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14    <Metadata name="Content">Mary Stuart Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587 biography</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Mary Stuart Queen of Scots 1542-1587 biography</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">Mary, Queen of Scots: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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39&lt;div align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
41&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;0&quot; cellspacing=&quot;4&quot; width=&quot;94%&quot;&gt;
42  &lt;tbody&gt;
43    &lt;tr&gt;
44      &lt;td valign=&quot;bottom&quot; colspan=&quot;3&quot;&gt; &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot;
45 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosbiography.gif&quot;
46 width=&quot;764&quot; height=&quot;103&quot;&gt;
47      &lt;p&gt; Mary, queen of Scots is one of the most fascinating and
48controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe.&amp;nbsp; At one time, she
49claimed the crowns of four nations - Scotland, France, England and
50Ireland.&amp;nbsp; Her physical beauty and kind heart were acknowledged
51even by her enemies.&amp;nbsp; Yet she lacked the political skills to rule
52successfully in Scotland.&amp;nbsp; Her second marriage was unpopular and
53ended in murder and scandal; her third was even less popular and ended
54in forced abdication in favor of her infant son.&amp;nbsp; She fled to
55England in 1568, hoping for the help of her cousin, Elizabeth I.&amp;nbsp;
56Her presence was dangerous for the English queen, who feared Catholic
57plotting on Mary's behalf.&amp;nbsp; The two queens never met and Mary
58remained imprisoned for the next nineteen years.&amp;nbsp; She was executed
59in 1587, only forty-four years old.&amp;nbsp; By orders of the English
60government, all of her possessions were burned.&amp;nbsp; In 1603, upon
61Elizabeth's death, Mary's son became king of England as James I.&lt;/p&gt;
62      &lt;/td&gt;
63    &lt;/tr&gt;
64    &lt;tr&gt;
65      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
66      &lt;/td&gt;
67      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
68      &lt;/td&gt;
69      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
70      &lt;/td&gt;
71    &lt;/tr&gt;
72    &lt;tr&gt;
73      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt; &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot;
74 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosbiographyblack.jpg&quot;
75 width=&quot;400&quot; height=&quot;521&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
76      &lt;td width=&quot;4%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
77      &lt;/td&gt;
78      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;
79      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
80      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;FURTHER READING&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
81You may also view a &lt;a
82 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
83chronology&lt;/a&gt; of her life, read &lt;a
84 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;,
85including letters written by Mary, view &lt;a
86 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;portraits of Mary&lt;/a&gt;
87and her contemporaries, test your knowledge of Mary's life at &lt;a
88 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;/a&gt;,
89and learn more about her famous cousin, &lt;a
90 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen
91Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
92      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
93 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
94Click here to view sources&lt;/a&gt; for this biography; and &lt;a
95 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
96click here for weblinks&lt;/a&gt; related to Mary, queen of Scots.&amp;nbsp; My
97personal favorite is &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot; face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
98 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Marie Stuart Society of
99Scotland&lt;/a&gt; website.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
100      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
101      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
102      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;NEWS&amp;nbsp; April
104      &lt;/b&gt;Two new studies of Mary, queen of Scots have arrived in
105bookstores.&amp;nbsp; Jane Dunn's &lt;i&gt; &lt;a
106 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
107Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt; is a dual biography
108with a beautiful selection of portraits and judicious use of primary
109sources.&amp;nbsp; John Guy's &lt;i&gt; &lt;a
110 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
111Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt; (published in the
112UK as &lt;a
113 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
114      &lt;i&gt;My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots&lt;/i&gt;)&lt;/a&gt;
115is the first biography dedicated to the Scottish queen in over thirty
116years.&amp;nbsp; Its central thesis argues that Burghley was the true
117villain of Mary's story.&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
118      &lt;/span&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
119September 2004&lt;/b&gt;: I am working on a new, detailed biography of
120Mary.&amp;nbsp; Please check back soon.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
121      &lt;/td&gt;
122    &lt;/tr&gt;
123  &lt;/tbody&gt;
128  &lt;blockquote&gt;
129    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
