Changeset 27951

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Timestamp:
01.08.2013 15:35:40 (6 years ago)
Author:
ak19
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Updating PDFBox collection with the extra metadata extracted (when using the PDFBox extension) sorted in doc.xml, for diffcol to give consistent results on CentOS and Ubuntu.

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other-projects/nightly-tasks/diffcol/trunk/model-collect/PDFBox
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  • other-projects/nightly-tasks/diffcol/trunk/model-collect/PDFBox/archives/HASH019c5dca.dir/doc.xml

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    50 &lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Applications for Bibliometric Research&lt;br /&gt;in the Emerging Digital Libraries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Sally Jo Cunningham&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Department of Computer Science&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;University of Waikato&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Hamilton, New Zealand&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;email:  sallyjo@waikato.ac.nz&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Abstract:  Large numbers of research documents have recently become available on&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the Internet through  “digital libraries”, and these collections are seeing high levels of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;use by their related research communities. A secondary  use for these document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;repositories and indexes is as a platform for bibliometric research.  We examine the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;extent to which the new digital libraries support conventional bibliometric analysis, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;discuss shortcomings in their current forms.  Interestingly, these electronic text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;archives also provide opportunities for new types of studies:  generally the full text of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents are available for analysis, giving a finer grain of insight than abstract-only&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;online databases;  these repositories often contain technical reports or pre-prints, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“grey literature” that has been previously unavailable for analysis; and document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“usage” can be measured directly by recording user accesses, rather than studied&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;indirectly through document references.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1.  Introduction&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In recent years a number of &amp;quot;digital libraries&amp;quot; have become available through the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Internet.  While the technology promises in the future to support large, heterogenous&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;collections, at present the most widely used of the academically-focussed digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries are generally repositories of one or two types of document (typically technical&lt;br /&gt;reports, journal articles, pre-prints, or conference proceedings), grouped by discipline.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;A distinguishing characteristic of these digital libraries is that the full text of documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;are often available for retrieval, as well as bibliographic records.The sciences are&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;represented much more heavily in the present crop of digital libraries than the social&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;sciences, arts, or humanities. They are maintained by professional societies,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;universities, research laboratories, and even private individuals.  Access is generally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;free, both to search and to download documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The emergence of these subject-specific digital libraries is particularly important&lt;br /&gt;given the pattern of access to materials presently employed by research scientists.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Informal exchanges of preprints, reprints, and photocopies of papers passed on by&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;colleagues currently are major venues for the transmission of scientific information&lt;br /&gt;between researchers in the sciences.  In one study, the dependence on these sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ranges from 12% (for chemistry)  to 39% (for mathematics) of all papers cited in&lt;br /&gt;researchers' own publications [11]. A qualitative study of study of how computer&lt;br /&gt;scientists locate and retrieve documents (computing is one of the domains considered&lt;br /&gt;later in this paper) indicates that for that field, technical reports and research documents&lt;br /&gt;found in various locations on the Internet are a preferred source of information [6].&lt;br /&gt;Many of the digital library systems discussed in this paper are repositories for just this&lt;br /&gt;type of literature.  The documents tend to be of high quality:  primarily  technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reports or working papers from research institutions (both academic and commercial),&lt;br /&gt;as well as advance copies of work accepted for publication in conventional paper&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;journals. Moreover, these digital libraries are also coming to include refereed work&lt;br /&gt;published digitally (in electronic journals).  Anecdotal evidence suggests that in their&lt;br /&gt;fields, these digital libraries are coming to be the resource of choice for locating cutting&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;edge work.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For specialized subjects such as high energy physics, this dependence on&lt;br /&gt;informal or extra-library dissemination can be much higher. Ginsparg ([9], [10])&lt;br /&gt;reports that fields in physics have traditionally relied heavily on preprint exchanges, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the digital repositories of physics preprints begun in 1991 (the PHYSICS E-PRINT&lt;br /&gt;ARCHIVES) have to a large extent supplanted conventional publishing and physical&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper mailing of technical reports.  By providing ready access to information sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;that are already preferentially utilized by scientists, the digital libraries show potential to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;increase access to information that until recently was expensive or difficult to acquire in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper form.  Indeed, in some fields (most notably physics) this process has already&lt;br /&gt;begun, as researchers in less developed countries report access to ongoing research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;through the Internet repositories that their local libraries could not afford to acquire&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;through conventional journal subscriptions ([9], [10]).&lt;br /&gt;The primary use for new bibliographic resources is, of course, for the contents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of the documents involved.  A secondary use for emerging resources is as a basis for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric analysis of the subject field.  With the conventionally published scientific&lt;br /&gt;literature, the sheer difficulty of accumulating statistics discouraged bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research until the advent of large bibliographic databases in the 1960's. Computerized&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases sparked a significant increase in the number of large-scale&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic studies, as significant portions of the collection and analysis of data could&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;be automated ([12], [13]).  The availability of CD-ROM versions of bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;databases has been of particular importance, since they provide a cheaper alternative to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the online commercial databases [3].&lt;br /&gt;These computerized bibliographic resources have drawbacks, however.  The&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;greatest is that the full text of documents are rarely available, and even abstracts are not&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;always present.  This obviously limits the types of bibliometric research that can be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;conducted solely through these databases.  In addition, these databases are generally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;limited to formally published documents (those appearing in selected books, journals,&lt;br /&gt;and conference proceedings).  The &amp;quot;grey literature&amp;quot; of technical reports, pre-prints, and&lt;br /&gt;other works not formally published are largely ignored, and it is this absence of easy&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;access to these documents that has hampered the analysis of these important forms of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;scientific communication.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The digital libraries currently in existence complement the online and CD-ROM&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases.  They are best suited for examinations of the &amp;quot;physical&amp;quot;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;characteristics of documents (for example, document length), analysis based on&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic information that can be automatically extracted from the document text or&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the sometimes unevenly formatted bibliographic records (such as obsolescence&lt;br /&gt;studies),  and usage studies (geographic or institutional origin of users, date/time of&lt;br /&gt;access, individual patterns of document retrieval, etc.).  Because  references are present&lt;br /&gt;in the document file but not identified by field, co-citation and bibliographic coupling&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research is not well-supported, and conducting these studies requires considerable&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;effort on the part of the researcher.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The variety of bibliographic repositories in the available digital libraries in itself&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;has great potential in conducting bibliometric research.  Sigogneau et al [15] present a&lt;br /&gt;case study illustrating the ways in which the strengths of different databases can be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;played off each other; they conduct a fine-grained analysis of the emergence of research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;fronts in molecular and cellular biology, and demonstrate that the observations gleaned&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from two complementary bibliographic databases provide greater insight into their&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;problem. Similarly, it appears that  the types of bibliographic data that can be gleaned&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from the relatively unstructured digital libraries can be profitably combined with data&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from online databases, CD-ROMS, and other more conventional bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;resources.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This paper is organized as follows:  Section 2 discusses the types of indexing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and searching available with current digital libraries; Section 3 gives examples of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;conventional bibliometric techniques applied to Internet-accessible archives; Section 4&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;discusses opportunities to directly measure usage of documents and to detect&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information-seeking patterns in researchers; and Section 5 presents our conclusions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2.  Indexing and searching in current digital libraries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;At present, the types of indexing fields for most academically-oriented digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;library systems are limited.  Many schemes index on user-supplied document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;descriptions, abstracts, or similar document surrogates (for example, the PHYSICS E-&lt;br /&gt;PRINT ARCHIVE [10], a collection of physics pre-prints and technical reports). As will&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;be discussed below, the quality of this user-provided data can be highly variable, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may unfavorably impact the usefulness of the index for searching. Alternatively, a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;designated site librarian may maintain a catalog (eg, the WATERS [14] system, now&lt;br /&gt;subsumed by NCSTRL (http://www.ncstrl.org/), both primarily collections of&lt;br /&gt;computer science technical reports);  in this case the quality of the bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;information may be expedited to be higher, but fewer sites will be likely to support&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;such a librarian and therefore fewer documents are likely to be included in the digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;library. In a “harvesting” system such as the computer science technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;collections supported by HARVEST  [2] or the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY&lt;br /&gt;computer science technical report collection ([16], [17]), documents are indexed from&lt;br /&gt;passive repositories (that may not even be aware that their documents are being&lt;br /&gt;included in the digital library). Harvesting systems therefore cannot rely on the&lt;br /&gt;presence of bibliographic data of any sort.