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14    <Metadata name="Content">Mary Stuart Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587 biography</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Page_topic">Mary Stuart Queen of Scots 1542-1587 biography</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">Mary, Queen of Scots: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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21    <Metadata name="dc.Subject">Tudor period|Relatives</Metadata>
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40&lt;div align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
42&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;0&quot; cellspacing=&quot;4&quot; width=&quot;94%&quot;&gt;
43  &lt;tbody&gt;
44    &lt;tr&gt;
45      &lt;td valign=&quot;bottom&quot; colspan=&quot;3&quot;&gt; &lt;img border=&quot;0&quot;
46 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosbiography.gif&quot;
47 width=&quot;764&quot; height=&quot;103&quot;&gt;
48      &lt;p&gt; Mary, queen of Scots is one of the most fascinating and
49controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe.&amp;nbsp; At one time, she
50claimed the crowns of four nations - Scotland, France, England and
51Ireland.&amp;nbsp; Her physical beauty and kind heart were acknowledged
52even by her enemies.&amp;nbsp; Yet she lacked the political skills to rule
53successfully in Scotland.&amp;nbsp; Her second marriage was unpopular and
54ended in murder and scandal; her third was even less popular and ended
55in forced abdication in favor of her infant son.&amp;nbsp; She fled to
56England in 1568, hoping for the help of her cousin, Elizabeth I.&amp;nbsp;
57Her presence was dangerous for the English queen, who feared Catholic
58plotting on Mary's behalf.&amp;nbsp; The two queens never met and Mary
59remained imprisoned for the next nineteen years.&amp;nbsp; She was executed
60in 1587, only forty-four years old.&amp;nbsp; By orders of the English
61government, all of her possessions were burned.&amp;nbsp; In 1603, upon
62Elizabeth's death, Mary's son became king of England as James I.&lt;/p&gt;
63      &lt;/td&gt;
64    &lt;/tr&gt;
65    &lt;tr&gt;
66      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
67      &lt;/td&gt;
68      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
69      &lt;/td&gt;
70      &lt;td&gt;&lt;br&gt;
71      &lt;/td&gt;
72    &lt;/tr&gt;
73    &lt;tr&gt;
74      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt; &lt;img border=&quot;2&quot;
75 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosbiographyblack.jpg&quot;
76 width=&quot;400&quot; height=&quot;521&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
77      &lt;td width=&quot;4%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
78      &lt;/td&gt;
79      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;
80      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
81      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;FURTHER READING&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
82You may also view a &lt;a
83 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
84chronology&lt;/a&gt; of her life, read &lt;a
85 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;,
86including letters written by Mary, view &lt;a
87 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;portraits of Mary&lt;/a&gt;
88and her contemporaries, test your knowledge of Mary's life at &lt;a
89 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;/a&gt;,
90and learn more about her famous cousin, &lt;a
91 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen
92Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
93      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
94 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
95Click here to view sources&lt;/a&gt; for this biography; and &lt;a
96 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
97click here for weblinks&lt;/a&gt; related to Mary, queen of Scots.&amp;nbsp; My
98personal favorite is &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot; face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
99 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Marie Stuart Society of
100Scotland&lt;/a&gt; website.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
101      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
102      &lt;p&gt; &amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
103      &lt;p&gt; &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;NEWS&amp;nbsp; April
105      &lt;/b&gt;Two new studies of Mary, queen of Scots have arrived in
106bookstores.&amp;nbsp; Jane Dunn's &lt;i&gt; &lt;a
107 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
108Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt; is a dual biography
109with a beautiful selection of portraits and judicious use of primary
110sources.&amp;nbsp; John Guy's &lt;i&gt; &lt;a
111 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
112Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt; (published in the
113UK as &lt;a
114 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;
115      &lt;i&gt;My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots&lt;/i&gt;)&lt;/a&gt;
116is the first biography dedicated to the Scottish queen in over thirty
117years.&amp;nbsp; Its central thesis argues that Burghley was the true
118villain of Mary's story.&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
119      &lt;/span&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
120September 2004&lt;/b&gt;: I am working on a new, detailed biography of
121Mary.&amp;nbsp; Please check back soon.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
122      &lt;/td&gt;
123    &lt;/tr&gt;
124  &lt;/tbody&gt;
129  &lt;blockquote&gt;
130    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