130    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;/b&gt; &lt;font
131 face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'As a sinner I am
132truly conscious of having often offended my Creator and I beg him to
133forgive me, but as a Queen and Sovereign, I am aware of no fault or
134offence for which I have to render account to anyone here
135below.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font
136 size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Mary, queen of Scots to her
137jailer, Sir Amyas Paulet; October 1586&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
138    &lt;hr&gt;
139    &lt;p&gt;In November 1542, King James V of Scotland, lay dying at his
140beloved Falkland Palace, built just five years earlier.&amp;nbsp; He was
141devastated by his army's defeat by the English at Solway Moss and saw
142little hope for the future.&amp;nbsp; At Falkland, he was told that Mary of
143Guise, his French-born wife once wooed by Henry VIII, had given birth
144to a daughter at Linlithgow Palace on December 8.&amp;nbsp; This was a
145feast-day in honor of the Virgin Mary and many took it as a good omen
146for the little &lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt; &lt;img height=&quot;407&quot;
147 alt=&quot;sketch of Mary, queen of Scots, age 12 or 13, by Clouet&quot;
148 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosmain13.jpg&quot;
149 width=&quot;250&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot;&gt;&lt;/font&gt;princess; for her father,
150however, it was otherwise.&amp;nbsp; Upon receiving news of Mary's birth,
151he reportedly said, 'Woe is me. My dynasty came with a lass.&amp;nbsp; It
152will go with a lass.'&amp;nbsp; James's ancestor, Robert II, had become
153King of Scots in 1371.&amp;nbsp; The son of Robert the Bruce's daughter
155and Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert was nearest in
156succession to the throne.&amp;nbsp; He called his&amp;nbsp; new dynasty
157'Stewart,' a variation on his father's title; in France, it was spelled
158Stuart. Mary's father, James V, believed this lineage had ended with
159his daughter's birth.&amp;nbsp; He certainly never contemplated that his
160grandson would one day rule both Scotland and its old enemy,
161England.&amp;nbsp; James died within a week of Mary's birth and, before she
162was even a year old, the child was crowned queen of Scots. &lt;/p&gt;
163    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The regents of Scotland made a treaty with
164Henry VIII in which Edward, Henry's long-awaited and precious son,
165would wed Mary.&amp;nbsp; But Henry VIII became increasingly erratic and
166despotic in his later years and continued to send his army north.&amp;nbsp;
167In 1546, Henry also encouraged the murder of Cardinal Beaton, a great
168Scots patriot; the proof - shortly before the murder, he had offered
170thousand pounds for expenses associated with a plot to murder
171Beaton.&amp;nbsp; After this, the Scots were determined to avoid the
172proposed English marriage. In July 1548, they sent the five-year-old
173Mary to France, her mother's homeland.&amp;nbsp; The Scots Parliament had
174agreed to her marriage with Francis, the heir of Henry II, king of
175France from 1547 to 1559.&amp;nbsp; Mary sailed from Dumbarton Castle to
176France, using this route to avoid English ships patrolling the English
177Channel.&amp;nbsp; According to most contemporary reports, Mary was
178exceptionally lovely (even in an age when most noble women were
179accorded the title of 'fair' or 'beautiful'), intelligent and full of
180vitality.&amp;nbsp; One French observer wrote admiringly: 'It is not
181possible to hope for more from a Princess on this earth.'&amp;nbsp; From
182this vantage point, Mary's life seemed to be set on a glorious course;
183but like a later foreign queen of France, Marie Antoinette, Mary's life
184was not destined to be peaceful and happy. &lt;/p&gt;
185    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When Mary left for Scotland, she traveled
186with the children of Scotland's nobility, including the 'Four Maries,'
187the women who would stay with her throughout her later imprisonment and
188execution.&amp;nbsp; They were Mary Fleming, Mary Seton, Mary Beaton and
189Mary Livingstone.&amp;nbsp; Mary Seton was the only one to die unmarried
190and lived on until 1615, praying for Mary's soul and giving alms in her
191memory.&amp;nbsp; The group arrived in France in August 1548. &lt;/p&gt;
192    &lt;center&gt;
193    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
194    &lt;p&gt; &lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;France, 1548-61&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
195    &lt;/center&gt;
196    &lt;p&gt;Mary was given a royal welcome in France by King Henry II.&amp;nbsp;
197He ordered that she would have precedence over his own daughters as she
198was sovereign of an independent country and also because she was to wed
199his heir, the Dauphin.&amp;nbsp; The king also became very fond of the
200child, saying, 'The little Queen of Scots is the most perfect child I
201have ever seen.'&amp;nbsp; While in France, Mary's maternal grandmother,
202Antoinette de Guise, wrote to her daughter in Scotland that Mary was
203'very pretty, graceful and self-assured.' &lt;/p&gt;
204    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary was 5 when she first met the
205four-year-old Dauphin, her betrothed husband.&amp;nbsp; According to most
206contemporaries, they were close and affectionate with one another even
207as children.&amp;nbsp; They traveled from one royal palace to another -
208Fountaineblea to Meudon, or to Chambord or Saint-Germain.&amp;nbsp; They
209were always attended to by a retinue of servants and, even then, Mary
210had developed a fondness for animals, especially dogs, which was to
