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3<Archive>
4<Section>
5  <Description>
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12    <Metadata name="Language">en</Metadata>
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14    <Metadata name="Title">Primary Sources: The Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536</Metadata>
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27
28&lt;div align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
29  &lt;center&gt;
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34      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
35&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/grace.gif&quot; width=&quot;418&quot; height=&quot;74&quot;&gt;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
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42    &lt;tr&gt;
43      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot; bgcolor=&quot;#FFFFE8&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;The account
44      at right was written by the Tudor chronicler Edward Hall.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
45      &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;The Pilgrimage of Grace was the worst uprising of Henry
46      VIII's reign.&amp;nbsp; It was a direct result of the dissolution of the
47      monasteries, a policy which confused and angered most Englishmen.&amp;nbsp;
48      The original rebellion began at Louth in Lincolnshire in early October
49      1536.&amp;nbsp; The presence of a royal commission was the spark; the local
50      clergy encouraged it to flame.&amp;nbsp; The Lincolnshire rebellion lasted but
51      a fortnight, but Yorkshire - led by the lawyer Robert Aske - was next.&amp;nbsp;
52      With the charismatic Aske as their leader, the rebellion spread quickly.&amp;nbsp;
53      Dissatisfaction with the king's religious and fiscal policies was deep and
54      widespread.&amp;nbsp; An army of perhaps 30,000 men gathered in the north.&amp;nbsp;
55      The king ordered the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk and the earl of
56      Shrewsbury to respond.&amp;nbsp; But there was no standing army in England;
57      also, popular sympathy lay with the rebels.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
58      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;The king's forces were hopelessly outnumbered.&amp;nbsp;
59      Worse, their soldiers lacked equipment and the desire to fight their
60      countrymen.&amp;nbsp; And the rebel forces were far more experienced in
61      battle, having fought the Scots near-continuously during Henry's reign.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
62      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Faced with such odds, the king turned to diplomacy.&amp;nbsp;
63      The rebels, after all, did not seek to overthrow him.&amp;nbsp; Their primary
64      desire was for the dissolved monasteries to be restored.&amp;nbsp; They also
65      criticized the king's 'low-born' advisers, particularly Thomas Cromwell.&amp;nbsp;
66      His policies of high taxation and forced enclosures had worsened poverty
67      throughout northern England; it was already, as Norfolk told the king,
68      'the most barren country of the realm'.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
69      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;The king negotiated peace through Norfolk, conceding
70      their demands and promising a free pardon to all rebels who dispersed.&amp;nbsp;
71      Monastic lands would be restored and a new parliament called to address
72      their concerns.&amp;nbsp; The rebels accordingly dispersed.&amp;nbsp; And then, on
73      the slightest pretext, Henry broke his word; martial law was declared,
74      rebel leaders were indicted and put on trial (many faced a jury of their
75      peers.)&amp;nbsp; Several hundred rebels, including Aske, were executed.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
76      &lt;p&gt;
77&lt;br&gt;
78      &lt;/td&gt;
79      &lt;td width=&quot;4%&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
80      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt;
81
82&lt;p&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#000000&quot;&gt;[T]he king was truly informed that there was
83a new insurrection made by the northern men, who had assembled themselves
84into a huge and great army of warlike men, well appointed with captains,
85horse, armour and artillery, to the number of 40,000 men, who had encamped
86themselves in Yorkshire.&amp;nbsp; And these men had bound themselves to each
87other by their oath to be faithful and obedient to their captain.&lt;/font&gt;
88&lt;p&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#000000&quot;&gt;The also declared, by their proclamation solemnly
89made, that their insurrection should extend no further than to the maintenance
90and defence of the faith of Christ and the deliverance of holy church,
91sore decayed and oppressed, and to the furtherance also of private and
92public matters in the realm concerning the wealth of all the king's poor
93subjects. They called this, their seditious and traitorous voyage, a holy
94and blessed pilgrimage; they also had certain banners in the field whereon
95was painted Christ hanging on the cross on one side, and a chalice with
96a painted cake in it on the other side, with various other banners of similar
97hypocrisy and feigned sanctity.&amp;nbsp; The soldiers also had a certain cognizance
98or badge embroidered or set upon the sleeves of their coats which was a
99representation of the five wounds of Christ, and in the midst thereof was
100written the name of Our Lord, and thus the rebellious garrison of Satan
101set forth and decked themselves with his false and counterfeited signs
102of holiness, only to delude and deceive the simple and ignorant people.&lt;/font&gt;
103&lt;p&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#000000&quot;&gt;After the king's highness was informed of this
104newly arisen insurrection he, making no delay in so weighty a matter, caused
105with all speed the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquis of Exeter,
106the earl of Shrewsbury and others, accompanied by his mighty and royal
107army which was of great power and strength, immediately to set upon the
108rebels.&amp;nbsp; But when these noble captains and counsellors approached
109the rebels and saw their number and how they were determined on battle,
110they worked with great prudence to pacify all without shedding blood.&lt;/font&gt;
111&lt;p&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#000000&quot;&gt;But the northern men were so stiff-necked that
112they would in no way stoop, but stoutly stood and maintained their wicked
113enterprise.&amp;nbsp; Therefore the abovesaid nobles, perceiving and seeing
114no other was to pacify these wretched rebels, agreed upon a battle; ...
115but the night before the day appointed for the battle a little rain fell,
116nothing to speak of, but yet as if by a great miracle of God the water,
117which was a very small ford which the day before men might have gone over
118dry shod, suddenly rose to such a height depth and breadth that no man
119who lived there had ever seen before, so that on the day, even when the
120hour of battle should have some, it was impossible for one army to get
121at the other.&lt;/font&gt;
122&lt;p&gt;&lt;font color=&quot;#000000&quot;&gt;After this appointment made between both the armies,
123disappointed, as it is to be thought, only by God who extended his great
124mercy and had compassion on the great number of innocent persons who in
125that deadly slaughter would have been likely to have been murdered, could
126not take place.&amp;nbsp; Then... a consultation was held and a pardon obtained
127from
128the king's majesty for all the captains and chief movers of this insurrection,
129and they promised that such things as they found themselves aggrieved by,
130all would be gently heard and their reasonable petitions granted, and that
131their articles should be presented to the king, so that by his highness'
132authority and the wisdom of his council all things should be brought to
133good order and conclusion.&amp;nbsp; And with this order every man quietly
134departed, and those who before were bent as hot as fire on fighting, being
135presented by God, went now peaceably to their houses, and were as cold
136as water.&lt;/font&gt;
137&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;
138&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;
139    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to Primary Sources&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
140    &lt;/tr&gt;
141  &lt;/table&gt;
142  &lt;/center&gt;
143&lt;/div&gt;
144
145
146
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149</Content>
150</Section>
151</Archive>
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