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Because of the relative paucity of high-quality bibliographic data available to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;many of the current academically- or research-focussed digital library collections, their&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;search interfaces tend to be more primitive than those ordinarily found in online&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases or library catalogs.  Systems such as NCSTRL can support&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;author, title, and subject searching, but  this more sophisticated search functionality&lt;br /&gt;comes at the expense of requiring participating repositories to use specific software.  As&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a consequence, these latter systems may provide access to a small number of sites than&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;harvesting systems. Harvesters may access a broader range of providers, but at the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;penalty of being limited to unfielded, keyword searches over the raw text of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document or document surrogate.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Specifically, the indexing in existing digital libraries has a variety of shortcomings for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric applications:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• lack of fielded indexing:   As noted above, some large and widely used digital&lt;br /&gt;libraries (such as the computer science technical report collection of the NEW&lt;br /&gt;ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY) may lack formal cataloging entirely, and rely on&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;keyword searching over the raw document text. Obviously this makes field-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;dependent analysis more difficult (for example, locating documents produced by&lt;br /&gt;specific authors), and in the worst case my require a manual examination of all&lt;br /&gt;files in the collection in order to reliably identify a desired document subset.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;However, keyword search techniques that approximate fielded searching results&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may suffice:  for example in the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY computer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;science technical report collection,  limiting the keyword search for “Johnson”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;to a search of first pages only is likely to retrieve documents written by Johnson&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(since for the majority of computer science technical reports, the first page&lt;br /&gt;contains little more than author, title, date, and institution details).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;A more principled  approach to extracting bibliographic information is embodied&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the CiteSeer tool [1]. This software parses raw, unfielded academic&lt;br /&gt;documents and attempts to identify such indexing information as author, title,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reference list, etc. Obviously such a tool cannot attain 100% accuracy over a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;heterogenous document collection, but in practice it appears useful in that it can&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;make a good first pass in processing a set of documents, providing an initial set&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of parsed documents for analysis. The remaining (presumably much smaller) set&lt;br /&gt;of unparsable documents can then be dealt with manually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• lack of consistency in field formatting:  Current digital libraries usually acquire&lt;br /&gt;bibliographic information from either the authors of submitted articles or&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;automatic extraction routines (retrieving bibliographic details from catalog files&lt;br /&gt;that may or may not be in a given document site, and that may or may not be in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;an easily parsable form). Neither of these methods produce records with&lt;br /&gt;standard formatting, which causes problems with automated bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;analysis.   Consider the following examples selected from entries in the hep-th&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(high energy physics) collection of the PHYSICS E-PRINT ARCHIVES:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;(i) Authors: A. Yu. Alekseev, V. Schomerus&lt;br /&gt;(ii) Authors: Adel Bilal and Ian. I. Kogan&lt;br /&gt;(iii) Authors: Paul S. Aspinwall and David R. Morrison (with an appendix &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;by Mark Gross)&lt;br /&gt;(iv) Authors: A. H. Chamseddine and Herbi Dreiner (ETH-Zurich)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In this case, typical for existing digital libraries, there is no standardized format&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;for authors' names (here, appearing with full names, initials plus last name, and&lt;br /&gt;a mixture of the two); no standard convention for separating author names&lt;br /&gt;(here, either a comma or &amp;quot;and&amp;quot; are used); and parenthetical information can&lt;br /&gt;include a variety of information such as the name of an associate author or the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;institutional affiliations of an author.  Manual processing or specially crafted&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;software would be required to reformat these fields for analysis.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• duplicate entries:  Digital libraries that draw documents from a variety of sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may inadvertently contain duplicate items.  Unfortunately, the irregular&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;formatting of the bibliographic information makes it difficult to automatically&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;detect these duplicates.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• implicit field tagging:  In some repositories, items are not explicitly tagged with&lt;br /&gt;certain types of information – most commonly the document's date of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;publication or production.  Instead, the date is implicit in the document's title&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(eg, its numeration in a technical report series) or in the location of the document&lt;br /&gt;in the file structure of the repository (eg, separate directories exist for each&lt;br /&gt;year).  A second common piece of implicit data is the authors’ institutional&lt;br /&gt;affiliations.  This may be contained in the document itself (typically on a cover&lt;br /&gt;page), or may be implicit in the document’s location (for example, a&lt;br /&gt;corporation’s technical reports are stored in its ftp repository).  Again, in these&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;cases special processing is required to append this field information to a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document record for bibliometric analysis.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• extraction of document text:  Few of the documents stored in the research-&lt;br /&gt;oriented digital libraries discussed in this paper are straight ascii text; instead,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents may appear in a variety of file formats, such as LaTeX, PostScript,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF, etc.  If the contents of the documents are to be automatically processed&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(for example, to count the words in a document, or to extract reference&lt;br /&gt;publication dates for an obsolescence study), then the text must be extracted.&lt;br /&gt;Utilities are available to convert most common document formats to ascii.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;It is likely that many of these problems will be addressed as the Internet-based&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document indexing systems mature.  Even minor changes can greatly increase the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;useability of a bibliographic database for bibliometric research.  For example, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;addition of an explicit date tag to many online databases in 1975 sparked new&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;applications in time series research [3].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;3.  Opportunities for applications of bibliometric techniques&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;One type of bibliometric research concentrates on quantifying fundamental,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;structural details about a subject literature:  how many items are published, how many&lt;br /&gt;authors are publishing, over what time period documents are likely to be used, etc.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;More complex studies analyze the relationships between documents, such as how&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents cluster into subjects.  The following examples give a flavour of the&lt;br /&gt;bibliometric research that is possible using the emerging digital libraries:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;examining the “physical” characteristics of archived documents&lt;br /&gt;One relatively straightforward type of bibliometric study characterizes the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;formats of different literatures.   For example, Figure 1 presents a the range of the size&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;of computer science technical reports as measured by their length in pages.   Of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;45,720 documents in the CSTR collection as of April 1998, nearly 1600 did not contain&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;page divisions in their files (and hence are excluded from analysis). Note that the&lt;br /&gt;number of pages in the shorter documents (&amp;lt;50 pages) falls into an approximately&lt;br /&gt;normal distribution (slightly skewed to the left), while presumably the longer&lt;br /&gt;documents represent Masters’ and Doctoral theses. A surprising number of documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;are very short (between one and 5 pages); these may represent the type of condensed&lt;br /&gt;results frequently found in the “technical notes”, “short papers”, and “poster sessions”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of computing conferences and journals. The average number of pages per document,&lt;br /&gt;27.5, appears to be slightly longer than the common upper bound for a computing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;journal article, although this observation must be confirmed by a similar study of the&lt;br /&gt;lengths of formally published computing articles.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This type of analysis is of particular interest for technical reports, since they&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;have not been studied in the same detail as formally published papers.  A comparison of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the physical characteristics of the formal and informal literature could provide&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;supporting evidence for common beliefs about the relationship between the two types&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of documents. For example,  do publishing constraints force journal and proceedings&lt;br /&gt;articles to be shorter than technical reports, and therefore presumably omit technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;details of findings?  Do technical reports contain more/less extensive reference sections?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If reference sections of technical reports are longer than those of published articles, then&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;citation links are being ommitted in published works; if technical reports contain fewer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;references, then this may confirm earlier indications that computer scientists tend to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“research first” and do literature surveys later [6].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 1.  Range of sizes of CS technical reports, measured by number of pages&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;obsolescence studies.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;A document is considered obsolete when it is no longer referenced by the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;current literature. Typically, documents receive their greatest number and frequency of&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;citations immediately after publication, and the frequency of citation falls rapidly as time&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;passes. One technique for estimating the obsolescence rate of a body of  literature– the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;synchronous method –  is to find the median date in the references of the documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This median date is subtracted from the year of publication for the documents, yielding&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the median citation age.  As would be expected, this median varies between the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;disciplines.  Typically the social sciences and arts have a higher median citation age&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;than the “hard” sciences and engineering, indicating that documents obsolesce more&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;quickly for the latter fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;As noted in Section 2, references are not generally explicitly tagged in existing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital repositories.  However, reference dates can usually be extracted from the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document text by first locating the reference section (usually delimited by a &amp;quot;references&amp;quot;&lt;br /&gt;or &amp;quot;bibliography&amp;quot; section heading), and then extracting all numbers in the appropriate&lt;br /&gt;ranges for dates  for the field under study.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To illustrate this process, 188 technical reports were sampled from Internet-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;accessible repositories1 and used as source documents for a synchronous obsolescence&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;study.  