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14    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Content">Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits with commentary, Primary Sources Elizabeth Tudor 1533 to 1603 The Virgin Queen Gloriana</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits with commentary, Primary Sources Elizabeth Tudor 1533 to 1603 The Virgin Queen Gloriana</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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21    <Metadata name="dc.Subject">Tudor period|Monarchs</Metadata>
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34
35&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
36  &lt;tr&gt;
37    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
38    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
39    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
40  &lt;/tr&gt;
41  &lt;tr&gt;
42    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
43    &lt;td width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
44    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
45    &lt;IMG height=98 alt=&quot;Queen Elizabeth I&quot;
46      src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz1-queenuse.gif&quot; width=422&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
47    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
48  &lt;/tr&gt;
49  &lt;tr&gt;
50    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
51    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;
52    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
53    &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz1-zuccaro2.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;Zuccaro's sketch of Queen Elizabeth I; c1570s; the most authentic likeness of the queen&quot; width=&quot;300&quot; height=&quot;482&quot;&gt;&lt;blockquote&gt;
54    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;
55    &amp;nbsp;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
56      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Visit
57        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2feliz1-images.html&quot;&gt;Elizabethan
58      Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of the queen and her courtiers, with
59      commentary.&lt;BR&gt;Read poems, letters, and speeches by the queen at &lt;A
60      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;Primary
61      Sources&lt;/A&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
62      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
63      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Read ES Beesly's 1892 biography of Queen
64        Elizabeth I at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fsecondary.html&quot;&gt;
65        Secondary Sources&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;Visit &lt;A
66      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fboleyn.html&quot;&gt;the Anne
67      Boleyn website&lt;/A&gt; to learn more about Elizabeth's mother.&lt;BR&gt;Visit &lt;A
68      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2frelative%2fmaryqos.html&quot;&gt;the Mary,
69      queen of Scots website&lt;/A&gt; to learn more about Elizabeth's
70      cousin.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;Test your knowledge of Elizabeth's life and times at &lt;A
71      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2ftudor1.html&quot;&gt;Tudor
72      Quizzes&lt;/A&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
73      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
74      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;Meet other Elizabethan enthusiasts at
75        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.alassea.net%2ffl%2felizabeth&quot;&gt;The Virgin Queen
76        fanlisting&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/DIV&gt;
77      &lt;DIV align=left&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/DIV&gt;
78      &lt;/td&gt;
79    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
80  &lt;/tr&gt;
81&lt;/table&gt;
82
83&lt;blockquote&gt;
84  &lt;blockquote&gt;
85    &lt;blockquote&gt;
86      &lt;hr&gt;
87    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
88  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
89  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'I cannot but deplore my evil fortune, seeing
90      you have been pleased not only to refuse me your presence, causing me to
91      be declared unworthy of it by your nobles; but also suffered me to be torn
92      in pieces by my rebels.... not allowing me to have copies of their false
93      accusations, or affording me any liberty to accuse
94      them.'&lt;/font&gt;&lt;SMALL&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;I&gt;Mary, queen of Scots to Elizabeth I after the Northern
95      Rebellion&lt;/I&gt;&lt;/SMALL&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
96  &lt;blockquote&gt;
97    &lt;blockquote&gt;
98      &lt;hr&gt;
99      &lt;p&gt;There were three main plots concerning &lt;A
100      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2frelative%2fmaryqos.html&quot;&gt;Mary, queen of
