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14    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Page_topic">museum art reproductions right to display public domain images Bridgeman vs Corel copyright</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Content">right to display public domain images Bridgeman vs Corel copyright</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use, Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc</Metadata>
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31
32&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
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41    &lt;td width=&quot;13%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
42  &lt;/tr&gt;
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44    &lt;td width=&quot;14%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
45    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;73%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;
46    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
47    &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/copyrightba.gif&quot; width=&quot;422&quot; height=&quot;162&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
48    &lt;blockquote&gt;
49      &lt;hr&gt;
50    &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;FONT size=2 face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;I created this page in 1999 as a common sense
51      &lt;I&gt;introduction&lt;/I&gt; to copyright terms.&amp;nbsp; It also discusses the Bridgeman vs
52    Corel decision and public domain issues.&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
53      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;The issue of copyright was most
54      eloquently discussed - and the concept of public domain most eloquently
55      defended - by the historian Thomas Macaulay in 1841.&amp;nbsp; Please
56      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.baen.com%2flibrary%2fpalaver4.htm&quot;&gt;read his speeches&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
57      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#FF0000&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;updated 1
58      October 2004:&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&amp;nbsp; I had to share this news with public domain
59      advocates.&amp;nbsp; I was reading through some of the Congressional speeches
60      regarding copyright and came across this gem - Congresswoman Mary Bono
61      (whose late husband pushed through one of the most disastrous copyright
62      laws ever) was reminded that the US Constitution prohibits perpetual
63      intellectual property rights.&amp;nbsp; Her response?&amp;nbsp; The copyright term
64      should be &amp;quot;forever minus one day&amp;quot;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
65      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;I'm serious.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
66      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;If that doesn't offend and alarm you,
67      what will?&amp;nbsp; If she had her way, you wouldn't be able to read The
68      Bible for free.&amp;nbsp; Please consider this issue when you vote.&amp;nbsp; This
69      is one of the great unreported stories in the US, Europe and now, sadly,
70      Australia.&amp;nbsp; Yes, the Aussies signed (August 2004) a free-trade
71      agreement with the US which required that Australia accept our draconian
72      copyright laws.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
73      &lt;hr&gt;
74    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
75      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;&lt;FONT size=4&gt;Definition of terms used on this
76      page -&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
77
78      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;COPYRIGHT - &lt;/B&gt;The legal right given to a writer, composer, artist,
79      or a distributor to exclusive production, sale, or distribution of their
80      work. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Why does COPYRIGHT exist?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;It allows artists to profit
81      from their work.&amp;nbsp; Profit, in turn, creates an incentive to work and
82      distribute the work.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
83
84      &lt;P&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/P&gt;
85
86      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;PUBLIC DOMAIN&lt;/B&gt; - the status of publications, products, and
87      processes that are not protected under patent or copyright.&amp;nbsp; All
88      images at this site are in the public domain, and have been for several
89      hundred years. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Why does PUBLIC DOMAIN exist?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;It exists to
90      allow the free exchange of knowledge.&amp;nbsp; If it did not, museums would
91      be allowed to keep images under perpetual copyright, thus denying everyone
92      the opportunity to view, critique, or otherwise examine works. &lt;BR&gt;Please
93      note that most 20th century works of art are not yet considered part of
94      the PUBLIC DOMAIN. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;Click
95      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.unc.edu%2f%7eunclng%2fpublic-d.htm&quot;&gt;here&lt;/a&gt; to view a chart of
96      when works pass into the public domain.&lt;/FONT&gt; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
97
98      &lt;P&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/P&gt;
99
100      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;FAIR USE&lt;/B&gt; - Fair use is a limitation on the exclusive rights of
101      the copyright owner; in other words, it allows reasonable public access to
102      copyrighted works. &lt;BR&gt;The idea is an important part of the English
103      common-law tradition. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Why does FAIR USE exist?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;FAIR USE
104      allows people to use images and written works without compensating the
105      original writer/creator, as long as they act in good faith and do not
106      profit from reproducing the work.&amp;nbsp; Education, parody, criticism, news
107      reporting, etc are all examples of fair use. &lt;BR&gt;The idea of FAIR USE has