Conveniently, the repositories chosen organize technical reports into sub-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;directories by their date of publication.  The reference dates for each technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;were automatically extracted by software that scanned the document’s file for numbers&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of the form 19XX, since previous studies indicate that few if any computing reports&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reference documents published in previous centuries [5].  Table 1 presents the median&lt;br /&gt;citation age calculated for these documents, broken down by repository and the year of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;publication for the source documents from which the reference dates were extracted:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 1.  Median citation ages for technical report repositories&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The median citation age ranges between 2 and 4 years, which is consistent with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;previous examinations of computing and information systems literature ([5], [4]).&lt;br /&gt;When graphed, the distribution of reference dates show the exponential curve typically&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;found in obsolescence studies, including the final droop due to an “immediacy effect”&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;as fewer very new documents are available for citation [7].  These types of results&lt;br /&gt;provide confirmation that references used in computer science technical reports (the pre-&lt;br /&gt;eminent “grey literature” of  the computing field) conforms to the same patterns as&lt;br /&gt;references found in the formally published literature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;co-citation and bibliographic coupling studies&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The rate at which documents cite each other (co-citation) or cite the same&lt;br /&gt;documents (bibliographic coupling) can be used to produce &amp;quot;maps&amp;quot; of a subject&lt;br /&gt;literature.  These techniques rely on analysis of the references of documents, and these&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;references must be in a common format.  While digital libraries contain full text of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents, their references are not standardized, and indeed are not  even tagged as&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;such.  To perform these studies the references must be manually extracted and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;processed–a tedious process that is only worthwhile for documents (such as technical&lt;br /&gt;reports) that are not included in existing citation databases such as the Science Citation&lt;br /&gt;Index and Social Science Citation Index.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;detecting cycles or regularities in the rate of production of research&lt;br /&gt;Analysis of trends in the production of technical reports can give indications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;about working conditions that affect research; for example, is more research produced&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;over the summer, when the teaching load is lighter?  or is research steadily produced&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;throughout the year?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 2.  Distribution of the number of documents submitted to hep-th, 1992-1994&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figures 2 and 3 present statistics on document accumulation in the hep-th (high&lt;br /&gt;energy physics) e-print server, a part of the PHYSICS E-PRINT ARCHIVE.  This system&lt;br /&gt;is one of the oldest formal pre-print archives, and has become the primary means for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information dissemination in its field.  Examination of these figures reveals several&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;trends.  Clearly the absolute number of documents deposited in the repository has&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;tended to increase over the time period.  For all three years, research production has its&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;lowest point in January and February, increases through May and June, then decreases&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;until August and September.  At that point the rate of production steps up, reaching a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;yearly peak in November and December.  This pattern is less clear for 1992, which&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;might be expected as the archive was established in mid-1991.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 3.  Distribution of the percentage of documents submitted to hep-th, 1992-1994&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;4.  Analysis of usage data&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The emerging Internet-based digital libraries will permit research on scientific&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information collection and use at a much finer grain than is possible with current paper&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries or online bibliographic databases.  Current bibliometric or scientometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research of this type must measure information use indirectly – for example,  through&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;examination of the list of references appended to published articles.  However, it is well&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;known that authors do not necessarily include in the reference list all documents that&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;could have been cited, and conversely that not all references listed may have been&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;actually “used” in performing the research; citation behavior can be affected by a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;number of motivating factors (Garfield lists 15 possible reasons in [8]).&lt;br /&gt;Digital library transaction logs provide a powerful tool for direct analysis of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document “usage”: since  digital libraries contain the actual document (rather than only a&lt;br /&gt;document surrogate), the relative amount of “use” that a digital library’s clients make of&lt;br /&gt;a given document sees can be estimated from the number of times the document file is&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;downloaded (and, presumably, the document is read). Note that file downloading is a&lt;br /&gt;much stronger statement on the part of the user than, for example, having a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic record appear in the query result set for a conventional bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;system; the user downloads only after the document has been found potentially relevant&lt;br /&gt;through examination of its document surrogate. Additionally,  downloading is&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;frequently time-consuming  and sometimes costly (depending on local pricing for&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Internet access). Downloaded documents are therefore highly likely at least to be&lt;br /&gt;scanned, if not read closely.  The transaction logs for a digital library can provide a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;global picture of the use of documents in the collection, since all user interactions with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the library can be automatically logged  for analysis. By contrast, it is of course&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;impossible to track usage of print bibliographies, and very difficult to monitor usage of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic data available on CD-ROM across more than one or two sites.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Furthermore, analysis of search requests by geographic location, institution,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and sometimes even individual user are also possible.  As an example, Table 2 presents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a portion of the summary of usage statistics (broken down by domain code) for queries&lt;br /&gt;to the computer science technical collection of the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Examination of the data indicates that the heaviest use of the collection comes from&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;North America, Europe (particularly Germany and Finland), as well as the local New&lt;br /&gt;Zealand community and nearby Australia.  As expected for such a collection, a large&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;proportion of users are from educational (.edu) institutions; surprisingly, however, a&lt;br /&gt;similar number of queries come from commercial (.com) organizations, indicating&lt;br /&gt;perhaps that the documents are seeing use in commercial research and development&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;units.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 2. Accesses to the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY CS collection  by Domain&lt;br /&gt;Code&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Of course, usage levels can also be further broken down by IP number&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(indicating  institutions), and systems requiring users to register may also be able to&lt;br /&gt;analyze usage on an individual basis. Since the query strings themselves are also&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;recorded in the transaction logs, this domain/institution/individual activity could also be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;linked to specific subjects through the query terms.  Summaries of this type could be&lt;br /&gt;invaluable for studies of geographic diffusion and distribution of research topics.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Transaction log analysis can also indicate time-related  patterns in the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information seeking behavior of digital library users.   As a sample of this type of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;analysis,  Paul Ginsparg notes a seven day periodicity in the number of search requests&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;made to the PHYSICS E-PRINT archives (Figure 4, reproduced from [9]).  From this he&lt;br /&gt;adduces that many physicists do not yet have weekend access to the Internet (an&lt;br /&gt;alternative, slightly more cynical hypothesis is that even high energy theoretical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;physicists take the weekend off).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 4.  Summary of search requests to the physics pre-print archives&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;5.  Conclusion&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This study suggests opportunities for conducting bibliometric research on the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;evolving digital libraries.  These repositories are suitable platforms for conventional&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric techniques (such as obsolescence studies, quantification of physical&lt;br /&gt;characteristics of documents comprising a subject literature, time analysis, etc.).  The&lt;br /&gt;ability to directly monitor access to documents in digital libraries also enables&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;researchers to explicitly quantify document usage, as well as to implicitly measure&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;usage through citations.  Additional facilities could aid in the performance of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic experiments, such as: improved tagging of document fields; provision of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;utilities to strip out titles, authors, etc. from common document formats; and the ability&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;to easily eliminate duplicate entries from downloaded library subsets.  Unfortunately,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the most useful of these additional facilities – those associated with a higher degree of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;cataloging – run counter to the underlying philosophy of many digital libraries:  to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;avoid, if possible,  manual processing and formal cataloging of documents.   While&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;adherence to this principle can limit the accuracy of fielded searching (or indeed,&lt;br /&gt;preclude it altogether), it can also avoid the cataloging bottleneck and permit digital&lt;br /&gt;libraries to provide access to larger numbers of documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The digital libraries complement the information currently available through&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper, online, and CD-ROM bibliographic resources.  While these latter databases&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;generally have the advantage of standardized formatting of bibliographic fields, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital libraries are freely accessible, often contain &amp;quot;grey literature&amp;quot; that is otherwise&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;unavailable for analysis, and generally make the full text of documents available.  The&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;insights gained from analysis of digital libraries will add to the store of &amp;quot;information&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;about information&amp;quot; that we have gained from older types of bibliographic repositories.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;References&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[1] Bollacker, K.D., S. Lawrence, and C.L.Giles, CiteSeer: An Autonomous Web&lt;br /&gt;Agent for Automatic Retrieval and Identification of Interesting Publications,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents&lt;br /&gt;(Minneapolis/St. Paul, May 9-13), 1998.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[2] Bowman, C.M., P.B. Danzig, U. Manber,  and M.F. Schwartz,  Scalable Internet&lt;br /&gt;resource discovery:  Research problems and approaches, Communications of&lt;br /&gt;the ACM 37(8)  (1994)  98-107.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[3] Burton, Hilary D. , Use of a virtual information system for bibliometric analysis,&lt;br /&gt;Informaton Processing &amp;amp; Management 24(1)  (1988) 39-44.