131    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;/b&gt; &lt;font
132 face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'As a sinner I am
133truly conscious of having often offended my Creator and I beg him to
134forgive me, but as a Queen and Sovereign, I am aware of no fault or
135offence for which I have to render account to anyone here
136below.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font
137 size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Mary, queen of Scots to her
138jailer, Sir Amyas Paulet; October 1586&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
139    &lt;hr&gt;
140    &lt;p&gt;In November 1542, King James V of Scotland, lay dying at his
141beloved Falkland Palace, built just five years earlier.&amp;nbsp; He was
142devastated by his army's defeat by the English at Solway Moss and saw
143little hope for the future.&amp;nbsp; At Falkland, he was told that Mary of
144Guise, his French-born wife once wooed by Henry VIII, had given birth
145to a daughter at Linlithgow Palace on December 8.&amp;nbsp; This was a
146feast-day in honor of the Virgin Mary and many took it as a good omen
147for the little &lt;font face=&quot;Arial&quot;&gt; &lt;img height=&quot;407&quot;
148 alt=&quot;sketch of Mary, queen of Scots, age 12 or 13, by Clouet&quot;
149 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqosmain13.jpg&quot;
150 width=&quot;250&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot;&gt;&lt;/font&gt;princess; for her father,
151however, it was otherwise.&amp;nbsp; Upon receiving news of Mary's birth,
152he reportedly said, 'Woe is me. My dynasty came with a lass.&amp;nbsp; It
153will go with a lass.'&amp;nbsp; James's ancestor, Robert II, had become
154King of Scots in 1371.&amp;nbsp; The son of Robert the Bruce's daughter
156and Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert was nearest in
157succession to the throne.&amp;nbsp; He called his&amp;nbsp; new dynasty
158'Stewart,' a variation on his father's title; in France, it was spelled
159Stuart. Mary's father, James V, believed this lineage had ended with
160his daughter's birth.&amp;nbsp; He certainly never contemplated that his
161grandson would one day rule both Scotland and its old enemy,
162England.&amp;nbsp; James died within a week of Mary's birth and, before she
163was even a year old, the child was crowned queen of Scots. &lt;/p&gt;
164    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The regents of Scotland made a treaty with
165Henry VIII in which Edward, Henry's long-awaited and precious son,
166would wed Mary.&amp;nbsp; But Henry VIII became increasingly erratic and
167despotic in his later years and continued to send his army north.&amp;nbsp;
168In 1546, Henry also encouraged the murder of Cardinal Beaton, a great
169Scots patriot; the proof - shortly before the murder, he had offered
171thousand pounds for expenses associated with a plot to murder
172Beaton.&amp;nbsp; After this, the Scots were determined to avoid the
173proposed English marriage. In July 1548, they sent the five-year-old
174Mary to France, her mother's homeland.&amp;nbsp; The Scots Parliament had
175agreed to her marriage with Francis, the heir of Henry II, king of
176France from 1547 to 1559.&amp;nbsp; Mary sailed from Dumbarton Castle to
177France, using this route to avoid English ships patrolling the English
178Channel.&amp;nbsp; According to most contemporary reports, Mary was
179exceptionally lovely (even in an age when most noble women were
180accorded the title of 'fair' or 'beautiful'), intelligent and full of
181vitality.&amp;nbsp; One French observer wrote admiringly: 'It is not
182possible to hope for more from a Princess on this earth.'&amp;nbsp; From
183this vantage point, Mary's life seemed to be set on a glorious course;
184but like a later foreign queen of France, Marie Antoinette, Mary's life
185was not destined to be peaceful and happy. &lt;/p&gt;
186    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When Mary left for Scotland, she traveled
187with the children of Scotland's nobility, including the 'Four Maries,'
188the women who would stay with her throughout her later imprisonment and
189execution.&amp;nbsp; They were Mary Fleming, Mary Seton, Mary Beaton and
190Mary Livingstone.&amp;nbsp; Mary Seton was the only one to die unmarried
191and lived on until 1615, praying for Mary's soul and giving alms in her
192memory.&amp;nbsp; The group arrived in France in August 1548. &lt;/p&gt;
193    &lt;center&gt;
194    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
195    &lt;p&gt; &lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;France, 1548-61&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
196    &lt;/center&gt;
197    &lt;p&gt;Mary was given a royal welcome in France by King Henry II.&amp;nbsp;
198He ordered that she would have precedence over his own daughters as she
199was sovereign of an independent country and also because she was to wed
200his heir, the Dauphin.&amp;nbsp; The king also became very fond of the
201child, saying, 'The little Queen of Scots is the most perfect child I
202have ever seen.'&amp;nbsp; While in France, Mary's maternal grandmother,
203Antoinette de Guise, wrote to her daughter in Scotland that Mary was
204'very pretty, graceful and self-assured.' &lt;/p&gt;
205    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary was 5 when she first met the
206four-year-old Dauphin, her betrothed husband.&amp;nbsp; According to most
207contemporaries, they were close and affectionate with one another even
208as children.&amp;nbsp; They traveled from one royal palace to another -
209Fountaineblea to Meudon, or to Chambord or Saint-Germain.&amp;nbsp; They
210were always attended to by a retinue of servants and, even then, Mary
211had developed a fondness for animals, especially dogs, which was to
