had been ill in earnest from gout and was still suffering. He had to rest
216    two days in Calais before he could face the Channel. The passage was wild. A
217    deputation of Peers and Bishops waited to receive him at Dover. Respectful
218    demonstrations had been prepared at the towns through which he was to pass,
219    and a state ceremonial was to accompany his entrance into London. But he
220    was, or pretended to be, too sick to allow himself to be seen. He was eight
221    days on the road from the coast, and on reaching his destination he was
222    carried privately in a state barge to the house provided for his residence.
223    Wolsey called the next morning. The King was absent, but returned two days
224    later to the Bridewell palace. There Campeggio waited on him, accompanied by
225    Wolsey. The weather continued to frown. &amp;quot;I wish,&amp;quot; wrote Gerardo Molza to the
226    Marchioness of Mantua, &amp;quot;that you could have seen the two Cardinals abreast,
227    one on his mule, the other carried in his chair, the rain falling fast so
228    that we were all drenched.&amp;quot; The King, simple man, believed that the
229    documents which he held secured him. The Pope in sending the Legate had
230    acted in the teeth of the Emperor's prohibition, and no one guessed how the
231    affair had been soothed down. The farce was well played, and the language
232    used was what Henry expected. Messer Floriano, one of Campeggio's suit, made
233    a grand oration, setting out the storming of Rome, the perils of the Church,
234    and the misery of Italy, with moving eloquence. The crowd was so dense in
235    the hall of audience that some of the Italians lost their shoes, and had to
236    step back barefoot to their lodgings through the wet streets. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
237    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;The Legate was exhausted by the exertion, but
238    he was not allowed to rest, and the serious part of the business began at
239    once behind the scenes. He had hoped, as the Emperor said, that the case
240    might be dropped. He found Henry immoveable. &amp;quot;An angel from heaven,&amp;quot; he
241    wrote on the 17th of October, &amp;quot;would not be able to persuade the King that
242    his marriage was not invalid. The matter had come to such a pass that it
243    could no longer be borne with. The Cardinal of York and the whole kingdom
244    insisted that the question must be settled in some way.&amp;quot; One road out of the
245    difficulty alone presented itself. The Emperor had insisted that the
246    marriage should not be dissolved by Catherine's consent, objecting
247    reasonably that a judgment invalidating it would shake other royal marriages
248    besides hers. But no such judgment would be necessary if Catherine could be
249    induced to enter &amp;quot;lax religion,&amp;quot; to take vows of chastity which, at her age
250    and under her conditions of health, would be a mere form. The Pope could
251    then allow Henry to take another wife without offence to any one. The
252    legitimacy of the Princess would not be touched, and the King undertook that
253    the succession should be settled upon her if he had no male heir. The Queen
254    in consenting would lose nothing, for the King had for two years lived apart
255    from her, and would never return to cohabitation. The Emperor would be
256    delivered from an obligation infinitely inconvenient to him, and his own
257    honour and the honour of Spain would be equally untouched. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
258    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;These arguments were laid before the Queen by
259    both the Legates, and urged with all their eloquence. In the interests of
260    the realm, in the interests of Europe, in the interests of the Church, in
261    her own and her daughter's interest as well, it would have been wiser if she
262    had complied. Perhaps she would have complied had the King's plea been
263    confined, as at first, to the political exigencies of the succession. But
264    the open and premature choice of the lady who was to take her place was an
265    indignity not to be borne. She had the pride of her race. Her obstinacy was
266    a match for her husband's. She was shaken for a moment by the impassioned
267    entreaties of Campeggio, and she did not at once absolutely refuse. The
268    Legate postponed the opening of his court. He referred to Rome for further
269    instructions, complaining of the responsibility which was thrown upon him.
270    Being on the spot he was able to measure the danger of disappointing the
271    King after the secret commission, the secret decretal, and the Pope's
272    private letter telling Henry that he was right. Campeggio wrote to Salviati,
273    after his first interview with Catherine, that he did not yet despair.