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[4] Cunningham, S.J., An empirical investigation of the obsolescence rate for&lt;br /&gt;information systems literature, Library and Information Science&lt;br /&gt;Research., 1996, http://library.fgcu.edu/iclc/lisrissu.htm&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; [5] Cunningham, S.J., and D. Bocock,  Obsolescence of computing literature.&lt;br /&gt;Scientometrics  34(2)  (1995), pp. 255-262.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; [6] Cunningham, S.J. and Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Information searching&lt;br /&gt;preferences and practices of computer science researchers, Proceedings of&lt;br /&gt;OZCHI '96 (1996)  294-299.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[7] de Solla Price, D.J.,  Citation measures of hard science, soft science, technology,&lt;br /&gt;and nonscience.  In: C.E. Nelson and D.K. Pollock (eds), Communication&lt;br /&gt;among scientists and engineers  (Heath Lexington, 1970).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[8]  Garfield, E., Citation Indexing:  Its theory and application in Science, Technology&lt;br /&gt;and Humanities (Wiley, 1979).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;[9]  Ginsparg, P.  After dinner remarks:  14 Oct ‘94 APS meeting at LANL, 1994&lt;br /&gt;(&amp;lt;URL: http://xxx.lanl.gov/blurb&amp;gt; ).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[10] Ginsparg, P., First steps towards electronic research communication, Computers&lt;br /&gt;in Physics 8(4) (1994)  390-401.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[11] Hallmark,  J., Scientists' access and retrieval of references cited in their recent&lt;br /&gt;journal articles,  College and Research Libraries 55(3)  (1994) 199-210.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[12] Hawkins, D.T. , Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval systems:&lt;br /&gt;on-line bibliometric studies, Journal of the American Society for Information&lt;br /&gt;Science 28  (1977)  13-18.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[13] McGhee, P.E. , P.R. Skinner, K. Roberto,  N.J. Ridenour,  and S.M. Larson,&lt;br /&gt;Using online databases to study current research trends:  an online bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;study, Library and Information Science Research 9  (1987)   285-291.&lt;br /&gt;[14] Maly, K., E.A. Fox,  J.C. French,  and A.L. Selman,  Wide area technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;server  (Technical  Report ,  Dept. of Computer Science, Old Dominion&lt;br /&gt;University, 1994. Also available at   &amp;lt;URL:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;http://www.cs.odu.edu/WATERS/WATERS-paper.ps&amp;gt; ).&lt;br /&gt;[15] Sigogneau, M.J. , S. Bain, J.P. Courtial, and H. Feillet,  Scientific innovation in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographical databases:  a comparative study of the Science Citation Index&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and the Pascal database,  Scientometrics 22(1)   (1991)  65-82.&lt;br /&gt;[16] Witten, I.H., S.J. Cunningham, M. Vallabh,  and T.C. Bell,  A New Zealand&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital library for computer science research, Proceedings of Digital Libraries&lt;br /&gt;'95 (1995) 25-30.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[17]  Witten, I.H., C. Nevill-Manning, and S.J. Cunningham, A public library based&lt;br /&gt;on full-text retrieval, Communications of the ACM 41(4), 1998, p. 71&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;                                    &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1Documents were randomly sampled from the DEC&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(ftp://crl.dec.com/pub/DEC/CRL/tech-reports/), Sony&lt;br /&gt;(ftp://ftp.csl.sony.co.jp/CSL/CSL-Papers), and Ohio (ftp://archive.cis.ohio-&lt;br /&gt;state.edu/pub/tech-report/) technical report repositories&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;</Content> 
     50&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Applications for Bibliometric Research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the Emerging Digital Libraries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Sally Jo Cunningham&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Department of Computer Science&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;University of Waikato&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Hamilton, New Zealand&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;email:  sallyjo@waikato.ac.nz&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Abstract:  Large numbers of research documents have recently become available on&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the Internet through  “digital libraries”, and these collections are seeing high levels of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;use by their related research communities. A secondary  use for these document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;repositories and indexes is as a platform for bibliometric research.  We examine the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;extent to which the new digital libraries support conventional bibliometric analysis, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;discuss shortcomings in their current forms. Interestingly, these electronic text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;archives also provide opportunities for new types of studies:  generally the full text of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents are available for analysis, giving a finer grain of insight than abstract-only&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;online databases;  these repositories often contain technical reports or pre-prints, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“grey literature” that has been previously unavailable for analysis; and document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“usage” can be measured irectly by recording user accesses, rather than studied&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;indirectly through document references.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1.  Introduction&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In recent years a number of &amp;quot;digital libraries&amp;quot; have become available through the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Internet.  While the technology promises in the future to support large, heterogenous&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;collections, at present the most widely used of the academically-focussed digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries are generally repositories of one or two types of document (typically technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reports, journal articles, pre-prints, or conference proceedings), grouped by discipline.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;A distinguishing characteristic of these digital libraries is that the full text of documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;are often available for retrieval, as well as bibliographic records.The sciences are&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;represented much more heavily in the present crop of digital libraries than the social&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;sciences, arts, or humanities. They are maintained by professional societies,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;universities, research laboratories, and even private individuals.  Access is generally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;free, both to search and to download documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The emergence of these subject-specific digital libraries is particularly important&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;given the pattern of access to materials presently employed by research scientists.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Informal exchanges of preprints, reprints, and photocopies of papers passed on by&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;colleagues currently are major venues for the transmission of scientific information&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;between researchers in the sciences.  In one study, the dependence on these sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ranges from 12% (for chemistry)  to 39% (for mathematics) of all papers cited in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;researchers' own publications [11]. A qualitative study of study of how computer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;scientists locate and retrieve documents (computing is one of the domains considered&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;later in this paper) indicates that for that field, technical reports and research documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;found in various locations on the Internet are a preferred source of information [6].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Many of the digital library systems discussed in this paper are repositories for just this&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;type of literature.  The documents tend to be of high quality:  primarily  technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reports or working papers from research institutions (both academic and commercial),&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;as well as advance copies of work accepted for publication in conventional paper&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;journals. Moreover, these digital libraries are also coming to include refereed work&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;published digitally (in electronic journals).  Anecdotal evidence suggests that in their&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;fields, these digital libraries are coming to be the resource of choice for locating cutting&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;edge work.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For specialized subjects such as high energy physics, this dependence on&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;informal or extra-library dissemination can be much higher. Ginsparg ([9], [10])&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reports that fields in physics have traditionally relied heavily on preprint exchanges, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the digital repositories of physics preprints begun in 1991 (the PHYSICS E-PRINT&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ARCHIVES) have to a large extent supplanted conventional publishing and physical&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper mailing of technical reports.  By providing ready access to information sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;that are already preferentially utilized by scientists, the digital libraries show potential to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;increase access to information that until recently was expensive or difficult to acquire in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper form.  Indeed, in some fields (most notably physics) this process has already&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;begun, as researchers in less developed countries report access to ongoing research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;through the Internet repositories that their local libraries could not afford to acquire&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;through conventional journal subscriptions ([9], [10]).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The primary use for new bibliographic resources is, of course, for the contents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of the documents involved.  A secondary use for emerging resources is as a basis for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric analysis of the subject field.  With the conventionally published scientific&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;literature, the sheer difficulty of accumulating statistics discouraged bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research until the advent of large bibliographic databases in the 1960's. Computerized&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases sparked a significant increase in the number of large-scale&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic studies, as significant portions of the collection and analysis of data could&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;be automated ([12], [13]).  The availability of CD-ROM versions of bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;databases has been of particular importance, since they provide a cheaper alternative to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the online commercial databases [3].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;These computerized bibliographic resources have drawbacks, however.  The&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;greatest is that the full text of documents are rarely available, and even abstracts are not&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;always present.  This obviously limits the types of bibliometric research that can be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;conducted solely through these databases.  In addition, these databases are generally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;limited to formally published documents (those appearing in selected books, journals,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and conference proceedings).  The &amp;quot;grey literature&amp;quot; of technical reports, pre-prints, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;other works not formally published are largely ignored, and it is this absence of easy&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;access to these documents that has hampered the analysis of these important forms of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;scientific communication.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The digital libraries currently in existence complement the online and CD-ROM&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases.  They are best suited for examinations of the &amp;quot;physical&amp;quot;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;characteristics of documents (for example, document length), analysis based on&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic information that can be automatically extracted from the document text or&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the sometimes unevenly formatted bibliographic records (such as obsolescence&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;studies),  and usage studies (geographic or institutional origin of users, date/time of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;access, individual patterns of document retrieval, etc.).  Because  references are present&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the document file but not identified by field, co-citation and bibliographic coupling&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research is not well-supported, and conducting these studies requires considerable&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;effort on the part of the researcher.