212continue throughout her life.&amp;nbsp; Mary was also educated in the
213traditional manner of French princesses; she spoke French and learned
214Latin, Italian, Spanish and a little Greek.&amp;nbsp; She learned to dance,
215sing, play the lute as well as converse on religious matters.&amp;nbsp; Her
216religious tutor was the prior of Inchmahome, a Scottish priest.&amp;nbsp;
217When she was seven, her mother came to France to visit her; when Mary
218of Guise returned to Scotland, neither realized that they would never
219see each other again. &lt;/p&gt;
220    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; By the age of eleven, Mary was deemed to be
221as intelligent and well-spoken as a woman of twenty-five by her doting
222father-in-law.&amp;nbsp; It is worth noting that the Guise family regarded
223Mary as one of their own; not only was betrothed to the heir to the
224throne but her mother was a Guise as well.&amp;nbsp; Her uncle, Cardinal
225Guise, taught her about statecraft, perhaps encouraging her natural
226feelings of clemency and mercy.&amp;nbsp; In fact, Mary was to be
227remarkably free from bigotry during her short reign in Scotland, even
228towards her subjects of a different religion. &lt;/p&gt;
229    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img
230 alt=&quot;portrait of Mary queen of Scots and her first husband, Francis II of France&quot;
231 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryfrancis-crop.jpg&quot;
232 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;170&quot; height=&quot;226&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
233In 1555, Mary sent back letters to her mother in Scotland to be used
234for administrative purposes and it is from these that we first see her
235royal signature &lt;img
236 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/marysig.jpg&quot;&gt;'MARIE R'&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp;
237In 1558, she married the Dauphin in an incredible celebration in
238Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris.&amp;nbsp; Exceptionally tall for a woman in
239the 16th century, Mary was every inch the regal Queen; she had an oval
240face, shapely chin, and small mouth which were set off by her
241golden-red hair, her large forehead, and hazel eyes.&amp;nbsp; Many
242considered Mary to be the most beautiful princess in Europe, much as
243they had thought of her relative, Henry VIII's sister, &lt;a
244 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary&lt;/a&gt;,
245who had also come to France as queen for a short while.&amp;nbsp; Mary was
246not always in the best of health but, unlike her husband, there were no
247immediate concerns for her life. &lt;/p&gt;
248    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1558, &lt;a
249 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen Mary I&lt;/a&gt;
250of England passed away and Henry II of France encouraged his
251daughter-in- law to assume the royal arms of England.&amp;nbsp; In his
252opinion - and that of most of Catholic Europe - Mary of Scotland was
253the next heir to the English throne.&amp;nbsp; This belief, of course,
254would have serious repercussions throughout Mary's life.&amp;nbsp;
255Elizabeth I never forgot this first offense and never rested easily
256while her Catholic relative was alive.&amp;nbsp; But the matter was
257smoothed over when Elizabeth was persuadd the assumption was due more
258to Guise ambitions than Mary's actual wish.&amp;nbsp; In 1559, Henry II of
259France, died at the age of 40. Mary and her husband were crowned Queen
260and King of France.&amp;nbsp; But in June of 1560, Mary's mother died in
261Scotland at the age of 45.&amp;nbsp; And just six months later, her young
262husband also died of an ear infection.&amp;nbsp; Mary was understandably
263devastated by this chain of tragic events.&amp;nbsp; Thockmorton, the
264English ambassador, commented that Francis had left 'as dolorous a wife
265as she had good cause to be.&amp;nbsp; By long watching with him during his
266sickness and painful diligence about him' she had become exhausted and
267made herself ill.&amp;nbsp; She wrote a poem, in French, about her grief at
268his death; this is a translation of one verse: &lt;/p&gt;
269    &lt;p&gt;&lt;i&gt;By day, by night, I think of him/ In wood or mead, or where I
270be/ My heart keeps watch for one who's gone./ And yet I feel he's aye
271with me.&lt;/i&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
272    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; What was Mary to do next?&amp;nbsp; She left for
273Scotland, a land rife with religious and civil discord. Without waiting
274for a safe-conduct pass from Elizabeth, whose ships were patrolling her
275route, Mary set out for Scotland on 14 August 1561 and, five days
276later, reached Leith, the port of Edinburgh. &lt;/p&gt;
277    &lt;center&gt;
278    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
279    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
280    &lt;p&gt; &lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;Scotland, 1561-68&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
281    &lt;/center&gt;
282    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary knew very well that she was succeeding
283to a most troubled heritage.&amp;nbsp; But after her recent years of loss
284and grief, she was determined to make a bright future.&amp;nbsp; Also, in
285an age of religious persecution which earned her cousin Mary Tudor the
286nickname 'Bloody Mary,' Mary was determined that every one of her
287Scottish subjects should worship God as their conscience bade; there
288would be no religious persecution under her rule. &amp;nbsp;In this, she
289resembled her cousin &lt;a
290 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;.