211continue throughout her life.&amp;nbsp; Mary was also educated in the
212traditional manner of French princesses; she spoke French and learned
213Latin, Italian, Spanish and a little Greek.&amp;nbsp; She learned to dance,
214sing, play the lute as well as converse on religious matters.&amp;nbsp; Her
215religious tutor was the prior of Inchmahome, a Scottish priest.&amp;nbsp;
216When she was seven, her mother came to France to visit her; when Mary
217of Guise returned to Scotland, neither realized that they would never
218see each other again. &lt;/p&gt;
219    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; By the age of eleven, Mary was deemed to be
220as intelligent and well-spoken as a woman of twenty-five by her doting
221father-in-law.&amp;nbsp; It is worth noting that the Guise family regarded
222Mary as one of their own; not only was betrothed to the heir to the
223throne but her mother was a Guise as well.&amp;nbsp; Her uncle, Cardinal
224Guise, taught her about statecraft, perhaps encouraging her natural
225feelings of clemency and mercy.&amp;nbsp; In fact, Mary was to be
226remarkably free from bigotry during her short reign in Scotland, even
227towards her subjects of a different religion. &lt;/p&gt;
228    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img
229 alt=&quot;portrait of Mary queen of Scots and her first husband, Francis II of France&quot;
230 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryfrancis-crop.jpg&quot;
231 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;170&quot; height=&quot;226&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
232In 1555, Mary sent back letters to her mother in Scotland to be used
233for administrative purposes and it is from these that we first see her
234royal signature &lt;img
235 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/marysig.jpg&quot;&gt;'MARIE R'&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
236In 1558, she married the Dauphin in an incredible celebration in
237Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris.&amp;nbsp; Exceptionally tall for a woman in
238the 16th century, Mary was every inch the regal Queen; she had an oval
239face, shapely chin, and small mouth which were set off by her
240golden-red hair, her large forehead, and hazel eyes.&amp;nbsp; Many
241considered Mary to be the most beautiful princess in Europe, much as
242they had thought of her relative, Henry VIII's sister, &lt;a
243 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary&lt;/a&gt;,
244who had also come to France as queen for a short while.&amp;nbsp; Mary was
245not always in the best of health but, unlike her husband, there were no
246immediate concerns for her life. &lt;/p&gt;
247    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1558, &lt;a
248 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen Mary I&lt;/a&gt;
249of England passed away and Henry II of France encouraged his
250daughter-in- law to assume the royal arms of England.&amp;nbsp; In his
251opinion - and that of most of Catholic Europe - Mary of Scotland was
252the next heir to the English throne.&amp;nbsp; This belief, of course,
253would have serious repercussions throughout Mary's life.&amp;nbsp;
254Elizabeth I never forgot this first offense and never rested easily
255while her Catholic relative was alive.&amp;nbsp; But the matter was
256smoothed over when Elizabeth was persuadd the assumption was due more
257to Guise ambitions than Mary's actual wish.&amp;nbsp; In 1559, Henry II of
258France, died at the age of 40. Mary and her husband were crowned Queen
259and King of France.&amp;nbsp; But in June of 1560, Mary's mother died in
260Scotland at the age of 45.&amp;nbsp; And just six months later, her young
261husband also died of an ear infection.&amp;nbsp; Mary was understandably
262devastated by this chain of tragic events.&amp;nbsp; Thockmorton, the
263English ambassador, commented that Francis had left 'as dolorous a wife
264as she had good cause to be.&amp;nbsp; By long watching with him during his
265sickness and painful diligence about him' she had become exhausted and
266made herself ill.&amp;nbsp; She wrote a poem, in French, about her grief at
267his death; this is a translation of one verse: &lt;/p&gt;
268    &lt;p&gt;&lt;i&gt;By day, by night, I think of him/ In wood or mead, or where I
269be/ My heart keeps watch for one who's gone./ And yet I feel he's aye
270with me.&lt;/i&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
271    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; What was Mary to do next?&amp;nbsp; She left for
272Scotland, a land rife with religious and civil discord. Without waiting
273for a safe-conduct pass from Elizabeth, whose ships were patrolling her
274route, Mary set out for Scotland on 14 August 1561 and, five days
275later, reached Leith, the port of Edinburgh. &lt;/p&gt;
276    &lt;center&gt;
277    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
278    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
279    &lt;p&gt; &lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;Scotland, 1561-68&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
280    &lt;/center&gt;
281    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary knew very well that she was succeeding
282to a most troubled heritage.&amp;nbsp; But after her recent years of loss
283and grief, she was determined to make a bright future.&amp;nbsp; Also, in
284an age of religious persecution which earned her cousin Mary Tudor the
285nickname 'Bloody Mary,' Mary was determined that every one of her
286Scottish subjects should worship God as their conscience bade; there
287would be no religious persecution under her rule. &amp;nbsp;In this, she
288resembled her cousin &lt;a
289 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;.