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The variety of bibliographic repositories in the available digital libraries in itself&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;has great potential in conducting bibliometric research.  Sigogneau et al [15] present a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;case study illustrating the ways in which the strengths of different databases can be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;played off each other; they conduct a fine-grained analysis of the emergence of research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;fronts in molecular and cellular biology, and demonstrate that the observations gleaned&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from two complementary bibliographic databases provide greater insight into their&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;problem. Similarly, it appears that  the types of bibliographic data that can be gleaned&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from the relatively unstructured digital libraries can be profitably combined with data&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;from online databases, CD-ROMS, and other more conventional bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;resources.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This paper is organized as follows:  Section 2 discusses the types of indexing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and searching available with current digital libraries; Section 3 gives examples of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;conventional bibliometric techniques applied to Internet-accessible archives; Section 4&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;discusses opportunities to directly measure usage of documents and to detect&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information-seeking patterns in researchers; and Section 5 presents our conclusions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2.  Indexing and searching in current digital libraries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;At present, the types of indexing fields for most academically-oriented digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;library systems are limited.  Many schemes index on user-supplied document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;descriptions, abstracts, or similar document surrogates (for example, the PHYSICS E-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PRINT ARCHIVE [10], a collection of physics pre-prints and technical reports). As will&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;be discussed below, the quality of this user-provided data can be highly variable, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may unfavorably impact the usefulness of the index for searching. Alternatively, a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;designated site librarian may maintain a catalog (eg, the WATERS [14] system, now&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;subsumed by NCSTRL (http://www.ncstrl.org/ ), both primarily collections of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;computer science technical reports);  in this case the quality of the bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information may be expedited to be higher, but fewer sites will be likely to support&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;such a librarian and therefore fewer documents are likely to be included in the digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;library. In a “harvesting” system such as the computer science technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;collections supported by HARVEST  [2] or the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;computer science technical report collection ([16], [17]), documents are indexed from&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;passive repositories (that may not even be aware that their documents are being&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;included in the digital library). Harvesting systems therefore cannot rely on the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;presence of bibliographic data of any sort.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Because of the relative paucity of high-quality bibliographic data available to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;many of the current academically- or research-focussed digital library collections, their&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;search interfaces tend to be more primitive than those ordinarily found in online&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic databases or library catalogs.  Systems such as NCSTRL an upport&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;author, title, and subject searching, but  this more sophisticated search functionality&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;comes at the expense of requiring participating repositories to use specific software.  As&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a consequence, these latter systems may provide access to a small number of sites than&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;harvesting systems. Harvesters may access a broader range of providers, but at the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;penalty of being limited to unfielded, keyword searches over the raw text of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document or document surrogate.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Specifically, the indexing in existing digital libraries has a variety of shortcomings for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric applications:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• lack of fielded indexing:   As noted above, some large and widely used digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries (such as the computer science technical report collection of the NEW&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY) may lack formal cataloging entirely, and rely on&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;keyword searching over the raw document text. Obviously this makes field-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;dependent analysis more difficult (for example, locating documents produced by&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;specific authors), and in the worst case my require a manual examination of all&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;files in the collection in order to reliably identify a desired document subset.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;However, keyword search techniques that approximate fielded searching results&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may suffice:  for example in the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY computer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;science technical report collection,  limiting the keyword search for “Johnson”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;to a search of first pages only is likely to retrieve documents written by Johnson&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(since for the majority of computer science technical reports, the first page&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;contains little more than author, title, date, and institution details).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;A more principled  approach to extracting bibliographic information is embodied&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the CiteSeer tool [1]. This software parses raw, unfielded academic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents and attempts to identify such indexing information as author, title,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reference list, etc. Obviously such a tool cannot attain 100% accuracy over a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;heterogenous document collection, but in practice it appears useful in that it can&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;make a good first pass in processing a set of documents, providing an initial set&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of parsed documents for analysis. The remaining (presumably much smaller) set&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of unparsable documents can then be dealt with manually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• lack of consistency in field formatting:  Current digital libraries usually acquire&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic information from either the authors of submitted articles or&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;automatic extraction routines (retrieving bibliographic details from catalog files&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;that may or may not be in a given document site, and that may or may not be in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;an easily parsable form). Neither of these methods produce records with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;standard formatting, which causes problems with automated bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;analysis.   Consider the following examples selected from entries in the hep-th&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(high energy physics) collection of the PHYSICS E-PRINT ARCHIVES:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;(i) Authors: A. Yu. Alekseev, V. Schomerus&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(ii) Authors: Adel Bilal and Ian. I. Kogan&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(iii) Authors: Paul S. Aspinwall and David R. Morrison (with an appendix &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;by Mark Gross)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(iv) Authors: A. H. Chamseddine and Herbi Dreiner (ETH-Zurich)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In this case, typical for existing digital libraries, there is no standardized format&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;for authors' names (here, appearing with full names, initials plus last name, and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a mixture of the two); no standard convention for separating author names&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(here, either a comma or &amp;quot;and&amp;quot; are used); and parenthetical information can&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;include a variety of information such as the name of an associate author or the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;institutional affiliations of an author.  Manual processing or specially crafted&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;software would be required to reformat these fields for analysis.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• duplicate entries:  Digital libraries that draw documents from a variety of sources&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;may inadvertently contain duplicate items. Unfortunately, the irregular&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;formatting of the bibliographic information makes it difficult to automa ically&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;detect these duplicates.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• implicit field tagging:  In some repositories, items are not explicitly tagged with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;certain types of information – most commonly the document's date of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;publication or production.  Instead, the date is implicit in the document's title&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(eg, its numeration in a technical report series) or in the location of the document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the file structure of the repository (eg, separate directories exist for each&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;year).  A second common piece of implicit data is the authors’ institutional&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;affiliations.  This may be contained in the document itself (typically on a cover&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;page), or may be implicit in the document’s location (for example, a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;corporation’s technical reports are stored in its ftp repository).  Again, in these&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;cases special processing is required to append this field information to a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document record for bibliometric analysis. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• extraction of document text: Few of the documents stored in the research-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;oriented digital libraries discussed in this paper are straight ascii text; instead,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents may appear in a variety of file formats, such as LaTeX, PostScript,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF, etc.  If the contents of the documents are to be automatically processed&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(for example, to count the words in a document, or to extract reference&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;publication dates for an obsolescence study), then the text must be extracted.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Utilities are available to convert most common document formats to ascii.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;It is likely that many of these problems will be addressed as the Internet-based&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document indexing systems mature.  Even minor changes can greatly increase the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;useability of a bibliographic database for bibliometric research.  For example, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;addition of an explicit date tag to many online databases in 1975 sparked new&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;applications in time series research [3].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;3.  Opportunities for applications of bibliometric techniques&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;One type of bibliometric research concentrates on quantifying fundamental,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;structural details about a subject literature:  how many items are published, how many&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;authors are publishing, over what time period documents are likely to be used, etc.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;More complex studies analyze the relationships between documents, such as how&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents cluster into subjects.  