108      guided the use of reproductions of works for years.&amp;nbsp; In most cases,
109      the lack of commercial gain is necessary for a claim of fair use.&amp;nbsp; If
110      you are a non-profit website designed for educational purposes, you are in
111      the perfect position to claim FAIR USE of images which are already in the
112      PUBLIC DOMAIN. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
113      &lt;blockquote&gt;
114      &lt;HR width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
115
116      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
117
118      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;
119      &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/copyrightelizabeth.jpg&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; alt=&quot;Wm Scrots's portrait of 13 year old Princess Elizabeth, c1546&quot; width=&quot;250&quot; height=&quot;334&quot;&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
120
121      &lt;P&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Yes, we live in a world where the Scrots portrait
122      of the future Queen Elizabeth I is considered to be under copyright - but
123      Elizabeth's own letters / speeches / poetry have been in the public domain
124      for centuries....&amp;nbsp; Funny.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
125
126      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;For a long time, the FAIR USE doctrine occupied a grey area of law,
127      usually decided on a case-by-case basis.&amp;nbsp; Typically, if someone were
128      profiting from another person's work which was not in the PUBLIC DOMAIN,
129      it was not considered fair use.&amp;nbsp; Museums typically did not sue
130      non-profit websites which reproduced images for educational
131      purposes.&amp;nbsp; If they had, the court would have forced them to prove a
132      substantial loss of profit from the use.&amp;nbsp; Understandably, such proof
133      would not exist and the court would not look favorably upon such a
134      vindictive case, particularly since the images were already in the public
135      domain. &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
136      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;However, on 18th February 1999, the grey area was cleared
137      considerably.&amp;nbsp; Fair Use was no longer a murky legal issue to be
138      debated by webmasters and museums.&amp;nbsp; The United States District Court
139      for the Southern District of New York decided the following case -
140      &lt;/font&gt;
141&lt;/P&gt;
142      &lt;CENTER&gt;
143      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;The Bridgeman Art Library, Ltd., Plaintiff, - versus - Corel
144      Corporation, et ano., Defendants.&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;97 Civ. 6232
145      (LAK)&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;&lt;/CENTER&gt;
146      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;Their decision was one of the most important copyright decision
147      affecting museums ever filed.&amp;nbsp; The decision was based on both US and
148      UK copyright law.&lt;/B&gt; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
149      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;WHO WAS INVOLVED IN THE CASE &amp;amp; WHAT WAS IT ABOUT?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;The
150      Bridgeman Art Library had made photographic reproductions of famous works
151      of art from museums around the world (works already in the public
152      domain.)&amp;nbsp; The Corel Corporation used those reproductions for an
153      educational CD-ROM without paying Bridgeman.&amp;nbsp; Bridgeman claimed
154      copyright infringement. &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
155      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;WHAT DID THE COURT DECIDE?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;The Court ruled that
156      reproductions of images in the public domain are not protected by
157      copyright if the reproductions are slavish or lacking in originality.
158      &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
159      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;In their opinion, the Court noted:&amp;nbsp; ''There is little doubt that many
160      photographs, probably the overwhelming majority, reflect at least the
161      modest amount of originality required for copyright protection....&amp;nbsp;
162      But 'slavish copying', although doubtless requiring technical skill and
163      effort, does not qualify.'' &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
164      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;In other words, an exact reproduction of an image in the public
165      domain does not possess creativity itself.&amp;nbsp; Therefore, the
166      reproduction is not protected under copyright law.&lt;/B&gt; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
167      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;It's important to me because it
168      allows me to share the beautiful images at my sites.&amp;nbsp; But it's
169      important to everyone because it means that museums cannot assert
170      perpetual copyright to works.&amp;nbsp; In other words, museums cannot take a
171      picture of an old painting about to become part of the public domain,
172      claim a new copyright through the reproduction, and do the same process
173      over and over so that the painting never truly enters the public
174      domain.&amp;nbsp; They would simply be taking the work from one private domain
175      to another, thus invalidating the spirit of copyright law. &lt;BR&gt;In short,
176      simply transferring an exact image from one medium to another does not
177      create a new copyright. &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
178      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;WHAT DOES THE DECISION COVER?&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;This decision concerns only
179      reproductions of two-dimensional works (like paintings or drawings.)&amp;nbsp;
180      Reproductions of three-dimensional works, such as sculpture, possess the
181      necessary creativity for a separate copyright - after all, the
182      photographer must choose an angle to shoot from, lighting, backdrop,
183      etc&amp;nbsp; In other words, he is not merely reproducing an exact image.
