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14    <Metadata name="Title">Primary Sources: The fall of Anne Boleyn, 1536</Metadata>
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18    <Metadata name="Identifier">HASH3d9e49bb208972bc382da2</Metadata>
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29&lt;div align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
30  &lt;center&gt;
31  &lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;0&quot; cellspacing=&quot;4&quot; width=&quot;94%&quot;&gt;
32    &lt;tr&gt;
33      &lt;td valign=&quot;bottom&quot; colspan=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
34      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt;
35      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
36&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynex.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Primary Sources: 1536: The execution of Anne Boleyn&quot; width=&quot;372&quot; height=&quot;167&quot;&gt;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
37    &lt;/tr&gt;
38    &lt;tr&gt;
39      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
40      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
41      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
42    &lt;/tr&gt;
43    &lt;tr&gt;
44      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot; bgcolor=&quot;#FFFFE8&quot;&gt;&lt;p&gt;
45&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleyn-sketch1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; width=&quot;175&quot; height=&quot;157&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;This
46    account of Anne Boleyn's fall from royal favor was written by the Spanish
47    ambassador Eustace Chapuys,
49in a letter to Emperor Charles V.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
50    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Chapuys despised Anne; she returned the feeling.&amp;nbsp; He
51    was the chief adviser and confidante of Henry VIII's first wife, Katharine
52    of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; He did not recognize the king's marriage to Anne and
53    referred to her as 'the concubine' and 'the whore' in his official
54    dispatches.&amp;nbsp; Like many, Chapuys blamed Anne for the king's poor
55    treatment of Katharine and their daughter, Princess Mary.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
56    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Chapuys had confidently predicted Anne's fall for several
57    years.&amp;nbsp; When it actually happened, he was quite surprised.&amp;nbsp; He had
58    not recognized the depth of Henry's feelings for the woman who would become
59    his third wife, Jane Seymour.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
60    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Despite Chapuys's dislike of Anne, his account gives little
61    credit to the king.&amp;nbsp; He clearly considered Henry's behavior to be
62    inappropriate; it was also unpopular.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
63      &lt;td width=&quot;4%&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
64      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt;
67The joy shown by the people every day, not only at the ruin of the concubine
68but at the hope of princess Mary's restoration is inconceivable, but as
69yet the king shows no great disposition towards the latter; indeed he has
70twice shown himself obstinate when spoken to on the subject by his council.&amp;nbsp;
71I hear that, even before the arrest of the concubine, the king, speaking
72with Mistress Jane Seymour of their future marriage, the latter suggested
73that the princess should be replaced in her former position; and the king
74told her she was a fool, and ought to solicit the advancement of the children
75they would have between them, and not any others.&amp;nbsp; She replied that
76in asking for the restoration of the princess she was seeking the rest
77and tranquility of the king, herself, her future children, and the whole
78realm; for, without that neither your majesty nor this people would ever
79be content.
80&lt;p&gt;I will endeavor by all means to make her continue in this vein; I hope
81also to go and speak with the king within three days, and with members
82of the council in general.&amp;nbsp; I think the concubine's little bastard
83Elizabeth will be excluded from the succession, and that the king will
84get himself requested by parliament to marry.&amp;nbsp; To cover the affection
85he has for the said Seymour he has lodged her seven miles away in the house
86of a grand esquire, and says publicly that he has no desire in the world
87to marry again, unless he is constrained by his subjects to do so.&amp;nbsp;
88Several have already told me and sent to say that, if it cost them their
89lives, when parliament meets they will urge the cause of the princess to
90the utmost.
91&lt;p&gt;The very evening the concubine was brought to the Tower of London, when
92the duke of Richmond went to say goodnight to his father, and ask his blessing
93after the English custom, the king began to weep, saying that he and his
94sister, meaning the princess, were greatly bound to God for having escaped
95the hands of that accursed whore, who had determined to poison them; from
96which it is clear that the king knew something about it.