291    &lt;/p&gt;
292    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;copy of a French miniature of Mary, painted c1565&quot;
293 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos1565cr.jpg&quot;
294 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;175&quot; height=&quot;236&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
295The Scots received their new queen with great joy and
296celebration.&amp;nbsp; At once, she began to try and help them; within a
297year of her arrival, one-sixth of all Church benefices was given to the
298Protestant ministers to relieve their poverty.&amp;nbsp; She also attempted
299to strengthen the power of the Crown against Scotland's notoriously
300difficult-to-control nobles.&amp;nbsp; Of course, such a strategy would
301lead to more peace and stability within the realm.&amp;nbsp; As a result,
302she was popular with the common people but not the nobility; she played
303croquet, golfed, went for hunts and archery practice, sung, danced,
304and, in general, showed an admirable zest for life.&amp;nbsp; In 1562 the
305English ambassador reported to Elizabeth, 'When the soldiers came back
306from the night's sentry-duty, she said she was sorry she was not a man
307to be all night on the fields and to walk the causeway with buff-coat,
308steel-helmet, buckler, and broadsword.' &lt;/p&gt;
309    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In 1563, Mary began the traditional 'royal
310progress' throughout Scotland.&amp;nbsp; In 1564, the fourth Earl of Atholl
311organized a great hunt in honor of the queen and, yet again, Mary
312charmed all who met her.&amp;nbsp; Yet she also treaded dangerous ground
313with her policy of non-discrimination and desire to unify the nation,
314taking power away from the independent nobles.&amp;nbsp; Though a Catholic,
315Mary became friends with one of the most learned Protestants of the
316time, George Buchanan.&amp;nbsp; In the political realm, Mary kept up
317peaceful relations with France, Spain, and England, though she never
318met Elizabeth face-to-face.&amp;nbsp; But, in 1566, her patience was tried
319by the English ambassador's persistent and obvious spying; she ordered
320him out of the kingdom and declared him persona non grata.&amp;nbsp; And
321her peace with France and Spain was kept without a treaty, though a
322treaty would have given Scotland some measure of protection against
323England in the possibility of conflict.&amp;nbsp; However, Mary was aware
324that any treaty could compromise her subjects, involving them in yet
325another war and causing strife.&amp;nbsp; Above all, she wanted peace and
326prosperity, and she kept Scotland safely distanced from political
327machinations.&amp;nbsp; When the threat to Mary's reign finally came, it
328was not from one of these outside powers; indeed, it came from within
329her own nation. &lt;/p&gt;
330    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;Mary's second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley&quot;
331 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/darnley-crop.jpg&quot;
332 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;150&quot; height=&quot;197&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
333As queen, Mary was more than aware that she should marry and provide
334heirs to the throne.&amp;nbsp; In July of 1565, she wed a cousin named
335Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, a weak, vain, and unstable young man; like
336Mary, he was also a grandchild of Henry VIII's sister Margaret.&amp;nbsp;
337Why Mary wed Darnley remains a mystery; he was superficially charming
338and, unlike most men, taller than the queen. &amp;nbsp;He was fond of
339courtly amusements and thus a nice change from the dour Scottish lords
340who surrounded her. &amp;nbsp;But he never seemed to care for Mary and
341sought far more power than she was willing to give him.&amp;nbsp; When she
342was six months pregnant in March of 1566, Darnley joined a group of
343Scottish nobles who broke into her supper-room at Holyrood Palace and
344dragged her Piedmontese secretary, David Riccio, into another room and
345stabbed him to death.&amp;nbsp; They claimed Riccio had undue influence
346over her foreign policy but, in reality, they probably meant to cause
347Mary, from watching this horrific crime, to suffer a miscarriage, thus
348losing her child and her own life as well since one usually meant the
349other in the 16th century.&amp;nbsp; Mary certainly believed that Darnley,
350angry because she had denied him the crown matrimonial, wanted to kill
351her and the child, thus becoming King of Scots.&amp;nbsp; But it is
352unlikely that, had he been successful, Darnley would have long survived
353his wife. &lt;/p&gt;
354    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; After Riccio's death, the nobles kept Mary
355prisoner at Holyrood Palace.&amp;nbsp; Entering the later stages of her
356pregnancy, she was desperate to escape and - somehow - won over Darnley
357and they escaped together.&amp;nbsp; Three months later the future James VI
358of Scotland was born and congratulations came from all over
359Europe.&amp;nbsp; Still young and healthy after the birth, Mary now had an
360heir.&amp;nbsp; This was the apex of her reign, her greatest and happiest
361moment.&amp;nbsp; In December 1566 James was baptized in the Chapel Royal
362of Stirling Castle. Mary, once the fragile last hope of the Stewart
363dynasty, was just 23 years old and had fulfilled one of a monarch's
364greatest duties - providing a healthy son and heir.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth of
365England, ten years older, watched these events with interest for, even
366then, she knew her own future would be - by choice - unmarried and
367childless.&amp;nbsp; She could well imagine that Mary's son would be her
368heir as well. &lt;/p&gt;
369    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But this future soon seemed perilous for