101      Scots&lt;/A&gt; - the duke of Norfolk's scheme of 1569, the Throckmorton Plot of
102      1583, and the Babington Plot of 1586.&amp;nbsp; For as long as Mary lived, she
103      was a potential threat to Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; And since she was now
104      imprisoned on English soil, she was an even greater menace.&amp;nbsp; Domestic
105      enemies of the queen made no secret of their admiration for Mary
106      Stuart.&amp;nbsp; And foreign ambassadors often communicated secretly with
107      her, particularly the French and Spanish ambassadors.&amp;nbsp; As a former
108      queen of France, Mary had many friends in that country.&amp;nbsp; And as a
109      Catholic queen, she was friendly with the increasingly pious Philip II of
110      Spain.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
111      &lt;P&gt;Elizabeth was always of two minds regarding her cousin.&amp;nbsp; She
112      recognized the danger which Mary represented, but she was acutely
113      conscious of Mary's status as a sovereign queen unlawfully deposed by her
114      subjects.&amp;nbsp; She could not impugn her cousin's dignity without risking
115      damage to the ideal of royal prerogative.&amp;nbsp; The trick was to deprive
116      Mary of her standing as a sovereign.&amp;nbsp; Mary's own behavior, in
117      Scotland and England, gave Elizabeth a distinct advantage.&amp;nbsp; Even
118      staunch Catholic allies were troubled by Mary's reported crimes.&amp;nbsp;
119      Perhaps she was innocent of complicity in her second husband's murder, but
120      she had married James Hepburn, the earl of Bothwell in a Protestant ceremony.&amp;nbsp; And the
121      evidence of the 'Casket Letters' (now believed to be false) supported the
122      theory that Mary and Bothwell had an adulterous affair and then plotted
123      Darnley's murder.&amp;nbsp; This erosion of Mary's reputation necessarily
124      alienated her moderate supporters.&amp;nbsp; But for the extremists, such flaws
125      could be overlooked for the greater good of overthrowing the heretic
126      Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/P&gt;
127      &lt;P&gt;At first, Mary was content to avoid plotting against her cousin.&amp;nbsp;
128      But when it became clear that Elizabeth would not help her return to
129      Scotland, she was forced into a corner.&amp;nbsp; She wrote constantly to the
130      English queen, begging for a personal meeting, much as Elizabeth had
131      requested an audience with Mary I.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth refused.&amp;nbsp; Mary was
132      originally placed in the care of the wealthy earl of Shrewsbury and his
133      formidable wife, Bess of Hardwick.&amp;nbsp; She was kept in comfortable
134      quarters, with a large retinue of servants and accorded respect as a
135      sovereign queen; she even ate beneath a cloth of estate.&amp;nbsp; But she was
136      essentially a prisoner and no material comforts could obscure that
137      essential fact. &lt;/P&gt;
138      &lt;P&gt;
139      &lt;IMG height=229
140      alt=&quot;portrait of Elizabeth I's cousin, Mary queen of Scots&quot;
141      src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz4-four.jpg&quot; width=155 border=2 align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;Those early years in England were spent in various hearings and
142      meetings, with Mary proclaiming her innocence of Darnley's murder and the
143      duplicity of her Scottish nobles.&amp;nbsp; When these ended with her freedom
144      still denied, she became understandably bitter.&amp;nbsp; She had been
145      condemned to prison without a fair hearing, with no end in sight.&amp;nbsp;
146      For a lively young woman who had always lived openly and passionately,
147      with as great a love of the outdoors as Elizabeth, used to being her
148      own mistress and the former queen of two countries, the situation was intolerable.&amp;nbsp; She was only 25 years
149      old when she arrived in England and all of her natural energy and
150      enthusiasm became fixed upon one goal - freedom. &lt;/P&gt;
151      &lt;P&gt;She was essentially powerless.&amp;nbsp; And so she turned to subterfuge,
152      relying upon a small network of Catholic and foreign allies.&amp;nbsp; This
153      was surprisingly successful.&amp;nbsp; She gained important news from the
154      continent and Elizabeth's court.&amp;nbsp; But Shrewsbury complained
155      incessantly about the expense of Mary's imprisonment and Elizabeth's
156      councilors complained about her ceaseless correspondence with
157      Catholics.&amp;nbsp; And so she was eventually removed from Shrewsbury's care
158      into less comfortable quarters. &amp;nbsp;This had the paradoxical effect of
159      encouraging more plotting on Mary's part. &amp;nbsp;&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
160      &lt;P&gt;After the plot to marry Norfolk and the Northern Rebellion failed in
161      1569, Mary increasingly turned to her foreign supporters. &amp;nbsp;They were
162      able to provide crucial encouragement as well as the names of trusted