97&lt;p&gt;Master Norris, the king's chief butler, Master Weston who used to lie
98with the king, Master Brereton gentleman of the chamber, and the groom
99of whom I wrote to your majesty by my man, were all condemned as traitors.&amp;nbsp;
100Only the groom confessed that he had been three times with the said whore
101and concubine.&amp;nbsp; The others were condemned upon presumption and certain
102indications, without valid proof or confession.
103&lt;p&gt;The concubine and her brother were condemned for treason by all the
104principal lords of England, and the duke of Norfolk pronounced sentence.&amp;nbsp;
105I am told the earl of Wiltshire was quite as ready to assist at the judgement
106as he had done at the condemnation of the other four.&amp;nbsp; Neither the
107whore nor her brother was brought to Westminster like the other criminals.&amp;nbsp;
108They were condemned within the Tower of London, but the thing was not done
109secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present.&amp;nbsp; What she
110was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and
111other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris to marry
112after the king's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that
113she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted
114to mean that she had poisoned the late queen, and intrigued to do the same
115to the princess.&amp;nbsp; These things she totally denied and gave to each
116a plausible answer.&amp;nbsp; Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston,
117as she had often done to other young gentlemen.&amp;nbsp; She was also charged,
118and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the king and his dress,
119and that she showed in various ways she did not love the king, but was
120tired of him.&amp;nbsp; Her brother was charged with having cohabited with
121her by presumption, because he had once been found a long time with her,
122and with certain other little follies.&amp;nbsp; To all he replied so well
123that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted,
124especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as
125it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.
126&lt;p&gt;I must not omit that among other things charged against him as a crime
127was, that his sister had told his wife that the king was impotent.&amp;nbsp;
128This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with
129a warning not to repeat it.&amp;nbsp; But he immediately declared the matter,
130in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this
131point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the king's issue.&amp;nbsp;
132He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question
133whether his sister's daughter was the king's child.&amp;nbsp; To which he made
134no reply.&amp;nbsp; They were judged separately and did not see each other.&amp;nbsp;
135The concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which
136was to be burnt or beheaded at the king's pleasure, she preserved her composure,
137saying that she held herself ready to greet death and that what she regretted
138most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the king,
139were to die for her.&amp;nbsp; She only asked a short time for confession.&amp;nbsp;
140Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would
141no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death.&amp;nbsp;
142He only begged the king that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid
143out of his goods.
144&lt;p&gt;Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the whore there are
145some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and
146people speak variously of the king; and it will not pacify the world when
147it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Jane Seymour.&amp;nbsp;
148Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the king, having
149received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the
150arrest of the whore; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies,
151sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river.&amp;nbsp; Most
152of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on
153the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as
154showing his delight at getting rid of a thin, old and wicked fool with
155hope of change, which is a thing especially agreeable to this king.&amp;nbsp;
156He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the bishop of Carlisle,
157and showed an extravagant joy, as the said bishop came to tell me next
158morning, who reported moreover that the king had said to him, among other
159things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that
160thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him;
161and so saying the king drew from his bosom a little book written in his
162own hand, but the bishop did not read the contents.&amp;nbsp; It may have been
163certain ballads that the king had composed, at which the whore and her
164brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great
166&lt;p&gt;Three days after the concubine's imprisonment the princess was removed,
167and was honourably accompanied both by the servants of the little bastard
168and by several gentlemen who came of their own accord.&amp;nbsp; Many of her
169old servants and maids at this news went to her, and although her governess
170allowed them to remain, she was warned by me not to accept or retain anyone
171but those given her by the king her father.&amp;nbsp; What I most fear as regards
172her is, that when the king is asked by parliament to restore her to her
173rights, he will refuse his consent unless the princess first swears to
174the statutes invalidating the first marriage and the pope's authority.&amp;nbsp;
175To this, I think, she will not easily yield, although I should advise her
176to acquiesce in everything as far as she can without prejudice to her conscience.&lt;blockquote&gt;
177      &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
178    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
179    &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
180    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to the Anne
181    Boleyn website&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
182    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
183    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to Primary Sources&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
184    &lt;/tr&gt;
185  &lt;/table&gt;
186  &lt;/center&gt;
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