370James's birth provided only a temporary calm.&amp;nbsp; The nobles who had
371plotted with Darnley now felt betrayed by him; after all, they had
372captured the queen and her potential heir, murdered her dear friend,
373and were in a position to demand anything.&amp;nbsp; But Darnley's decision
374to help Mary escape infuriated them.&amp;nbsp; In February of 1567 they had
375Darnley's house, Kirk o' Field, blown up; Darnley's strangled body was
376found in the garden.&amp;nbsp; Many nobles were implicated, most
377particularly James Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell. Certainly Bothwell's
378later life (imprisoned in Denmark, he died in 1578, virtually insane)
379was a degree of punishment for this crime.&amp;nbsp; However, in the
380immediate aftermath of Darnley's murder, he met with Mary about six
381miles outside of Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; He had 600 men with him and asked to
382escort Mary to his castle at Dunbar; he told her she was in danger if
383she went to Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; Mary, unwilling to cause further bloodshed
384and understandably terrified, followed his suggestions.&amp;nbsp;
385Bothwell's noble friends had previously pressed her to marry him and
386he, too, had told her she needed a strong husband who could help unify
387the nobles behind her.&amp;nbsp; Mary had refused the proposal then,
388preferring to marry Darnley, but now she knew herself to be
389powerless.&amp;nbsp; She also had an infant son to consider. So she
390consented to wed Bothwell, hoping that this would finally stabilize the
391country.&amp;nbsp; Also, Bothwell showed&amp;nbsp;&lt;img
392 alt=&quot;Mary's third husband, James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell&quot;
393 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/bothwell.jpg&quot;
394 align=&quot;left&quot; width=&quot;226&quot; height=&quot;224&quot;&gt; Mary an agreement the nobles
395had signed which indicated they were prepared to accept him as their
396overlord.&amp;nbsp; In May 1567 they wed at Holyrood and Mary wrote to the
397foreign courts that it was the right decision for her country. &lt;/p&gt;
398    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But the nobles were still not to be
399trusted.&amp;nbsp; Now, they were angry that Bothwell would be all-powerful
400and they decided to wage war against him.&amp;nbsp; Barely a month after
401the marriage, rebel nobles and their forces met Mary's troops at
402Carberry Hill, 8 miles south-east of Edinburgh.&amp;nbsp; The nobles
403demanded that Mary abandon Bothwell, whom they had earlier ordered her
404to wed.&amp;nbsp; She refused and reminded them of their earlier
405order.&amp;nbsp; To avoid the bloodshed of battle, she turned herself over
406and the rebels took her to Edinburgh while Bothwell struggled to rally
407troops of his own.&amp;nbsp; Mary was taken to Lochleven Castle and held
408prisoner in that island fortress; fearing for her own life, she became
409desperately ill.&amp;nbsp; She was forced to sign a document abdicating the
410crown in favor of her year-old son.&amp;nbsp; At the end of that month,
411July 1567, James was crowned king and James Stewart, the Earl of Moray,
412Mary's bastard half-brother, became Regent.&amp;nbsp; Moray wasted no time
413in repaying Mary's earlier kindness to him by stealing her son and
414jewels.&amp;nbsp; Of course, Scottish history reveals that all these
415nefarious nobles came to a bad end - Moray was murdered just 3 years
416later and the next regents were also killed; in fact, her son James had
417one of the traitors executed in 1580, when he was just a teenager. &lt;/p&gt;
418    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary's cause was aided in 1568 when John Hay,
419before his execution, made a statement from the scaffold that told how
420the nobles had murdered Darnley.&amp;nbsp; Before this, the nobles had
421attempted to make the people believe Mary was responsible.&amp;nbsp; Now,
422she was able to win sympathy and friends.&amp;nbsp; George Douglas, one of
423the brothers of her keeper at Lochleven, helped her escape.&amp;nbsp; After
42410 months of captivity, she was free to fight for the throne.&amp;nbsp; Her
425supporters gathered an army and, on their way to Dumbarton Castle, a
426battle was fought at Langside, Glasgow.&amp;nbsp; Mary's forces lost and
427she was forced to flee with her supporters.&amp;nbsp; Against all advice,
428she was determined to go south and ask Elizabeth I for support.&amp;nbsp;
429As James's godmother and Mary's cousin as well as a fellow independent
430Queen, Mary felt certain Elizabeth would help her.&amp;nbsp; As most know,
431this was the beginning of yet another chapter of suffering and misery
432for Mary. &lt;/p&gt;
433    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
434    &lt;hr width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
435    &lt;center&gt;
436    &lt;p&gt;&lt;u&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;+1&quot;&gt;The Final Years, 1568-87&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/u&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
437    &lt;/center&gt;
438    &lt;p&gt;Mary set sail for England on 16 May 1568.&amp;nbsp; She soon arrived
439in Workington, Cumbria; Elizabeth did not know what to do and kept Mary
440guarded in the north.&amp;nbsp; After all, without Mary's knowledge, she
441had been helping her enemies, promising money and&amp;nbsp;&lt;img
442 alt=&quot;Mary, queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, as portrayed by Vanessa Redgrave and Timothy Dalton in the film 'Mary Queen of Scots', 1971&quot;
443 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos-film.jpg&quot;
444 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;280&quot; height=&quot;247&quot;&gt; sanctuary in return
445for their treacherous behavior against their queen.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth's
446motives for this were obvious - Mary was the closest Catholic claimant