184      &lt;/font&gt;
185&lt;/P&gt;
186      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Also, please note that a non-exact reproduction of
187      an image is not covered.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
188      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;This is an important point - only EXACT COPIES of the paintings are
189      affected by the decision.&amp;nbsp; The decision is based upon the correct
190      premise that 'slavish copies' do not possess any originality or creativity
191      of their own, and are thus ineligible for copyright. &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
192      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;The Court explained this point further: &lt;BR&gt;''There has been no
193      independent creation, no distinguishable variation from pre-existing
194      works, nothing recognizably the author's own contribution''....&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
195      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;This merely reflected an earlier ruling by the Supreme Court which
196      stated that &quot;sweat of the brow&quot; (for example, the act of reproducing a
197      work) is not the &quot;creative spark&quot; which deserves copyright.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
198      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;THE ENTIRE TEXT OF THE COURT'S RULING IS AVAILABLE ONLINE at the
199      First Amendment Law Library -&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;&lt;A
200      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.constitution.org%2f1ll%2fcourt%2ffed%2fbridgman.html&quot;&gt;http://www.constitution.org/1ll/court/fed/bridgman.html&lt;/A&gt;&lt;/B&gt;
201      &lt;/font&gt;
202      &lt;/P&gt;
203      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;I encourage visitors to read the decision.&amp;nbsp; Judge Kaplan is
204      remarkably concise, particularly when compared to other jurists.&amp;nbsp;
205      (Note: the original decision has been replaced by Judge Kaplan's
206      memorandum opinion after Bridgeman moved for reargument and
207      reconsideration following his summary judgment.)&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
208      &lt;P&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
209      &lt;blockquote&gt;
210      &lt;HR width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
211
212      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
213
214      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;It is interesting to note that many museums, and the American
215      Association of Museums, were unhappy that Bridgeman brought the case
216      against Corel, surmising (correctly, it turned out) that the Court would
217      not rule in their favor.&amp;nbsp; In fact, the Court quoted a former general
218      counsel from the Museum of Modern Art, New York in rendering its decision&lt;FONT size=4&gt;.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;BR&gt;
219      Museum directors, like everyone else, knew that exact reproductions did
220      not possess the necessary creativity to have their own copyright.&amp;nbsp;
221      After all, if such a standard did exist, I could copy out John Keats's
222      poetry word-for-word and then claim I was entitled to a copyright to the
223      poems.&amp;nbsp; Such an idea is ludicrous.&amp;nbsp; Keats's poetry
224      is in the public domain.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
225      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;And if his original poems are in the public domain, why aren't
226      portraits of him painted at the same time?&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
227      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Exactly.&amp;nbsp; They are - museums would just prefer otherwise.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
228      &lt;P&gt;&lt;B&gt;&lt;FONT size=4 face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;In closing, I would like to point out three things -
229      &lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
230      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;First, the Bridgeman vs Corel decision will not bankrupt
231      museums.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/B&gt; It is true that museums make money selling
232      reproductions of the images in their collections.&amp;nbsp; However,
233      commercial publishers will still want a high quality reproduction of the
234      image which can only truly be provided by the museum which controls access
235      to the painting; publishers don't care much about copyright, only the
236      best-looking image.&amp;nbsp; Webmasters, at best, can only scan reproductions
237      and even the best scanner cannot capture the quality of a museum-approved
238      reproduction.&amp;nbsp; And webmasters are not selling reproductions which
239      claim to be made by the museums which own the original work; that would be
240      fraudulent and illegal.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
241      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;Second, most museums hold their collections in the public trust and
242      exist primarily as educational/cultural facilities.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/B&gt;The public domain
243      images in their collections are exactly that - in the public domain, and
244      we are the public.&amp;nbsp; Most museums also receive money and special tax
245      breaks from the cities/states/countries in which they are located.&amp;nbsp;
246      Why?&amp;nbsp; Because they are public institutions.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
247      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;Third - and perhaps most importantly - copyrights and public domain
248      and fair use are all terms which exist together for a reason.