163      English sympathizers. &amp;nbsp;In 1583, the second serious plan to free Mary
164      and kill Elizabeth was discovered. &amp;nbsp;It is known as the 'Throckmorton
165      Plot', after its leader Sir Francis Throckmorton. &amp;nbsp;A well-born
166      Catholic Englishman, Throckmorton was given money and guidance by the
167      French prince, the duc de Guise. &amp;nbsp;De Guise wished to invade Scotland
168      and England simultaneously, murder Elizabeth with the assistance of
169      English Catholics, and then place Mary on the throne. &amp;nbsp;Elizabeth's
170      great spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham was notoriously suspicious, a trait
171      which most (including Elizabeth) often condemned. &amp;nbsp;But in this case,
172      his prudence, and an agent named Fagot, foiled the plot. &amp;nbsp;The 30 year
173      old Throckmorton was arrested and tortured on the rack before confessing
174      everything. &amp;nbsp;He was executed at Tyburn on 10 July 1584. &amp;nbsp;Based
175      upon his confession, the complicity of the Spanish ambassador Bernadino de
176      Mendoza was discovered; he was expelled from England in January 1584.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
177      &lt;P&gt;In June 1584, even as Throckmorton awaited execution, the Protestant leader William of Orange was assassinated
178      at Delft by a Catholic. &amp;nbsp;Elizabeth's councilors became even more terrified for
179      her safety. &amp;nbsp;It did not help matters that France was in the midst of
180      terrible religious turmoil. &amp;nbsp;Catherine de Medici had sought to
181      placate both parties by tolerating Protestant services; she also married
182      her daughter Marguerite to the Protestant prince Henri of Navarre in 1572.
183      &amp;nbsp;The St Bartholomew's Day Massacre was the result. &amp;nbsp;Henri had
184      saved his own life by renouncing Protestantism, but in 1576 he was able to
185      escape imprisonment and publicly embraced his faith again. &amp;nbsp;In 1584,
186      King Henri III of France named Henri of Navarre his heir presumptive.
187      &amp;nbsp;None of Catherine de Medici's sons had produced a male heir and so the
188      throne would pass to a Protestant king.&lt;/P&gt;
189      &lt;P&gt;This decision led to 'The War of the Three Henrys' and, indirectly,
190      Henri III's assassination in 1589 by a Catholic fanatic, Jacques Clement.&amp;nbsp;
191      Henri of Navarre was then
192      crowned king of France, but was forced to fight against the Catholic
193      League. &amp;nbsp;He could not enter Paris until 1594, after once again
194      renouncing his faith with the famous remark, 'Paris is well worth a Mass.'
195      &amp;nbsp;But he continued at war with Spain for several more years and
196      embarked upon a policy of religious toleration which culminated in the
197      Edict of Nantes in 1598.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
198      &lt;P&gt;Elizabeth and her council carefully considered the events in France.
199      &amp;nbsp;There were three great Protestant leaders in Europe - Elizabeth I
200      (however unwilling she was to accept the role), William of Orange, and
201      Henri of Navarre. &amp;nbsp;Of the three, William was assassinated in 1584 and
202      Navarre was once again forced to convert. &amp;nbsp;Elizabeth survived
203      unscathed, but the Throckmorton plot was a very troubling development.
204      &amp;nbsp;It meant that foreign powers were determined to destroy her; there
205      would be no more marriage proposals, only a shadowy network of
206      plots.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
207      &lt;P&gt;In October, Cecil and Walsingham were concerned enough to draft the
208      'Bond of Association', a document which pledged protection of the queen
209      and destruction of her enemies. &amp;nbsp;Walsingham was now secretary of
210      state, having assumed the more onerous duties of that office from Cecil in
211      1568; his focus was primarily on diplomacy and espionage. &amp;nbsp;In January
212      1585, he arranged for Mary, queen of Scots to be moved to Tutbury Castle.&amp;nbsp;
213      Her personal papers were minutely examined during the process, without her
214      knowledge. Walsingham wished to know all, but without rousing Mary's
215      suspicions.&lt;/P&gt;
216      &lt;P&gt;Elizabeth approved of these plans. &amp;nbsp;She was personally courageous
217      and refused to alter her many public appearances for fear of an assassin.
218      &amp;nbsp;This caused her councilors many sleepless nights. &amp;nbsp;But they
219      could not help but admire her bravery. &amp;nbsp;She also took to keeping a
220      small sword beneath her pillow in case of an attack. &amp;nbsp;It was her only
221      sign of distress and perfectly in keeping with her pragmatic approach to
222      life. &amp;nbsp;The assassins might come, but she would be armed and ready to
223      fight&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;In February 1585, Parliament banished Catholic priests and
224      ordered the return of all Englishmen studying at seminaries abroad.