447to the English throne and Elizabeth knew some of her subjects were not
448above hoping she could be deposed and Mary made queen of both Scotland
449and England.&amp;nbsp; So she had determined to keep her cousin's kingdom
450in continual strife; if Mary was busy at home, she would have less
451chance to plot against Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; But Elizabeth's conscience was
452determined to be clear so she appointed commissioners to look into the
453matter; they met throughout 1568 and 1569.&amp;nbsp; In December of 1569,
454the so-called Casket Letters were first presented at Westminster.&amp;nbsp;
455They were supposedly letters and other papers belonging to Bothwell and
456found in his casket (letter box).&amp;nbsp; They disappeared soon
457afterwards and only translations and copies remain.&amp;nbsp; However, few
458believed they were either real or important at the time for Elizabeth,
459in January 1569, released a statement that 'Nothing had been
460sufficiently proved, whereby the Queen of England should conceive an
461evil opinion of her good sister.'&amp;nbsp; Everyone took this to mean that
462Mary was not guilty of any conspiracy alleged in the letters. &lt;/p&gt;
463    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But in this same year, conservative nobles in
464England supported an idea that Mary should wed the Duke of
465Norfolk.&amp;nbsp; This also indicated that Elizabeth, and most English
466nobles, believed Mary innocent of Darnley's murder and any charges in
467the Casket Letters.&amp;nbsp; But Elizabeth did not consent to the marriage
468and kept Mary under lock and key.&amp;nbsp; Soon, this arrangement had
469settled into stone; Mary was moved from prison to prison, eventually
470ending up at Fotheringhay Castle, about 70 miles north-west of London
471and as close to Elizabeth as she ever came.&amp;nbsp; Of course, Mary
472plotted from the very beginning to escape.&amp;nbsp; She felt justified in
473doing so since she was being held against her will.&amp;nbsp; However, as
474the years passed, the plots grew more outlandish and murderous.&amp;nbsp;
475Mary's imprisonment was only to end with her execution.&lt;br&gt;
476    &lt;br&gt;
477&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;b&gt;Read a more detailed account of &lt;a
478 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary's
479arrival in England&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a
480 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;the plots
481which led to her trial and execution&lt;/a&gt; at the &lt;i&gt;Queen Elizabeth I&lt;/i&gt;
482website.&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
483    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In October of 1586, Mary was put on trial at
484Fotheringhay for plotting to kill Elizabeth and claim the English
485throne.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth's last letter to Mary was delivered at the
486start of the trial: &lt;/p&gt;
487    &lt;blockquote&gt;
488      &lt;p&gt;You have in various ways and manners attempted to take my life
489and to bring my kingdom to destruction by bloodshed. I have never
490proceeded so harshly against you, but have, on the contrary, protected
491and maintained you like myself. These treasons will be proved to you
492and all made manifest. Yet it is my will, that you answer the nobles
493and peers of the kingdom as if I were myself present. I therefore
494require, charge, and command that you make answer for I have been well
495informed of your arrogance. &lt;br&gt;
496&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Act plainly without reserve, and you will sooner be
497able to obtain favour of me. &lt;br&gt;
498&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth.&lt;/p&gt;
499    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
500    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary defended herself admirably though she
501had no friends or supporters at the trial and, essentially, the verdict
502had been decided before the proceedings had begun.&amp;nbsp; Mary admitted
503her desire to escape but stated, 'I have not procured or encouraged any
504hurt against Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth.'&amp;nbsp; And she appealed for
505mercy, mentioning her own reputation for tolerance and kindness: 'My
506subjects now complain they were never so well off as under my
507government.'&amp;nbsp; But she also accepted the inevitable, telling the
508assembled nobles, 'May God keep me from having to do with you all
509again.'&amp;nbsp; When the verdict was read to her, she said, 'I do not
510fear to die in a good cause.' &lt;/p&gt;
511    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The trial lasted just two days and was over
512on 16 October 1586 but it was not until 7 February 1587 that she was
513told she would be executed the next morning.&amp;nbsp; She asked for her
514chaplain but was refused this last comfort.&amp;nbsp; The Earl of Kent
515said: 'Your life would be the death of our religion, your death would
516be its life.'&amp;nbsp; In fact, Mary had been a tolerant ruler in Scottish
517religious matters.&amp;nbsp; But such was the extreme religious upheaval of
518the time, tolerance itself was a sign of weakness.&amp;nbsp; The
519death-sentence was signed by Elizabeth who later argued that her
520secretary Davison had deceived her as to its contents; she said she
521would not have signed it otherwise.&amp;nbsp; Her letter to Mary's son
522James about the execution, written on 14 February, is a remarkable
524    &lt;blockquote&gt;
525      &lt;p&gt;My dear Brother, I would you knew (though not felt) the
526extreme dolor that overwhelms my mind, for that miserable accident
527which (far contrary to my meaning) hath befallen. I have now sent this
528kinsman of mine, whom ere now it hath pleased you to favour, to
529instruct you truly of that which is too irksome for my pen to tell you.