290    &lt;/p&gt;
291    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;copy of a French miniature of Mary, painted c1565&quot;
292 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos1565cr.jpg&quot;
293 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;175&quot; height=&quot;236&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
294The Scots received their new queen with great joy and
295celebration.&amp;nbsp; At once, she began to try and help them; within a
296year of her arrival, one-sixth of all Church benefices was given to the
297Protestant ministers to relieve their poverty.&amp;nbsp; She also attempted
298to strengthen the power of the Crown against Scotland's notoriously
299difficult-to-control nobles.&amp;nbsp; Of course, such a strategy would
300lead to more peace and stability within the realm.&amp;nbsp; As a result,
301she was popular with the common people but not the nobility; she played
302croquet, golfed, went for hunts and archery practice, sung, danced,
303and, in general, showed an admirable zest for life.&amp;nbsp; In 1562 the
304English ambassador reported to Elizabeth, 'When the soldiers came back
305from the night's sentry-duty, she said she was sorry she was not a man
306to be all night on the fields and to walk the causeway with buff-coat,
307steel-helmet, buckler, and broadsword.' &lt;/p&gt;
308    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1563, Mary began the traditional 'royal
309progress' throughout Scotland.&amp;nbsp; In 1564, the fourth Earl of Atholl
310organized a great hunt in honor of the queen and, yet again, Mary
311charmed all who met her.&amp;nbsp; Yet she also treaded dangerous ground
312with her policy of non-discrimination and desire to unify the nation,
313taking power away from the independent nobles.&amp;nbsp; Though a Catholic,
314Mary became friends with one of the most learned Protestants of the
315time, George Buchanan.&amp;nbsp; In the political realm, Mary kept up
316peaceful relations with France, Spain, and England, though she never
317met Elizabeth face-to-face.&amp;nbsp; But, in 1566, her patience was tried
318by the English ambassador's persistent and obvious spying; she ordered
319him out of the kingdom and declared him persona non grata.&amp;nbsp; And
320her peace with France and Spain was kept without a treaty, though a
321treaty would have given Scotland some measure of protection against
322England in the possibility of conflict.&amp;nbsp; However, Mary was aware
323that any treaty could compromise her subjects, involving them in yet
324another war and causing strife.&amp;nbsp; Above all, she wanted peace and
325prosperity, and she kept Scotland safely distanced from political
326machinations.&amp;nbsp; When the threat to Mary's reign finally came, it
327was not from one of these outside powers; indeed, it came from within
328her own nation. &lt;/p&gt;
329    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;Mary's second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley&quot;
330 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/darnley-crop.jpg&quot;
331 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;150&quot; height=&quot;197&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
332As queen, Mary was more than aware that she should marry and provide
333heirs to the throne.&amp;nbsp; In July of 1565, she wed a cousin named
334Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, a weak, vain, and unstable young man; like
335Mary, he was also a grandchild of Henry VIII's sister Margaret.&amp;nbsp;
336Why Mary wed Darnley remains a mystery; he was superficially charming
337and, unlike most men, taller than the queen. &amp;nbsp;He was fond of
338courtly amusements and thus a nice change from the dour Scottish lords
339who surrounded her. &amp;nbsp;But he never seemed to care for Mary and
340sought far more power than she was willing to give him.&amp;nbsp; When she
341was six months pregnant in March of 1566, Darnley joined a group of
342Scottish nobles who broke into her supper-room at Holyrood Palace and
343dragged her Piedmontese secretary, David Riccio, into another room and
344stabbed him to death.&amp;nbsp; They claimed Riccio had undue influence
345over her foreign policy but, in reality, they probably meant to cause
346Mary, from watching this horrific crime, to suffer a miscarriage, thus
347losing her child and her own life as well since one usually meant the
348other in the 16th century.&amp;nbsp; Mary certainly believed that Darnley,
349angry because she had denied him the crown matrimonial, wanted to kill
350her and the child, thus becoming King of Scots.&amp;nbsp; But it is
351unlikely that, had he been successful, Darnley would have long survived
352his wife. &lt;/p&gt;
353    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; After Riccio's death, the nobles kept Mary
354prisoner at Holyrood Palace.&amp;nbsp; Entering the later stages of her
355pregnancy, she was desperate to escape and - somehow - won over Darnley
356and they escaped together.&amp;nbsp; Three months later the future James VI
357of Scotland was born and congratulations came from all over
358Europe.&amp;nbsp; Still young and healthy after the birth, Mary now had an
359heir.&amp;nbsp; This was the apex of her reign, her greatest and happiest
360moment.&amp;nbsp; In December 1566 James was baptized in the Chapel Royal
361of Stirling Castle. Mary, once the fragile last hope of the Stewart
362dynasty, was just 23 years old and had fulfilled one of a monarch's
363greatest duties - providing a healthy son and heir.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth of
364England, ten years older, watched these events with interest for, even
365then, she knew her own future would be - by choice - unmarried and
366childless.&amp;nbsp; She could well imagine that Mary's son would be her
367heir as well. &lt;/p&gt;
368    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But this future soon seemed perilous for