225      &amp;nbsp;The 'Bond of&lt;img border=&quot;2&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/eliz1-bettes1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;Elizabeth I, painted by John Bettes the Younger, c1580s&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; width=&quot;350&quot; height=&quot;478&quot;&gt; Association' was also given legal force, which meant
226      that noncompliance with its terms would be a treasonable offense. &amp;nbsp;It
227      would be officially ratified by Parliament in July 1586. &amp;nbsp;And in May,
228      relations with Spain deteriorated further when Philip II ordered the
229      seizure of English ships in Atlantic ports. &amp;nbsp;Three months later,
230      England signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Alliance at Nonsuch Palace, in
231      which Elizabeth pledged military assistance to the Protestant Dutch
232      rebellion against Spain. &amp;nbsp;Almost 7000 English soldiers under the
233      command of Robert Dudley immediately left for the Netherlands.&lt;/P&gt;
234      &lt;P&gt;It was clear to everyone that conflict between England and Spain was
235      fast becoming inevitable. &amp;nbsp;As much as she preferred to prevaricate
236      and remain neutral, Elizabeth was being forced to choose sides. &amp;nbsp;The
237      problem of Mary, queen of Scots only encouraged Elizabeth's support for
238      the Protestant cause.&lt;/P&gt;
239      &lt;P&gt;In December 1585, Mary was moved to Chartley Manor. &amp;nbsp;Walsingham
240      knew she was plotting again, this time with increasing desperation.
241      &amp;nbsp;Throckmorton's failure had shaken her badly, though she professed
242      innocence. &amp;nbsp;Her exact role in that conspiracy remains unclear; it is
243      possible she only knew of it, but did not actively encourage it. &amp;nbsp;But
244      she did enthusiastically support the treason of another English Catholic,
245      a young man named Sir Anthony Babington.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
246      &lt;P&gt;Another well-born Englishman, Babington had served as a page in
247      Shrewsbury's household during the early years of Mary's imprisonment.
248      &amp;nbsp;His romanticized memories of the queen, as well as his passionate
249      Catholicism, made him susceptible to the plans of Thomas Morgan, one of
250      Mary's trusted agents. &amp;nbsp;In 1580, the 19 year old Babington was
251      traveling in France when he met Morgan. &amp;nbsp;After he returned to
252      England, he became increasingly associated with Mary's admirers,
253      eventually smuggling letters from the French embassy to the imprisoned
254      queen.
255      &amp;nbsp;Babington was only a half-hearted conspirator, but Walsingham was
256      content to use him to lure Mary into a final trap. &amp;nbsp;When Babington
257      learned the Catholic priest Ballard planned to murder Elizabeth, he tried
258      to escape abroad but Walsingham refused him a passport. &amp;nbsp;Babington
259      was frantic and turned to a friend for advice, confessing everything.
260      &amp;nbsp;His friend then ran to Walsingham with the information. &amp;nbsp;But
261      the queen's secretary of state did not act at once. &amp;nbsp;He sensed this
262      was his best opportunity to catch Mary in the act, so to speak, and with
263      enough evidence to finally convince Elizabeth of her cousin's complicity.
264      &amp;nbsp;The queen's refusal to condemn Mary was no longer a benevolent
265      quirk; for her councilors, it was a matter of life and death.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
266      &lt;P&gt;Walsingham had soon collected a number of letters between Morgan, Mary,
267      and Babington. &amp;nbsp;And in one of those, Mary explicitly approved the
268      murder of Elizabeth. &amp;nbsp;It was this letter that Walsingham needed.
269      &amp;nbsp;When confronted with it, Elizabeth was at first disbelieving and
270      then angry. &amp;nbsp;She approved of moving Mary to Fotheringhay Castle and
271      sending a commission of statesmen there to investigate the Babington Plot.
272      &amp;nbsp;She also sent along a letter to be delivered to her captive cousin.