530I beseech you that as God and many more know, how innocent I am in this
531case : so you will believe me, that if I had bid aught I would have bid
532by it. I am not so base minded that fear of any living creature or
533Prince should make me so afraid to do that were just; or done, to deny
534the same. I am not of so base a lineage, nor carry so vile a mind. But,
535as not to disguise, fits not a King, so will I never dissemble my
536actions, but cause them show even as I meant them. Thus assuring
537yourself of me, that as I know this was deserved, yet if I had meant it
538I would never lay it on others' shoulders; no more will I not damnify
539myself that thought it not. &lt;br&gt;
540The circumstance it may please you to have of this bearer. And for your
541part, think you have not in the world a more loving kinswoman, nor a
542more dear friend than myself; nor any that will watch more carefully to
543preserve you and your estate. And who shall otherwise persuade you,
544judge them more partial to others than you. And thus in haste I leave
545to trouble you:&amp;nbsp; beseeching God to send you a long reign. &lt;br&gt;
546&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Your most assured loving sister and cousin, &lt;br&gt;
547&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth R.&lt;/p&gt;
548    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
549    &lt;p&gt;A year later, the Catholic Philip V of Spain invaded England
550with his Armada, perhaps - to some degree - urged on by Mary's
551execution. &lt;/p&gt;
552    &lt;p&gt; &lt;img
553 alt=&quot;Laslett John Pott's painting 'Mary Queen of Scots being led to execution', 1871&quot;
554 src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/maryqos-death.jpg&quot;
555 align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;1&quot; width=&quot;400&quot; height=&quot;282&quot;&gt; &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
556Mary did not retire until two in the morning on the last day of her
557life.&amp;nbsp; She spent her final hours making a will and generously
558providing to those who had served her faithfully.&amp;nbsp; Early on the
559morning of 8 February 1587, dressed in black satin and velvet, she
560entered the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle.&amp;nbsp; She commanded her
561servant, Melville, to go to her son and tell him that she had never
562done anything to compromise their kingdom of Scotland.&amp;nbsp; Mary was
563calm and composed before the several hundred spectators present; she
564listened while the execution warrant was read and then prayed aloud in
565English for the Church and her son.&amp;nbsp; She also mentioned Queen
566Elizabeth and prayed for her to continue to serve God in the years to
567come. &lt;/p&gt;
568    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary comforted her weeping servants, her
569friends and supporters to the last.&amp;nbsp; They helped her undress;
570beneath her all-black gown, she wore a red petticoat and bodice.&amp;nbsp;
571Her women helped her attach the long red sleeves.&amp;nbsp; Mary thus died
572wearing the liturgical color of Catholic martyrdom.&amp;nbsp; She gave them
573her golden rosary and Agnus Dei, asking them to remember her in their
574prayers.&amp;nbsp; Her eyes were covered with a white cloth.&amp;nbsp; While
575her servants wept and called out prayers in a medley of languages, she
576laid her neck upon the block, commended herself to God and received the
577death-stroke.&amp;nbsp; But the executioner was unsteady and the first blow
578cut the back of her head; Mary whispered, 'Sweet Jesus', and the second
579blow descended.&lt;/p&gt;
580    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; When the executioner lifted her head and
581cried out, 'God save the Queen,' a macabre surprise occurred.&amp;nbsp;
582Mary, queen of Scots had worn an auburn wig to her execution.&amp;nbsp; It
583was left in the executioner's hand as her head, with its short, grey
584hair, fell to the floor.&lt;/p&gt;
585    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Mary had always loved animals and her little
586Skye terrier had brought her great comfort during the years in
587prison.&amp;nbsp; It had curled itself around her feet while she knelt at
588the block and died just days after the queen.&amp;nbsp; As queen of Scots,
589Mary's motto had been 'In my end is my beginning'.&amp;nbsp; And certainly
590the end of her life marked the beginning of her legend.&amp;nbsp; The
591Catholic nations which had condemned her behavior during Darnley's
592murder and the marriage to Bothwell now celebrated her as a
593martyr.&amp;nbsp; Her former brother-in-law, Henri III of France, held a
594funeral mass at Notre-Dame, where Mary had wed Francis almost thirty
595years before.&amp;nbsp; Accounts of her execution, illustrated by crude
596woodcuts, were sold throughout Europe.&amp;nbsp; She was now the
597sympathetic heroine; the past could be forgotten.&lt;/p&gt;
598    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Sixteen years later, Mary's son
599became King of England and Scotland.&amp;nbsp; In 1612, he moved her body
600to Westminster Abbey, London, constructing a magnificent tomb which
601rivaled Elizabeth I's.&amp;nbsp; In her &lt;i&gt; Essay on Adversity&lt;/i&gt;,
602written in 1580 while she was imprisoned, Mary had written of rulers:
603'Tribulation has been to them as a furnace to fine gold - a means of
604proving their virtue.'&amp;nbsp; It was a fitting epitaph for her own
605infamous life.&lt;/p&gt;
606    &lt;center&gt;
607    &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;You can &lt;a
608 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt; read
609Mary's last letter&lt;/a&gt;, written to Henri III of France just six hours
610before her execution, &lt;br&gt;
611as well as &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;an
612eyewitness account of her execution&lt;/a&gt; at the &lt;i&gt;Primary Sources &lt;/i&gt;
615    &lt;hr&gt; &lt;/center&gt;
616  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