249      &lt;/B&gt;&lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Copyrights are necessary because&lt;/B&gt; they allow artists/writers
250      to profit from their own work.&amp;nbsp; And profit, of course, provides
251      incentive to create more work. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Public Domain is necessary
252      because&lt;/B&gt; it allows for the free exchange of ideas, a necessary part of
253      life in a free society. &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;Fair Use is necessary because&lt;/B&gt; it allows
254      the public some access to copyrighted work, as long as they do not profit
255      from it.&amp;nbsp; After all, you should not be allowed to essentially steal
256      money for another person's hard work.&amp;nbsp; However, fair use allows news
257      reporting, book reviews, research reports, educational works, etc to
258      discuss the work. &lt;/font&gt; &lt;/P&gt;
259      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;Or, as the US Supreme Court put it:&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;&lt;B&gt;&quot;Creative work is to
260      be encouraged and rewarded, but private motivation must ultimately serve
261      the cause of promoting broad public availability of literature, music, and
262      the other arts. The immediate effect of our copyright law is to secure a
263      fair return for an &quot;author's&quot; creative labor. But the ultimate aim is, by
264      this incentive, to stimulate artistic creativity for the general public
265      good.&quot;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
266      &lt;P&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Or, as I put it:&lt;br&gt;Why should a museum's
267      copyright exceed the artist's personal copyright?&amp;nbsp; Yes, that's right
268      - artists and their descendants do not receive money from museums making
269      reproductions of their works.&amp;nbsp; Why?&amp;nbsp; Because the works are in
270      the public domain.&amp;nbsp; Copyright has passed for the artist!&amp;nbsp; They
271      can no longer profit from their work.&amp;nbsp; Yet museums are claiming they
272      possess an endless copyright of the work simply because they own the
273      original (which is in the public domain.)&amp;nbsp; If it sounds absurd, well,
274      it is absurd.&amp;nbsp; It's absurd and offensive and illegal.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
275      &lt;P&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Take a moment to imagine Van Gogh's heirs suing
276      over all those coffee mugs with his famous sunflowers, or the endless
277      posters of his starry skies.&amp;nbsp; Exactly.&amp;nbsp; You would laugh at the
278      news.&amp;nbsp; Now take a moment to laugh at museums.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
279      &lt;blockquote&gt;
280      &lt;HR width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
281
282      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
283
284      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;In a perfect world, the artist profits from their work for a very
285      lengthy period of time and then the work becomes part of our cultural
286      heritage. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
287
288      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;In our imperfect world, however, museums often attempt to
289      intimidate webmasters and others into either paying large sums for
290      reproduction rights, or to remove the images entirely.&amp;nbsp; They count
291      upon webmasters having neither the legal knowledge to defend their rights
292      or having money to hire legal counsel.&amp;nbsp; Most museums, of course, have
293      large budgets and numerous attorneys.&amp;nbsp; And they know it's far easier
294      to intimidate the 'little guy' rather than a wealthy company which can tie
295      a case up in court for many expensive years.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
296
297      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;They also know that
298      Bridgeman vs Corel has clarified the formerly vague concept of fair
299      use.&amp;nbsp; Before, they could shape fair use to their own needs.&amp;nbsp; Now,
300      however, fair use has been quite clearly defined. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
301
302      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;It is important to
303      remember that museums were first created in the 18th century to allow the
304      public free access to their cultural treasures, not to make money selling
305      t-shirts, mugs, posters, etc&amp;nbsp; I understand that they wish to raise
306      funds for their work, but - as I explained earlier - Bridgeman vs Corel
307      will not bankrupt museums.&amp;nbsp; After all, in the early 1980s, the movie
308      industry believed VCRs would destroy Hollywood.&amp;nbsp; Obviously, that
309      hasn't happened.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
310
311      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;In light of the Bridgeman vs Corel decision, museums
312      have decided to focus on controlling access rather than subverting the
313      concept of public domain.&amp;nbsp; This, too, has led to some rather
314      questionable practices.&amp;nbsp; Think about it for a moment - if a unique
315      work of art is in the public domain and the museum willfully disallows