369James's birth provided only a temporary calm.&amp;nbsp; The nobles who had
370plotted with Darnley now felt betrayed by him; after all, they had
371captured the queen and her potential heir, murdered her dear friend,
372and were in a position to demand anything.&amp;nbsp; But Darnley's decision
373to help Mary escape infuriated them.&amp;nbsp; In February of 1567 they had
374Darnley's house, Kirk o' Field, blown up; Darnley's strangled body was
375found in the garden.&amp;nbsp; Many nobles were implicated, most
376particularly James Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell. Certainly Bothwell's
377later life (imprisoned in Denmark, he died in 1578, virtually insane)
378was a degree of punishment for this crime.&amp;nbsp; However, in the
379immediate aftermath of Darnley's murder, he met with Mary about six
380miles outside of Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; He had 600 men with him and asked to
381escort Mary to his castle at Dunbar; he told her she was in danger if
382she went to Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; Mary, unwilling to cause further bloodshed
383and understandably terrified, followed his suggestions.&amp;nbsp;
384Bothwell's noble friends had previously pressed her to marry him and
385he, too, had told her she needed a strong husband who could help unify
386the nobles behind her.&amp;nbsp; Mary had refused the proposal then,
387preferring to marry Darnley, but now she knew herself to be
388powerless.&amp;nbsp; She also had an infant son to consider. So she
389consented to wed Bothwell, hoping that this would finally stabilize the
390country.&amp;nbsp; Also, Bothwell showed&amp;nbsp;&lt;img
391 alt=&quot;Mary's third husband, James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell&quot;
392 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/bothwell.jpg&quot;
393 align=&quot;left&quot; width=&quot;226&quot; height=&quot;224&quot;&gt; Mary an agreement the nobles
394had signed which indicated they were prepared to accept him as their
395overlord.&amp;nbsp; In May 1567 they wed at Holyrood and Mary wrote to the
396foreign courts that it was the right decision for her country. &lt;/p&gt;
397    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But the nobles were still not to be
398trusted.&amp;nbsp; Now, they were angry that Bothwell would be all-powerful
399and they decided to wage war against him.&amp;nbsp; Barely a month after
400the marriage, rebel nobles and their forces met Mary's troops at
401Carberry Hill, 8 miles south-east of Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; The nobles
402demanded that Mary abandon Bothwell, whom they had earlier ordered her
403to wed.&amp;nbsp; She refused and reminded them of their earlier
404order.&amp;nbsp; To avoid the bloodshed of battle, she turned herself over
405and the rebels took her to Edinburgh while Bothwell struggled to rally
406troops of his own.&amp;nbsp; Mary was taken to Lochleven Castle and held
407prisoner in that island fortress; fearing for her own life, she became
408desperately ill.&amp;nbsp; She was forced to sign a document abdicating the
409crown in favor of her year-old son.&amp;nbsp; At the end of that month,
410July 1567, James was crowned king and James Stewart, the Earl of Moray,
411Mary's bastard half-brother, became Regent.&amp;nbsp; Moray wasted no time
412in repaying Mary's earlier kindness to him by stealing her son and
413jewels.&amp;nbsp; Of course, Scottish history reveals that all these
414nefarious nobles came to a bad end - Moray was murdered just 3 years
415later and the next regents were also killed; in fact, her son James had
416one of the traitors executed in 1580, when he was just a teenager. &lt;/p&gt;
417    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary's cause was aided in 1568 when John Hay,
418before his execution, made a statement from the scaffold that told how
419the nobles had murdered Darnley.&amp;nbsp; Before this, the nobles had
420attempted to make the people believe Mary was responsible.&amp;nbsp; Now,
421she was able to win sympathy and friends.&amp;nbsp; George Douglas, one of
422the brothers of her keeper at Lochleven, helped her escape.&amp;nbsp; After
42310 months of captivity, she was free to fight for the throne.&amp;nbsp; Her
424supporters gathered an army and, on their way to Dumbarton Castle, a
425battle was fought at Langside, Glasgow.&amp;nbsp; Mary's forces lost and
426she was forced to flee with her supporters.&amp;nbsp; Against all advice,
427she was determined to go south and ask Elizabeth I for support.&amp;nbsp;
428As James's godmother and Mary's cousin as well as a fellow independent
429Queen, Mary felt certain Elizabeth would help her.&amp;nbsp; As most know,
430this was the beginning of yet another chapter of suffering and misery
431for Mary. &lt;/p&gt;
432    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
433    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
434    &lt;center&gt;
435    &lt;p&gt;&lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;The Final Years, 1568-87&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
436    &lt;/center&gt;
437    &lt;p&gt;Mary set sail for England on 16 May 1568.&amp;nbsp; She soon arrived
438in Workington, Cumbria; Elizabeth did not know what to do and kept Mary
439guarded in the north.&amp;nbsp; After all, without Mary's knowledge, she
440had been helping her enemies, promising money and&amp;nbsp;&lt;img
441 alt=&quot;Mary, queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, as portrayed by Vanessa Redgrave and Timothy Dalton in the film 'Mary Queen of Scots', 1971&quot;
442 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos-film.jpg&quot;
443 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;280&quot; height=&quot;247&quot;&gt; sanctuary in return
444for their treacherous behavior against their queen.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth's
445motives for this were obvious - Mary was the closest Catholic claimant