273      &amp;nbsp;It read:&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
274      &lt;BLOCKQUOTE&gt;
275        &lt;p&gt;You have in various ways and manners attempted to take my
276        life and to bring my kingdom to destruction by bloodshed. I have never
277        proceeded so harshly against you, but have, on the contrary, protected
278        and maintained you like myself. These treasons will be proved to you and
279        all made manifest. Yet it is my will, that you answer the nobles and
280        peers of the kingdom as if I were myself present. I therefore require,
281        charge, and command that you make answer for I have been well informed
282        of your arrogance. &lt;BR&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Act plainly without reserve,
283        and you will sooner be able to obtain favour of me.
284        &lt;BR&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth.&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
285      &lt;/BLOCKQUOTE&gt;
286      &lt;p&gt;Mary defended herself at
287      the resulting trial; her most potent argument was that she was a sovereign
288      queen and thus not liable to the laws of England. &amp;nbsp;She also denied
289      ever plotting the death of Elizabeth. &amp;nbsp;But it was too late. &amp;nbsp;She
290      was condemned to death. &amp;nbsp;Elizabeth at first refused to sign the
291      warrant for execution, much as she had earlier with Norfolk. &amp;nbsp;It was
292      an agonizing decision. &amp;nbsp;There is a possibility she was tricked into
293      signing it. &amp;nbsp;Mary was finally beheaded on 8 February 1587. &amp;nbsp;On
294      the 14th, Elizabeth sent the following letter to Mary's son, King James VI
295      of Scotland:&lt;BR&gt;&lt;BR&gt;
296      &lt;/p&gt;
297      &lt;BLOCKQUOTE&gt;
298        &lt;p&gt;My dear Brother, I would you knew (though not felt) the
299        extreme dolor that overwhelms my mind, for that miserable accident which
300        (far contrary to my meaning) hath befallen. I have now sent this kinsman
301        of mine, whom ere now it hath pleased you to favour, to instruct you
302        truly of that which is too irksome for my pen to tell you. I beseech you
303        that as God and many more know, how innocent I am in this case : so you
304        will believe me, that if I had bid aught I would have bid by it. I am
305        not so base minded that fear of any living creature or Prince should
306        make me so afraid to do that were just; or done, to deny the same. I am
307        not of so base a lineage, nor carry so vile a mind. But, as not to
308        disguise, fits not a King, so will I never dissemble my actions, but
309        cause them show even as I meant them. Thus assuring yourself of me, that
310        as I know this was deserved, yet if I had meant it I would never lay it
311        on others' shoulders; no more will I not damnify myself that thought it
312        not. &lt;BR&gt;The circumstance it may please you to have of this bearer. And
313        for your part, think you have not in the world a more loving kinswoman,
314        nor a more dear friend than myself; nor any that will watch more
315        carefully to preserve you and your estate. And who shall otherwise
316        persuade you, judge them more partial to others than you. And thus in
317        haste I leave to trouble you:&amp;nbsp; beseeching God to send you a long
318        reign. &lt;BR&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Your most assured loving sister and
319        cousin, &lt;BR&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth R.&lt;/p&gt;
320      &lt;/BLOCKQUOTE&gt;
321      &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth had been
322      queen for almost thirty years, surviving numerous obstacles and
323      conspiracies. &amp;nbsp;Her councilors now believed the greatest threat to her
324      reign was over. &amp;nbsp;But they were wrong, as the momentous events of 1588
325      would soon prove.&lt;/p&gt;
326      &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
327      &lt;CENTER&gt;
328      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;B&gt;
329      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz5.html&quot;&gt;CONTINUE
330      READING&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/B&gt; &lt;BR&gt;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/P&gt;
331      &lt;P align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;FONT size=-1&gt;&lt;A
332      href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs.html&quot;&gt;to Tudor
333      Monarchs&lt;/A&gt;&lt;BR&gt;
334      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz3.html&quot;&gt;back to Queen
335      Elizabeth I, part three&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/FONT&gt;&lt;B&gt;&lt;BR&gt;&lt;/B&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
336      &lt;P&gt;&lt;b&gt;Visit the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fmaryqosimages.html&quot;&gt;Mary,
337      queen of Scots Images site&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of the queen, with
338      commentary.&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/P&gt;
339      &lt;/CENTER&gt;
340     
341
342    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
343  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
344&lt;/blockquote&gt;
345
346
347
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350</Content>
351</Section>
352</Archive>
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