618&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt; &lt;a
619 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
620&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/b&gt; &lt;a
621 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;CHRONOLOGY&lt;/a&gt;
623The major events of her life.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
624&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
625 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;IMAGES&lt;br&gt;
626&lt;/font&gt; &lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Portraits of the queen, her friends and
627family, with
629&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt; &lt;a
630 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;PRIMARY
631SOURCES&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot; face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
632Letters written by Mary, as well as an
633eyewitness account of her execution.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
634&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
635 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;br&gt;
636&lt;/a&gt;Test your knowledge of Mary's
637life and times.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
638&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;a
639 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;Queen
640Elizabeth I&lt;br&gt;
641&lt;/a&gt;Learn about Mary's famous cousin.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
642&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot; size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a
643 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;to Tudor
646&lt;div style=&quot;text-align: left; margin-left: 80px;&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
647&lt;small&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Sources&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;Sources:&lt;/span&gt;&amp;nbsp;
648Life of Mary, Queen of Scots (2 vol) by George Chalmers -&amp;nbsp;&lt;/small&gt;
649&lt;small&gt;My Heart is My Own by John Guy&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of
650Scots: The Daughter of Debate by Marjorie Bowen&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary,
651Queen of Scots: The Daughter of Debate (yes, same title - earlier book)
652by Sir Arthur MacNalty&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;The Castles, Palaces, and
653Prisons of Mary of Scotland by Charles MacKie&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;On the
654Trail of Mary, Queen of Scots by JK Cheetham&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;The
655Queen of Scots by Stefan Zweig&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of Scots
656by Antonia Fraser&lt;/small&gt;&amp;nbsp; - &lt;small&gt;Mary, Queen of Scots by Susan
657Watkins&lt;/small&gt; - &lt;small&gt;Two Queens in One Isle by Alison Plowden - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;The
658Casket Letters: A Solution to the&amp;nbsp; Mystery of Mary, Queen of Scots
659and the Murder of Lord Darnley by MH Davison - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;Tudor
660Cousins: Rivals for the Throne by Dulcie Ashdown - &lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;All
661the Queen's Men by Gordon Donaldson - The First Trial of Mary, Queen of
662Scots by Gordon Donaldson - Mary, Queen of Scots and the Murder of Lord
663Darnley by Alison Weir - In My End is My Beginning: A Life of Mary,
664Queen of Scots by James Mackay - Mary Queen of Scots: A Study in
665Failure by Jenny Wormald - The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and
666Stuart Britain, edited by John Morrill - Two Queens in One Isle by
667Alison Plowden - New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors by
668Susan Brigden - The Life of Mary, Queen of Scots by Agnes Strickland -
669The Mystery of Mary Stuart by Andrew Lang - Mary, Queen of Scots and
670Her Accusers by John Hosack - Scotland Under Mary Stuart: An Account of
671Everyday Life by Marjorie Bowen - Elizabeth and Mary by Jane Dunn -
672Original Letters Illustrative of English History, edited by Henry Ellis
673- Mary, Queen of Scots: A Study of the Lennox Narrative in the
674University Library of Cambridge, edited by Reginald H. Mahon - The
675Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland by Raphael Holinshed -
676Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Documents connected with her
677personal history, edited by Agnes Strickland&lt;br&gt;
680&lt;small&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Weblinks&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: bold;&quot;&gt;Weblinks:&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;
681&lt;/small&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;a
682 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Marie Stuart Society of
683Scotland&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is the most detailed Mary, queen of Scots site
684on the web.&amp;nbsp; It has a&amp;nbsp; lengthy biography of the queen,
685samples of her poetry and letters, and much more - too much to list
686here, in fact. &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/small&gt;
687&lt;p&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;a
688 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Mary, queen of Scots&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;
689This site is currently available in French.&amp;nbsp; It's beautifully
690designed and has lots of information; go visit and try out your foreign
691language skills!&amp;nbsp; Its creator also made this &lt;a
692 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;Lady Jane Grey site&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
694&lt;p&gt;&lt;font face=&quot;Times New Roman&quot;&gt;&lt;small&gt;&lt;a
695 href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;;&gt;The Catholic
696Encyclopedia's biography of Mary&lt;/a&gt;, with links to other topics.&lt;br&gt;
697&lt;/small&gt; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
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