446to the English throne and Elizabeth knew some of her subjects were not
447above hoping she could be deposed and Mary made queen of both Scotland
448and England.&amp;nbsp; So she had determined to keep her cousin's kingdom
449in continual strife; if Mary was busy at home, she would have less
450chance to plot against Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; But Elizabeth's conscience was
451determined to be clear so she appointed commissioners to look into the
452matter; they met throughout 1568 and 1569.&amp;nbsp; In December of 1569,
453the so-called Casket Letters were first presented at Westminster.&amp;nbsp;
454They were supposedly letters and other papers belonging to Bothwell and
455found in his casket (letter box).&amp;nbsp; They disappeared soon
456afterwards and only translations and copies remain.&amp;nbsp; However, few
457believed they were either real or important at the time for Elizabeth,
458in January 1569, released a statement that 'Nothing had been
459sufficiently proved, whereby the Queen of England should conceive an
460evil opinion of her good sister.'&amp;nbsp; Everyone took this to mean that
461Mary was not guilty of any conspiracy alleged in the letters. &lt;/p&gt;
462    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But in this same year, conservative nobles in
463England supported an idea that Mary should wed the Duke of
464Norfolk.&amp;nbsp; This also indicated that Elizabeth, and most English
465nobles, believed Mary innocent of Darnley's murder and any charges in
466the Casket Letters.&amp;nbsp; But Elizabeth did not consent to the marriage
467and kept Mary under lock and key.&amp;nbsp; Soon, this arrangement had
468settled into stone; Mary was moved from prison to prison, eventually
469ending up at Fotheringhay Castle, about 70 miles north-west of London
470and as close to Elizabeth as she ever came.&amp;nbsp; Of course, Mary
471plotted from the very beginning to escape.&amp;nbsp; She felt justified in
472doing so since she was being held against her will.&amp;nbsp; However, as
473the years passed, the plots grew more outlandish and murderous.&amp;nbsp;
474Mary's imprisonment was only to end with her execution.&lt;br&gt;
475    &lt;br&gt;
476&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;b&gt;Read a more detailed account of &lt;a
477 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary's
478arrival in England&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a
479 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;the plots
480which led to her trial and execution&lt;/a&gt; at the &lt;i&gt;Queen Elizabeth I&lt;/i&gt;
481website.&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
482    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In October of 1586, Mary was put on trial at
483Fotheringhay for plotting to kill Elizabeth and claim the English
484throne.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth's last letter to Mary was delivered at the
485start of the trial: &lt;/p&gt;
486    &lt;blockquote&gt;
487      &lt;p&gt;You have in various ways and manners attempted to take my life
488and to bring my kingdom to destruction by bloodshed. I have never
489proceeded so harshly against you, but have, on the contrary, protected
490and maintained you like myself. These treasons will be proved to you
491and all made manifest. Yet it is my will, that you answer the nobles
492and peers of the kingdom as if I were myself present. I therefore
493require, charge, and command that you make answer for I have been well
494informed of your arrogance. &lt;br&gt;
495&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Act plainly without reserve, and you will sooner be
496able to obtain favour of me. &lt;br&gt;
497&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth.&lt;/p&gt;
498    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
499    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary defended herself admirably though she
500had no friends or supporters at the trial and, essentially, the verdict
501had been decided before the proceedings had begun.&amp;nbsp; Mary admitted
502her desire to escape but stated, 'I have not procured or encouraged any
503hurt against Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth.'&amp;nbsp; And she appealed for
504mercy, mentioning her own reputation for tolerance and kindness: 'My
505subjects now complain they were never so well off as under my
506government.'&amp;nbsp; But she also accepted the inevitable, telling the
507assembled nobles, 'May God keep me from having to do with you all
508again.'&amp;nbsp; When the verdict was read to her, she said, 'I do not
509fear to die in a good cause.' &lt;/p&gt;
510    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The trial lasted just two days and was over
511on 16 October 1586 but it was not until 7 February 1587 that she was
512told she would be executed the next morning.&amp;nbsp; She asked for her
513chaplain but was refused this last comfort.&amp;nbsp; The Earl of Kent
514said: 'Your life would be the death of our religion, your death would
515be its life.'&amp;nbsp; In fact, Mary had been a tolerant ruler in Scottish
516religious matters.&amp;nbsp; But such was the extreme religious upheaval of
517the time, tolerance itself was a sign of weakness.&amp;nbsp; The
518death-sentence was signed by Elizabeth who later argued that her
519secretary Davison had deceived her as to its contents; she said she
520would not have signed it otherwise.&amp;nbsp; Her letter to Mary's son
521James about the execution, written on 14 February, is a remarkable
523    &lt;blockquote&gt;
524      &lt;p&gt;My dear Brother, I would you knew (though not felt) the
525extreme dolor that overwhelms my mind, for that miserable accident
526which (far contrary to my meaning) hath befallen. I have now sent this
527kinsman of mine, whom ere now it hath pleased you to favour, to
528instruct you truly of that which is too irksome for my pen to tell you.