The following examples give a flavour of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric research that is possible using the emerging digital libraries:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;examining the “physical” characteristics of archived documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;One relatively straightforward type of bibliometric study characterizes the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;formats of different literatures.   For example, Figure 1 presents a the range of the size&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;of computer science technical reports as measured by their length in pages.   Of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;45,720 documents in the CSTR collection as of April 1998, nearly 1600 did not contain&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;page divisions in their files (and hence are excluded from analysis). Note that the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;number of pages in the shorter documents (&amp;lt;50 pages) falls into an approximately&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;normal distribution (slightly skewed to the left), while presumably the longer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents represent Masters’ and Doctoral theses. A surprising number of documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;are very short (between one and 5 pages); these may represent the type of condensed&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;results frequently found in the “technical notes”, “short papers”, and “poster sessions”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of computing conferences and journals. The average number of pages per document,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;27.5, appears to be slightly longer than the common upper bound for a computing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;journal article, although this observation must be confirmed by a similar study of the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;lengths of formally published computing articles.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This type of analysis is of particular interest for technical reports, since they&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;have not been studied in the same detail as formally published papers.  A comparison of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the physical characteristics of the formal and informal literature could provide&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;supporting evidence for common beliefs about the relationship between the two types&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of documents. For example,  do publishing constraints force journal and proceedings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;articles to be shorter than technical reports, and therefore presumably omit technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;details of findings?  Do technical reports contain more/less extensive reference sections?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If reference sections of technical reports are longer than those of published articles, then&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;citation links are being ommitted in published works; if technical reports contain fewer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;references, then this may confirm earlier indications that computer scientists tend to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“research first” and do literature surveys later [6].&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 1.  Range of sizes of CS technical reports, measured by number of pages&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;obsolescence studies.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;A document is considered obsolete when it is no longer referenced by the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;current literature. Typically, documents receive their greatest number and frequency of&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;citations immediately after publication, and the frequency of citation falls rapidly as time&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;passes. One technique for estimating the obsolescence rate of a body of  literature– the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;synchronous method –  is to find the median date in the references of the documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This median date is subtracted from the year of publication for the documents, yielding&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the median citation age.  As would be expected, this median varies between the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;disciplines.  Typically the social sciences and arts have a higher median citation age&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;than the “hard” sciences and engineering, indicating that documents obsolesce more&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;quickly for the latter fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;As noted in Section 2, references are not generally explicitly tagged in existing&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital repositories.  However, reference dates can usually be extracted from the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document text by first locating the reference section (usually delimited by a &amp;quot;references&amp;quot;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;or &amp;quot;bibliography&amp;quot; section heading), and then extracting all numbers in the appropriate&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ranges for dates  for the field under study.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To illustrate this process, 188 technical reports were sampled from Internet-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;accessible repositories1 and used as source documents for a synchronous obsolescence&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;study.  Conveniently, the repositories chosen organize technical reports into sub-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;directories by their date of publication.  The reference dates for each technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;were automatically extracted by software that scanned the document’s file for numbers&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of the form 19XX, since previous studies indicate that few if any computing reports&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reference documents published in previous centuries [5].  Table 1 presents the median&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;citation age calculated for these documents, broken down by repository and the year of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;publication for the source documents from which the reference dates were extracted:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 1.  Median citation ages for technical report repositories&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The median citation age ranges between 2 and 4 years, which is consistent with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;previous examinations of computing and information systems literature ([5], [4]).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When graphed, the distribution of reference dates show the exponential curve typically&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;found in obsolescence studies, including the final droop due to an “immediacy effect”&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;as fewer very new documents are available for citation [7].  These types of results&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;provide confirmation that references used in computer science technical reports (the pre-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;eminent “grey literature” of  the computing field) conforms to the same patterns as&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;references found in the formally published literature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;co-citation and bibliographic coupling studies&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The rate at which documents cite each other (co-citation) or cite the same&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents (bibliographic coupling) can be used to produce &amp;quot;maps&amp;quot; of a subject&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;literature.  These techniques rely on analysis of the references of documents, and these&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;references must be in a common format.  While digital libraries contain full text of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;documents, their references are not standardized, and indeed are not  even tagged as&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;such.  To perform these studies the references must be manually extracted and&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;processed–a tedious process that is only worthwhile for documents (such as technical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reports) that are not included in existing citation databases such as the Science Citation&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Index and Social Science Citation Index.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;detecting cycles or regularities in the rate of production of research&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Analysis of trends in the production of technical reports can give indications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;about working conditions that affect research; for example, is more research produced&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;over the summer, when the teaching load is lighter?  or is research steadily produced&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;throughout the year?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 2.  Distribution of the number of documents submitted to hep-th, 1992-1994&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figures 2 and 3 present statistics on document accumulation in the hep-th (high&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;energy physics) e-print server, a part of the PHYSICS E-PRINT ARCHIVE.  This system&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;is one of the oldest formal pre-print archives, and has become the primary means for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information dissemination in its field.  Examination of these figures reveals several&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;trends.  Clearly the absolute number of documents deposited in the repository has&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;tended to increase over the time period.  For all three years, research production has its&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;lowest point in January and February, increases through May and June, then decreases&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;until August and September.  At that point the rate of production steps up, reaching a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;yearly peak in November and December.  This pattern is less clear for 1992, which&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;might be expected as the archive was established in mid-1991.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 3.  Distribution of the percentage of documents submitted to hep-th, 1992-1994&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;4.  Analysis of usage data&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The emerging Internet-based digital libraries will permit research on scientific&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information collection and use at a much finer grain than is possible with current paper&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries or online bibliographic databases.  Current bibliometric or scientometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;research of this type must measure information use indirectly – for example,  through&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;examination of the list of references appended to published articles.  However, it is well&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;known that authors do not necessarily include in the reference list all documents that&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;could have been cited, and conversely that not all references listed may have been&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;actually “used” in performing the research; citation behavior can be affected by a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;number of motivating factors (Garfield lists 15 po sible reasons in [8]).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Digital library transaction logs provide a powerful tool for direct analysis of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document “usage”: since  digital libraries contain the actual document (rather than only a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;document surrogate), the relative amount of “use” that a digital library’s clients make of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a given document sees can be estimated from the number of times the document file is&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;downloaded (and, presumably, the document is read). Note that file downloading is a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;much stronger statement on the part of the user than, for example, having a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic record appear in the query result set for a conventional bibliographic&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;system; the user downloads only after the document has been found potentially relevant&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;through examination of its document surrogate. Additionally,  downloading is&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;frequently time-consuming  and sometimes costly (depending on local pricing for&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Internet access). Downloaded documents are therefore highly likely at least to be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;scanned, if not read closely.  The transaction logs for a digital library can provide a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;global picture of the use of documents in the collection, since all user interactions with&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the library can be automatically logged  for analysis. By contrast, it is of course&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;impossible to track usage of print bibliographies, and very difficult to monitor usage of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic data available on CD-ROM across more than one or two sites.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Furthermore, analysis of search requests by geographic location, institution,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and sometimes even individual user are also possible.  