274    Something might be done if the Emperor would advise her to comply. He asked
275    Fisher to help him, and Fisher seemed not wholly unwilling; but, after a few
276    days' reflection, Catherine told him that before she would consent she would
277    be torn limb from limb; she would have an authoritative sentence from the
278    Pope, and would accept nothing else; nothing should make her alter her
279    opinion, and if after death she could return to life, she would die over
280    again rather than change it.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
281    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Wolsey was in equal anxiety. He had set the
282    stone rolling, but he could not stop it. If Clement failed the King now,
283    after all that he had promised, he might not only bring ruin on Wolsey
284    himself, but might bring on the overthrow of the temporal power of the
285    Church of England. Catherine was personally popular; but in the middle
286    classes of the laity, among the peers and gentlemen of England, the
287    exactions of the Church courts, the Pope's agents and collectors, the
288    despotic tyranny of the Bishops, had created a resentment the extent of
289    which none knew better than he. The entire gigantic system of clerical
290    dominion, of which Wolsey was himself the pillar and representative, was
291    tottering to its fall. If the King was driven to bay, the favour of a
292    good-natured people for a suffering woman would be a poor shelter either for
293    the Church or for him. Campeggio turned to Wolsey for advice on Catherine's
294    final refusal. The Pope, he said, had hoped that Wolsey would advise the
295    King to yield. Wolsey had advised. He told Cavendish that he had gone on his
296    knees to the King, but he could only say to Campeggio that &amp;quot;the King --
297    fortified and justified by reasons, writings, and counsels of many learned
298    men who feared God -- would never yield.&amp;quot; If he was to find that the Pope
299    had been playing with him, and the succession was to be left undetermined,
300    &amp;quot;the Church would be ruined and the realm would be in infinite peril.&amp;quot;
301    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
302    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;How great, how real, was the dread of a
303    disputed succession, appears from an extraordinary expedient which had
304    suggested itself to Campeggio himself, and which he declares that some
305    perplexed politicians had seriously contemplated. &amp;quot;They have thought,&amp;quot; he
306    wrote on the 28th of October, &amp;quot;of marrying the Princess Mary to the King's
307    natural son [the Duke of Richmond] if it could be done by dispensation from
308    His Holiness.&amp;quot; The Legate said that at first he had himself thought of this
309    as a means of establishing the succession; but he did not believe it would
310    satisfy the King's desire. If anything could be more astonishing than a
311    proposal for the marriage of a brother and sister, it was the reception
312    which the suggestion met with at Rome. The Pope's secretary replied that
313    &amp;quot;with regard to the dispensation for marrying the son to the daughter of the
314    King, if on the succession being so established the King would abandon the
315    divorce, the Pope would be much more inclined to grant it.&amp;quot;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;a onclick=&quot;return pageTxt_href_onClick(this,true);&quot; href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
316    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
317    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Clement's estimate of the extent of the
318    dispensing power was large. But the situation was desperate. He had
319    entangled himself in the meshes. He had promised what he had no intention of
320    performing. He was finding that he had been trifling with a lion, and that
321    the lion was beginning to rouse himself. Again and again Wolsey urged the
322    dangers upon him. He wrote on the 1st of November to Casalis that &amp;quot;the
323    King's honour was touched, having been so great a benefactor to the Holy
324    See. The Pope would alienate all faith and devotion to the Apostolic See.
325    The sparks of opposition which had been extinguished with such care and
326    vigilance would blaze out to the utmost anger of all, both in England and
327    elsewhere.&amp;quot;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt; &lt;/a&gt;Clement and his Cardinals heard, but
328    imperfectly believed. &amp;quot;He tells us,&amp;quot; wrote Sanga, &amp;quot;that if the divorce is
329    not granted the authority of the Apostolic See in England will be
330    annihilated; he is eager to save it because his own greatness is bound up
331    with ours.&amp;quot; The Curia was incredulous, and thought that Wolsey was only
332    alarmed for himself. Wolsey, however, was right. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
333    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Although opinions might have varied on the
334    merits of the King's request, people were beginning to ask what value as a
335    supreme judge a Pope could have, who could not decide on a point of canon
336    law. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
337    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;The excitement was growing. Certain knowledge
338    of what was going on was confined to the few who had access to the secret
339    correspondence, and they knew only what was meant for their own eyes. All
340    parties, English and Imperial alike, distrusted the Pope. He had impartially
341    lied to both, and could be depended on by neither, except so far as they
342    could influence his fears. Catherine was still the favourite with the London
343    citizens. She had been seen accidentally in a gallery of the Palace, and had
344    been enthusiastically cheered. The King found it necessary to explain
345    himself. On the 8th of November he summoned the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the
346    Privy Council, and a body of Peers, and laid the situation before them from
347    his own point of view. He spoke of his long friendship with the Emperor, and
348    of his hope that it would not be broken, and again of his alliance with
349    France, and of his desire to be at peace with all the world. &amp;quot;He had
350    wished,&amp;quot; he said, &amp;quot;to attach France more closely to him by marrying his
351    daughter to a French prince, and the French Ambassador, in considering the
352    proposal, had raised the question of her legitimacy. His own mind had long
353    misgiven him on the lawfulness of his marriage. M. de Tarbes' words had
354    added to his uneasiness. The succession to the crown was uncertain; he had
355    consulted his bishops and lawyers, and they had assured him that he had been
356    living in mortal sin. . . . He meant only to do what was right, and he
357    warned his subjects to be careful of forming hasty judgments on their
358    Prince's actions.&amp;quot; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
359    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Apart from the present question the King was
360    extremely popular, and reports arriving from Spain touched the national
361    pride. There was a talk of calling Parliament. Mendoza and Catherine again
362    urged Charles to speak plainly. The Pope must inhibit Parliament from
363    interfering. The Nuncio in London would present the order, and Parliament,
364    they thought, would submit. They were mistaking the national temper.