529I beseech you that as God and many more know, how innocent I am in this
530case : so you will believe me, that if I had bid aught I would have bid
531by it. I am not so base minded that fear of any living creature or
532Prince should make me so afraid to do that were just; or done, to deny
533the same. I am not of so base a lineage, nor carry so vile a mind. But,
534as not to disguise, fits not a King, so will I never dissemble my
535actions, but cause them show even as I meant them. Thus assuring
536yourself of me, that as I know this was deserved, yet if I had meant it
537I would never lay it on others' shoulders; no more will I not damnify
538myself that thought it not. &lt;br&gt;
539The circumstance it may please you to have of this bearer. And for your
540part, think you have not in the world a more loving kinswoman, nor a
541more dear friend than myself; nor any that will watch more carefully to
542preserve you and your estate. And who shall otherwise persuade you,
543judge them more partial to others than you. And thus in haste I leave
544to trouble you:&amp;nbsp; beseeching God to send you a long reign. &lt;br&gt;
545&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Your most assured loving sister and cousin, &lt;br&gt;
546&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth R.&lt;/p&gt;
547    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
548    &lt;p&gt;A year later, the Catholic Philip V of Spain invaded England
549with his Armada, perhaps - to some degree - urged on by Mary's
550execution. &lt;/p&gt;
551    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img
552 alt=&quot;Laslett John Pott's painting 'Mary Queen of Scots being led to execution', 1871&quot;
553 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos-death.jpg&quot;
554 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;400&quot; height=&quot;282&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
555Mary did not retire until two in the morning on the last day of her
556life.&amp;nbsp; She spent her final hours making a will and generously
557providing to those who had served her faithfully.&amp;nbsp; Early on the
558morning of 8 February 1587, dressed in black satin and velvet, she
559entered the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle.&amp;nbsp; She commanded her
560servant, Melville, to go to her son and tell him that she had never
561done anything to compromise their kingdom of Scotland.&amp;nbsp; Mary was
562calm and composed before the several hundred spectators present; she
563listened while the execution warrant was read and then prayed aloud in
564English for the Church and her son.&amp;nbsp; She also mentioned Queen
565Elizabeth and prayed for her to continue to serve God in the years to
566come. &lt;/p&gt;
567    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary comforted her weeping servants, her
568friends and supporters to the last.&amp;nbsp; They helped her undress;
569beneath her all-black gown, she wore a red petticoat and bodice.&amp;nbsp;
570Her women helped her attach the long red sleeves.&amp;nbsp; Mary thus died
571wearing the liturgical color of Catholic martyrdom.&amp;nbsp; She gave them
572her golden rosary and Agnus Dei, asking them to remember her in their
573prayers.&amp;nbsp; Her eyes were covered with a white cloth.&amp;nbsp; While
574her servants wept and called out prayers in a medley of languages, she
575laid her neck upon the block, commended herself to God and received the
576death-stroke.&amp;nbsp; But the executioner was unsteady and the first blow
577cut the back of her head; Mary whispered, 'Sweet Jesus', and the second
578blow descended.&lt;/p&gt;
579    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When the executioner lifted her head and
580cried out, 'God save the Queen,' a macabre surprise occurred.&amp;nbsp;
581Mary, queen of Scots had worn an auburn wig to her execution.&amp;nbsp; It
582was left in the executioner's hand as her head, with its short, grey
583hair, fell to the floor.&lt;/p&gt;
584    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary had always loved animals and her little
585Skye terrier had brought her great comfort during the years in
586prison.&amp;nbsp; It had curled itself around her feet while she knelt at
587the block and died just days after the queen.&amp;nbsp; As queen of Scots,
588Mary's motto had been 'In my end is my beginning'.&amp;nbsp; And certainly
589the end of her life marked the beginning of her legend.&amp;nbsp; The
590Catholic nations which had condemned her behavior during Darnley's
591murder and the marriage to Bothwell now celebrated her as a
592martyr.&amp;nbsp; Her former brother-in-law, Henri III of France, held a
593funeral mass at Notre-Dame, where Mary had wed Francis almost thirty
594years before.&amp;nbsp; Accounts of her execution, illustrated by crude
595woodcuts, were sold throughout Europe.&amp;nbsp; She was now the
596sympathetic heroine; the past could be forgotten.&lt;/p&gt;
597    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Sixteen years later, Mary's son
598became King of England and Scotland.&amp;nbsp; In 1612, he moved her body
599to Westminster Abbey, London, constructing a magnificent tomb which
600rivaled Elizabeth I's.&amp;nbsp; In her &lt;i&gt; Essay on Adversity&lt;/i&gt;,
601written in 1580 while she was imprisoned, Mary had written of rulers:
602'Tribulation has been to them as a furnace to fine gold - a means of
603proving their virtue.'&amp;nbsp; It was a fitting epitaph for her own
604infamous life.&lt;/p&gt;
605    &lt;center&gt;
606    &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;You can &lt;a
607 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt; read
608Mary's last letter&lt;/a&gt;, written to Henri III of France just six hours
609before her execution, &lt;br&gt;
610as well as &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;an
611eyewitness account of her execution&lt;/a&gt; at the &lt;i&gt;Primary Sources &lt;/i&gt;
614    &lt;hr&gt; &lt;/center&gt;
615  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