316      access to the work (for reproduction purposes), aren't they guilty of
317      creating a monopoly?&amp;nbsp; And of attempting to create an illegal
318      perpetual copyright?&amp;nbsp; Just a few points to ponder, among many others.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
319      &lt;blockquote&gt;
320      &lt;HR width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
321
322      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
323
324      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;I have (very quickly) created this page to help webmasters understand
325      their rights.&amp;nbsp; I apologize if something is explained badly, or not at
326      all.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
327      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;Please keep in mind that the all-important Bridgeman vs Corel
328      decision applies only to exact reproductions of two-dimensional works of
329      art already in the public domain.&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;And so drawings of
330      Winnie-the-Pooh, for example, which are still under copyright, cannot be
331      reproduced on your webpage; neither can a book written in 1970, or a song
332      recorded in 1950, or painting made in 1945.&amp;nbsp; Unfortunately, copyright
333      extensions are a fact of life throughout most of the world.&amp;nbsp; In the
334      US, for example, copyright has been extended 11 times in the last 40
335      years.&amp;nbsp; However, all works prior to the 20th century are in the
336      public domain.&amp;nbsp; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.unc.edu%2f%7eunclng%2fpublic-d.htm&quot;&gt;
337      Check the charts&lt;/a&gt; for 20th century works.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
338      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Remember - when in doubt, ask.&amp;nbsp; &lt;A
339      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.nolo.com&quot;&gt;Nolo.com&lt;/A&gt; has a great legal advice section.
340      &lt;/font&gt;
341      &lt;/P&gt;
342      &lt;P&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;And give thanks to the US District Court for the
343      Southern District of New York.&amp;nbsp; In our age of increasing mergers
344      between large, global multi-media companies and the pre-eminence of a few
345      large museums, it's possible that - one day - a handful of
346      companies/museums could control access to most of the great works of art
347      in human history.&amp;nbsp; Public domain guarantees us access to those works,
348      and without it we would be....&amp;nbsp; Well, we would be stuck at the table
349      of mediocrity, denied our right to explore the best parts of our heritage. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
350      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;-&lt;i&gt;Marilee&lt;/i&gt;&lt;br&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
351      &lt;blockquote&gt;
352      &lt;hr&gt;
353      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
354      &lt;P align=center&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;Updates and Links&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
355      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;FONT size=2 face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;For now (October 2004), the Bridgeman decision
356      stands.&amp;nbsp; If anything changes, I will post it here.&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
357      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Please note that
358      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.iht.com%2farticles%2f114102.html&quot;&gt;recent EU-sponsored
359      copyright changes&lt;/a&gt; further extend copyright terms of 20th century works.&amp;nbsp;
360      Books, music, etc which might have been scheduled to pass into the public
361      domain are now protected for several more decades.&amp;nbsp; (Yet another
362      sell-out to the growing 'content industry'....)&amp;nbsp; If you live in
363      Europe, please research the new terms.&amp;nbsp; If the above link has
364      expired, simply type 'EU copyright law 2003' into a search engine and
365      start exploring.&amp;nbsp; Though most articles focus on digital music and
366      film, the law applies to all creative works.&amp;nbsp; It's even worse than the DMCA.&amp;nbsp;
367      Egads!&amp;nbsp; I never thought a law could be worse than the DMCA.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
368      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Please
369      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.cni.org%2fHforums%2fcni-copyright%2f1999-02%2f0084.html&quot;&gt;click
370      here&lt;/a&gt; to read an interesting 'question and answer' about Bridgeman.&amp;nbsp;
371      Professor Ochoa's response is reasonable and apt, particularly this
372      comment: 'Where the public does not have access to the original painting,
373      the ONLY way it has to reproduce the painting itself is to reproduce a
374      reproduction of it. Unless we hold that the Bridgeman photographs can be
375      freely copied, the painting, as a practical matter, is not in the public
376      domain.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;In other words, unless museums are willing to allow
377      people to photograph the original work, the paintings are not truly in the
378      public domain.&amp;nbsp; I do disagree with his closing comment, in which he