365    Mendoza's letters had persuaded the Spanish Council that the whole of
366    England was in opposition to the King. The Spanish Chancellor had said
367    publicly that if the cause was proceeded with there would be war, and &amp;quot;the
368    King would be dethroned by his own subjects.&amp;quot; The words were reported to
369    Wolsey, and were confirmed by an English agent, Sylvester Darius, who had
370    been sent to Valladolid on business connected with the truce. Darius had
371    spoken to the Chancellor on the probability of England taking active part
372    with France. &amp;quot;Why do you talk of the King of England?&amp;quot; the Chancellor had
373    answered; &amp;quot;if we wished, we could expel him from his kingdom in three
374    months. What force had the King? his own subjects would expel him. He knew
375    how matters were.&amp;quot; It was one thing for a free people to hold independent
376    opinions on the arrangements of their own royal family. It was another to be
377    threatened with civil war at the instigation of a foreign sovereign. Wolsey
378    quoted the dangerous language at a public meeting in London; and a voice
379    answered, &amp;quot;The Emperor has lost the hearts of a hundred thousand
380    Englishmen.&amp;quot; A fresh firebrand was thrown into the flames immediately after.
381    The national pride was touched on a side where it was already sensitive from
382    interest. There were 15,000 Flemish artisans in London. English workmen had
383    been jealous of their skill, and had long looked askance at them. The cry
384    rose that they had an army of traitors in their midst who must be instantly
385    expelled. The Flemings' houses were searched for arms, and watched by a
386    guard, and the working city population, traders, shopkeepers, mechanics,
387    apprentices, came over to the King's side, and remained there. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
388    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Meantime the cause itself hung fire. A new
389    feature had been introduced to enable Campeggio to decline to proceed and
390    the Pope to withdraw decently from his promises. The original Bull of Pope
391    Julius permitting the marriage had been found to contain irregularities of
392    form which were supposed fatal to it. The validity of the objection was not
393    denied, but was met by the production of a brief alleged to have been found
394    in Spain, and bearing the same date with the Bull, which exactly met that
395    objection. No trace of such a brief could be found in the Vatican Register.
396    It had informalities of its own, and its genuineness was justly suspected,
397    but it answered the purpose of a new circumstance. A copy only was sent to
398    England, which was shown by Catherine in triumph to Henry, but the original
399    was detained. It would be sent to Rome, but not to London; without it
400    Campeggio could pretend inability to move, and meanwhile he could refuse to
401    proceed on his commission. Subterfuges which answer for the moment revenge
402    themselves in the end. Having been once raised, it was absolutely necessary
403    that a question immediately affecting the succession should be settled in
404    some way, and many of the peers who had been hitherto cool began to back the
405    King's demands. An address was drawn up, having among others the Duke of
406    Norfolk's signature, telling the Pope that the divorce must be conceded, and
407    complaints were sent through Casalis againt Campeggio's dilatoriness. The
408    King, he was to say, would not submit to be deluded. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
409    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Casalis delivered his message, and describes
410    the effect which it produced. &amp;quot;The Pope,&amp;quot; he wrote, &amp;quot;very angry, laid his
411    hand on my arm and forbade me to proceed, saying there was but too good
412    ground for complaint, and he was deluded by his own councillors. He had
413    granted the decretal only to be shown to the King, and then burnt. Wolsey
414    now wished to divulge it. He saw what would follow, and would gladly recall
415    what had been done, even with the loss of one of his fingers.&amp;quot; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
416    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Casalis replied that Wolsey wished only to
417    show it to a few persons whose secrecy might be depended on. Was it not
418    demanded for that purpose? Why had the Pope changed his mind? The Pope, only
419    the more excited, said he saw the Bull would be the ruin of him, and he
420    would make no more concessions. Casalis prayed him to consider. Waving his
421    arms violently, Clement said, &amp;quot;I do consider. I consider the ruin which is
422    hanging over me. I repent what I have done. If heresies arise, is it my
423    fault? I will not violate my conscience. Let them, if they like, send the
424    Legate back, because he will not proceed. They can do as they please,
425    provided they do not make me responsible.&amp;quot; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
426    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;Did the Pope mean, then, Casalis asked, that
427    the commission should not proceed? The Pope could not say as much as that;
428    he had told Campeggio, he said, to dissuade the King and persuade the Queen.
429    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
430    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;quot;What harm could there be,&amp;quot; Casalis inquired,
431    &amp;quot;in showing the decretal, under oath, to a few of the Privy Council?&amp;quot; &lt;/font&gt;
432    &lt;/p&gt;
433    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;The Pope said the decretal ought to have been
434    burnt, and refused to discuss the matter further.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
435    &lt;/font&gt;
436    &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; style=&quot;font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif&quot;&gt;
437    &lt;hr&gt;
438    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;From &lt;i&gt;The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon:
439    The Story as Told by the Imperial Ambassadors Resident at the Court of Henry
440    VIII&lt;/i&gt; by J.A. Froude.&amp;nbsp; Published in New York by C. Scribner's Sons,
441    1891.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
442  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
445&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to Chapter Five&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
446&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
447&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to Secondary Sources&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
448&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
449&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to
450Katharine of Aragon website&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
451    &lt;/font&gt;
453  &lt;blockquote&gt;
454    &lt;font style=&quot;font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif&quot;&gt;
455    &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;
456    &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font style=&quot;FONT-FAMILY: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif&quot;&gt;
457    &lt;/font&gt;
458    &lt;p class=&quot;3text&quot; align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
459    &lt;/font&gt;
460  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
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