617&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt; &lt;a
618 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
619&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/b&gt; &lt;a
620 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;CHRONOLOGY&lt;/a&gt;
622The major events of her life.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
623&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
624 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;IMAGES&lt;br&gt;
625&lt;/font&gt; &lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Portraits of the queen, her friends and
626family, with
628&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
629 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;PRIMARY
630SOURCES&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot; face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
631Letters written by Mary, as well as an
632eyewitness account of her execution.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
633&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
634 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;br&gt;
635&lt;/a&gt;Test your knowledge of Mary's
636life and times.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
637&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;a
638 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen
639Elizabeth I&lt;br&gt;
640&lt;/a&gt;Learn about Mary's famous cousin.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
641&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
642 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;to Tudor
645&lt;div style=&quot;text-align: left; margin-left: 80px;&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
646&lt;small&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Sources&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;Sources:&lt;/span&gt;&amp;nbsp;
647Life of Mary, Queen of Scots (2 vol) by George Chalmers -&amp;nbsp;&lt;/small&gt;
648&lt;small&gt;My Heart is My Own by John Guy&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of
649Scots: The Daughter of Debate by Marjorie Bowen&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary,
650Queen of Scots: The Daughter of Debate (yes, same title - earlier book)
651by Sir Arthur MacNalty&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;The Castles, Palaces, and
652Prisons of Mary of Scotland by Charles MacKie&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;On the
653Trail of Mary, Queen of Scots by JK Cheetham&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;The
654Queen of Scots by Stefan Zweig&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of Scots
655by Antonia Fraser&lt;/small&gt;&amp;nbsp; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of Scots by Susan
656Watkins&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Two Queens in One Isle by Alison Plowden - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;The
657Casket Letters: A Solution to the&amp;nbsp; Mystery of Mary, Queen of Scots
658and the Murder of Lord Darnley by MH Davison - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;Tudor
659Cousins: Rivals for the Throne by Dulcie Ashdown - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;All
660the Queen's Men by Gordon Donaldson - The First Trial of Mary, Queen of
661Scots by Gordon Donaldson - Mary, Queen of Scots and the Murder of Lord
662Darnley by Alison Weir - In My End is My Beginning: A Life of Mary,
663Queen of Scots by James Mackay - Mary Queen of Scots: A Study in
664Failure by Jenny Wormald - The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and
665Stuart Britain, edited by John Morrill - Two Queens in One Isle by
666Alison Plowden - New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors by
667Susan Brigden - The Life of Mary, Queen of Scots by Agnes Strickland -
668The Mystery of Mary Stuart by Andrew Lang - Mary, Queen of Scots and
669Her Accusers by John Hosack - Scotland Under Mary Stuart: An Account of
670Everyday Life by Marjorie Bowen - Elizabeth and Mary by Jane Dunn -
671Original Letters Illustrative of English History, edited by Henry Ellis
672- Mary, Queen of Scots: A Study of the Lennox Narrative in the
673University Library of Cambridge, edited by Reginald H. Mahon - The
674Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland by Raphael Holinshed -
675Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Documents connected with her
676personal history, edited by Agnes Strickland&lt;br&gt;
679&lt;small&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Weblinks&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;Weblinks:&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;
680&lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;a
681 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Marie Stuart Society of
682Scotland&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is the most detailed Mary, queen of Scots site
683on the web.&amp;nbsp; It has a&amp;nbsp; lengthy biography of the queen,
684samples of her poetry and letters, and much more - too much to list
685here, in fact. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/small&gt;
686&lt;p&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;a
687 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary, queen of Scots&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;
688This site is currently available in French.&amp;nbsp; It's beautifully
689designed and has lots of information; go visit and try out your foreign
690language skills!&amp;nbsp; Its creator also made this &lt;a
691 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Lady Jane Grey site&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
693&lt;p&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;a
694 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Catholic
695Encyclopedia's biography of Mary&lt;/a&gt;, with links to other topics.&lt;br&gt;
696&lt;/small&gt; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
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