379      attempts to distinguish between US copyright law and other nations.&amp;nbsp;
380      The concepts of 'fair use' and 'public domain' are recognized on an
381      international level.&amp;nbsp; Also, is a person making a slavish photographic
382      reproduction of a work of art truly the &lt;i&gt;author&lt;/i&gt; of the photograph?&amp;nbsp;
383      This point was discussed in the Bridgeman decision.&amp;nbsp; The term &lt;i&gt;
384      copyist&lt;/i&gt; is far more appropriate, despite the amount of work involved
385      in taking the photograph.&amp;nbsp; An apt comparison is this (earlier
386      discussed with the example of Keats's poetry) - if a
387      photographer who merely reproduces a work of art is the &lt;i&gt;author&lt;/i&gt; of
388      the reproduction, then someone who copies a novel out word-for-word is
389      also its &lt;i&gt;author&lt;/i&gt;.&amp;nbsp; Clearly, this cannot be the case.&amp;nbsp; Yet
390      the amount of work required to photograph the painting is the same as the
391      work involved in copying out a book by hand.&amp;nbsp; &lt;b&gt;In other words, &lt;i&gt;
392      labor&lt;/i&gt; does not imply originality, or a creative spark.&lt;/b&gt;&amp;nbsp; You
393      can take three minutes or three days to make a reproduction.&amp;nbsp; You can
394      use a camera or Martian technology.&amp;nbsp; It doesn't matter.&amp;nbsp; You are
395      merely copying the work.&amp;nbsp; If it
396      seems as though I'm being simplistic here, rest assured that I am - and it
397      is deliberate.&amp;nbsp; This issue is very simple and analogies help reveal
398      the simplicity.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
399      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;In any case, Bridgeman vs Corel
400      was not concerned with the &lt;i&gt;processes&lt;/i&gt; of reproduction
401      since those are covered by patent law.&amp;nbsp; It was concerned with
402      copyright.&amp;nbsp; Copyright exists to reward the creative spark /
403      originality.&amp;nbsp; It does not exist to reward labor.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
404      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;You may wonder why I'm going on
405      and on about the photography angle.&amp;nbsp; It's because museums have made
406      it their new argument for copyright protection and against Bridgeman.&amp;nbsp;
407      They claim the court did not fully understand or appreciate the labor
408      involved in making photographic reproductions.&amp;nbsp; But they are being
409      disingenuous, as my above paragraph demonstrates.&amp;nbsp; Also, Judge Kaplan
410      most assuredly considered the labor involved.&amp;nbsp; No one is denying that
411      photographers labor to create the reproduction.&amp;nbsp; But why should that
412      work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public
413      domain?!&amp;nbsp; Museums are mute on that point.&amp;nbsp; The photographers are
414      paid for their labor.&amp;nbsp; The museums deny the public access to the
415      works and therefore control the 'licensing' of the best reproductions.&amp;nbsp;
416      They are paid for the licenses.&amp;nbsp; Who suffers in this situation?&amp;nbsp;
417      The public!&amp;nbsp; By law, we should be able to go to a museum and demand
418      access to a painting in the public domain so we can take photographs.&amp;nbsp;
419      But museums won't let us!&amp;nbsp; I know this because I've tried it.&amp;nbsp;
420      Museums simply don't want competition for their 'officially-licensed'
421      merchandise.&amp;nbsp; It's all about profit, - if they were concerned with
422      'artistic integrity', they would allow the public right of access or
423      provide an approved, high-quality reproduction to anyone who asked.&amp;nbsp;
424      Don't hold your breath waiting for that to happen....&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
425      &lt;P align=left&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;If the concept of public domain
426      is to have any meaning at all, then exact photographic reproductions
427      cannot be given copyright.&amp;nbsp; It's a matter of principle - and common
428      sense - and public interest.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
429    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
430    &lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;
431      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhomepages.law.asu.edu%2f%7edkarjala%2fOpposingCopyrightExtension&quot;&gt;Opposing Copyright Extension,
432      Protecting the Public Domain&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;1&quot;&gt;The best source
433      on the internet.&amp;nbsp; It contains information on the disastrous Jan 2003 Eldred
434      ruling by the US Supreme Court.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
435      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2f&quot;&gt;
436      &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot; face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;to EnglishHistory.net&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
437      &lt;/td&gt;
438    &lt;td width=&quot;13%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
439  &lt;/tr&gt;
440&lt;/table&gt;
441
442
443
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446</Content>
447</Section>
448</Archive>
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