As an example, Table 2 presents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;a portion of the summary of usage statistics (broken down by domain code) for queries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;to the computer science technical collection of the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Examination of the data indicates that the heaviest use of the collection comes from&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;North America, Europe (particularly Germany and Finland), as well as the local New&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Zealand community and nearby Australia.  As expected for such a collection, a large&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;proportion of users are from educational (.edu) institutions; surprisingly, however, a&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;similar number of queries come from commercial (.com) organizations, indicating&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;perhaps that the documents are seeing use in commercial research and development&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;units.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 2. Accesses to the NEW ZEALAND DIGITAL LIBRARY CS collection  by Domain&lt;br /&gt;Code&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Of course, usage levels can also be further broken down by IP number&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(indicating  institutions), and systems requiring users to register may also be able to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;analyze usage on an individual basis. Since the query strings themselves are also&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;recorded in the transaction logs, this domain/institution/individual activity could also be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;linked to specific subjects through the query terms.  Summaries of this type could be&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;invaluable for studies of geographic diffusion and distribution of research topics.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Transaction log analysis can also indicate time-related  patterns in the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information seeking behavior of digital library users.   As a sample of this type of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;analysis,  Paul Ginsparg notes a seven day periodicity in the number of search requests&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;made to the PHYSICS E-PRINT archives (Figure 4, reproduced from [9]).  From this he&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;adduces that many physicists do not yet have weekend access to the Internet (an&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;alternative, slightly more cynical hypothesis is that even high energy theoretical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;physicists take the weekend off).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure 4.  Summary of search requests to the physics pre-print archives&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;5.  Conclusion&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This study suggests opportunities for conducting bibliometric research on the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;evolving digital libraries.  These repositories are suitable platforms for conventional&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliometric techniques (such as obsolescence studies, quantification of physical&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;characteristics of documents comprising a subject literature, time analysis, etc.).  The&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;ability to directly monitor access to documents in digital libraries also enables&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;researchers to explicitly quantify document usage, as well as to implicitly measure&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;usage through citations.  Additional facilities could aid in the performance of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographic experiments, such as: improved tagging of document fields; provision of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;utilities to strip out titles, authors, etc. from common document formats; and the ability&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;to easily eliminate duplicate entries from downloaded library subsets.  Unfortunately,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the most useful of these additional facilities – those associated with a higher degree of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;cataloging – run counter to the underlying philosophy of many digital libraries:  to&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;avoid, if possible,  manual processing and formal cataloging of documents.   While&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;adherence to this principle can limit the accuracy of fielded searching (or indeed,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;preclude it altogether), it can also avoid the cataloging bottleneck and permit digital&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;libraries to provide access to larger numbers of documents.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The digital libraries complement the information currently available through&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;paper, online, and CD-ROM bibliographic resources.  While these latter databases&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;generally have the advantage of standardized formatting of bibliographic fields, the&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital libraries are freely accessible, often contain &amp;quot;grey literature&amp;quot; that is otherwise&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;unavailable for analysis, and generally make the full text of documents available.  The&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;insights gained from analysis of digital libraries will add to the store of &amp;quot;information&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;about information&amp;quot; that we have gained from older types of bibliographic repositories.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;References&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[1] Bollacker, K.D., S. Lawrence, and C.L.Giles, CiteSeer: An Autonomous Web&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Agent for Automatic Retrieval and Identification of Interesting Publications,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(Minneapolis/St. Paul, May 9-13), 1998.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[2] Bowman, C.M., P.B. Danzig, U. Manber,  and M.F. Schwartz,  Scalable Internet&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;resource discovery:  Research problems and approaches, Communications of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the ACM 37(8)  (1994)  98-107.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[3] Burton, Hilary D. , Use of a virtual information system for bibliometric analysis,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Informaton Processing &amp;amp; Management 24(1)  (1988) 39-44.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[4] Cunningham, S.J., An empirical investigation of the obsolescence rate for&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information systems literature, Library and Information Science&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Research., 1996, http://library.fgcu.edu/iclc/lisrissu.htm&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; [5] Cunningham, S.J., and D. Bocock, Obsolescence of computing literature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Scientometrics  34(2)  (1995), pp. 255-262.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; [6] Cunningham, S.J. and Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Information searching&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;preferences and practices of computer science researchers, Proceeding  of&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;OZCHI '96 (1996)  294-299.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[7] de Solla Price, D.J.,  Citation measures of hard science, soft science, technology,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and nonscience.  In: C.E. Nelson and D.K. Pollock (eds), Communication&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;among scientists and engineers  (H ath Lexington, 1970).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[8]  Garfield, E., Citation Indexing:  Its theory and application in Science, Technology&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and Humanities (Wiley, 1979).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;[9]  Ginsparg, P.  After dinner remarks:  14 Oct ‘94 APS meeting at LANL, 1994&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(&amp;lt;URL: http://xxx.lanl.gov/blurb&amp;gt; ).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[10] Ginsparg, P., First steps towards electronic research communication, Co puters&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in Physics 8(4) (1994)  390-401. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[11] Hallmark,  J., Scientists' access and retrieval of references cited in their recent&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;journal articles,  College and Research Libraries 55(3)  (1994) 199-210.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[12] Hawkins, D.T. , Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval systems:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;on-line bibliometric studies, Journal of the American Society for Information&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Science 28  (1977)  13-18.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[13] McGhee, P.E. , P.R. Skinner, K. Roberto,  N.J. Ridenour,  and S.M. Larson,&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using online databases to study current research trends:  an online bibliometric&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;study, Library and Information Science Research 9  (1987)   285-291.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[14] Maly, K., E.A. Fox,  J.C. French,  and A.L. Selman,  Wide area technical report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;server  (Technical  Report ,  Dept. of Computer Science, Old Dominion&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;University, 1994. Also available at   &amp;lt;URL:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;http://www.cs.odu.edu/WATERS/WATERS-paper.ps&amp;gt; ).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[15] Sigogneau, M.J. , S. Bain, J.P. Courtial, and H. Feillet,  Scientific innovation in&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;bibliographical databases:  a comparative study of the Science Citation Index&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;and the Pascal database,  Sci ntometrics 22(1)   (1991)  65-82.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[16] Witten, I.H., S.J. Cunningham, M. Vallabh,  and T.C. Bell,  A New Zealand&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;digital library for computer science research, Proceedings of Digital Libraries&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;'95 (1995) 25-30.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;[17]  Witten, I.H., C. Nevill-Manning, and S.J. Cunningham, A public library based&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;on full-text retrieval, Communications of the ACM41(4), 1998, p. 71&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;                                    &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1Documents were randomly sampled from the DEC&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(ftp://crl.dec.com/pub/DEC/CRL/tech-reports/), Sony&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;(ftp://ftp.csl.sony.co.jp/CSL/CSL-Papers), and Ohio (ftp://archive.cis.ohio-&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;state.edu/pub/tech-report/) technical report repositories&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;</Content> 
    5151</Section> 
    5252</Archive> 
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    66 &lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe® Acrobat® 9 Pro Accessibility Guide: &lt;br /&gt;Best Practices for Accessibility&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, Acrobat Connect, the Adobe PDF logo, Creative Suite, LiveCycle, and Reader are either registered trade-&lt;br /&gt;marks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. AutoCAD is either a registered trade-&lt;br /&gt;mark or a trademark of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. GeoTrust is a registered trademark of GeoTrust, Inc. Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All &lt;br /&gt;other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;© 2008 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents i&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Each PDF File is Different 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Two Workflows for Creating Accessible PDF Files 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making an Existing PDF File Accessible  1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Generating Accessible PDF Files from Authoring Applications  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Characteristics of Accessible PDF files 2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Searchable text  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Fonts that allow characters to be extracted to text  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Interactive form fields  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Other Features: Buttons, hyperlinks, and navigational aids  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document language  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security that will not interfere with assistive technology  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document structure tags and proper read order  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Alternative text descriptions  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader Accessibility Features 3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Accessible Reading of PDFs  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Creating Accessible PDFs  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow 5&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsii |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;PDF Accessibility Workflow Summary 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 1: Analyze the PDF File 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is a Scanned Document  6&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is a Scanned Document  7&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is Not a Scanned Document  8&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons 8&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Form Fields  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Acrobat to Detect and Create Interactive Form Fields  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat Form Wizard  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter Forms Editing Mode Directly  10&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Form Fields Manually  10&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Forms Editing Mode  11&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating a New Form Field  11&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Form Field Properties  12&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Form Fields  12&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Radio Buttons  13&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing or Modifying an Existing Form Field  14&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Deleting a Form Field  14&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons  15&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set the Tab Order  15&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features 16&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language  16&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set Security That Permits Accessibility  17&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Accessible Links  19&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Bookmarks  19&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents | iii&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File 20&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is Tagged  20&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged  22&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;About the Add Tags Report  22&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Tagged  23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged 23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)  23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  24&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool Options  25&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tips for using the TouchUp Reading Order tool  26&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Checking Read Order with the Touch Up Read Order Tool  26&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check reading order with the TouchUp Reading Order tool  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order by dragging on the page  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order using the Order panel  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing Tags with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tag a region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the tag for a region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add or remove content from a tagged region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Split a region into two regions  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a heading tag  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove page elements from the tag structure  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a figure tag  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using TouchUp Reading Order to Check and Correct Figure Tags  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adding Alternate Text with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  30&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using the TouchUp Reading Order Tool Table Editor  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add a Table Summary  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Place the Table in Editing Mode  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove or replace document structure tags  35&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsiv |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Replace the existing tag structure  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove all tags from a PDF  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Complex Structures  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Panel  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Tab Options  37&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Order Panel  37&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags Panel  38&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit tags with the Tags Panel  39&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit a tag title  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a tag  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the element type  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags tab options  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text and supplementary information to tags  41&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text to links  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for a figure  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for an abbreviated term  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create a new child tag  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add tags to comments  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Correct table tags with the Tags tab  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check table elements  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File 44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check Results  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check  45&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessibility Full Check Options  46&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Continue Checking Until All Issues are Addressed  47&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Additional Validation Techniques  47&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents | v&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create an Accessible Microsoft Word Document 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Styles  49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Text  49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Configure the PDFMaker 52&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Show or activate PDFMaker in Microsoft Word  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2003 or earlier,  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2007  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;View PDFMaker conversion settings  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings Tab  54&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security Tab  56&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word Tab  57&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks Tab (Microsoft Word)  58&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Video Tab (Microsoft Word and PowerPoint)  59&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings for Other Microsoft Office Applications  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Excel-specific options on the Settings tab  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PowerPoint-specific options on the Settings tab  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert the Word Document to Accessible PDF 61&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2003  61&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsvi |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Office 2007  61&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the Word Document is a Form 62&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check the PDF Version of the Document Using Acrobat 62&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Changes to the Conversion Settings  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the Source File  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the PDF File  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tab Order is Consistent with Structure Order  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Establish Table Headings for Tables  63&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility&lt;br /&gt;A document or application is accessible if it can be used by people with disabilities—such as mobility &lt;br /&gt;impairments, blindness, and low vision—and not just by people who can see well and use a mouse. &lt;br /&gt;Accessibility features in Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Reader, and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) make &lt;br /&gt;it easier for people with disabilities to use PDF documents and forms, with or without the aid of assistive &lt;br /&gt;software and devices such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and braille printers.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDFs accessible tends to benefit all users. For example, the underlying document structure that &lt;br /&gt;makes it possible for a screen reader to properly read a PDF out loud also makes it possible for a mobile &lt;br /&gt;device to correctly reflow and display the document on a small screen. Similarly, the preset tab order of an &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF form helps all users—not just users with mobility impairments—fill the form more easily.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Each PDF File is Different&lt;br /&gt;Not all PDFs are the same. PDF files are created in a variety of ways, from a variety of applications, and for a &lt;br /&gt;variety of purposes. In addition to applying the proper accessibility enhancements to PDF documents, &lt;br /&gt;achieving your accessibility goals for an individual PDF file requires understanding the nature of the PDF &lt;br /&gt;and the uses for which it is intended. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using this guide, you will learn how to assess existing PDF files for certain characteristics which influence &lt;br /&gt;their accessibility. The order in which this assessment is conducted is important. By following these &lt;br /&gt;procedures in the recommended order, users can efficiently proceed through the analysis of a PDF file in a &lt;br /&gt;systematic fashion. Systematically ruling out or confirming certain characteristics which a PDF file may &lt;br /&gt;possess will guide you to the most appropriate next step for making an individual PDF accessible (See &lt;br /&gt;“Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This guide also discusses techniques for converting source files to accessible PDF. Using the Adobe &lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker with Microsoft Word as an example, this guide provides best practices for designing your source &lt;br /&gt;document with accessibility in mind so that the original document can be efficiently transformed into an &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF version (See “Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: These Best Practices techniques assume the user has access to Adobe Acrobat Pro 9 or &lt;br /&gt;Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended for Windows. Adobe Reader 9 and Adobe Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;Standard do not have the complete set of tools needed to create and validate PDF &lt;br /&gt;documents for accessibility.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Two Workflows for Creating Accessible PDF Files&lt;br /&gt;The PDF format is a destination file format. PDF files are typically created in some other application. What &lt;br /&gt;this means is that the author who is concerned with PDF accessibility will be confronted with one of two &lt;br /&gt;situations: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Individuals working with an existing PDF file will want to know how to edit/update it to be &lt;br /&gt;an accessible PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Authors will want to know how to use some other software application, such as a word processing &lt;br /&gt;or desktop publishing application, to generate an accessible PDF file from that application if &lt;br /&gt;possible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making an Existing PDF File Accessible&lt;br /&gt;“Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5 provides a step-by-step approach for &lt;br /&gt;analyzing PDF files and making them accessible based upon that analysis.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;1&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction2 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Generating Accessible PDF Files from Authoring Applications&lt;br /&gt;“Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53 provides an example using &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Word of how to use Acrobat’s PDFMaker to make an accessible PDF files from a word processing &lt;br /&gt;application. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Even if you generate an accessible PDF file from an authoring application, you should then follow the steps &lt;br /&gt;in “Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5 in order to identify any items that may &lt;br /&gt;have been missed in the initial conversion or to add PDF accessibility features that are not provided by the &lt;br /&gt;authoring tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Characteristics of Accessible PDF files&lt;br /&gt;The Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) is the native file format of the Adobe® Acrobat® family of &lt;br /&gt;products. The goal of these products is to enable users to exchange and view electronic documents easily and &lt;br /&gt;reliably, independently of the environment in which they were created. PDF relies on the same imaging &lt;br /&gt;model as the PostScript® page description language to describe text and graphics in a device-independent &lt;br /&gt;and resolution-independent manner. To improve performance for interactive viewing, PDF defines a more &lt;br /&gt;structured format than that used by most PostScript language programs. PDF also includes objects, such as &lt;br /&gt;annotations and hypertext links, that are not part of the page itself but are useful for interactive viewing and &lt;br /&gt;document interchange. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessible PDFs have the following characteristics:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Searchable text&lt;br /&gt;A document that consists of scanned images of text is inherently inaccessible because the content of the &lt;br /&gt;document is a graphic representing the letters on the page, not searchable text. Assistive software cannot &lt;br /&gt;read or extract the words in a graphic representation, users cannot select or edit the text, and you cannot &lt;br /&gt;manipulate the PDF for accessibility. You must convert the scanned images of text to searchable text using &lt;br /&gt;optical character recognition (OCR) before you can use other accessibility features with the document (See &lt;br /&gt;“Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document” on page 5). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Fonts that allow characters to be extracted to text&lt;br /&gt;The fonts in an accessible PDF must contain enough information for Acrobat to correctly extract all of the &lt;br /&gt;characters to text for purposes other than displaying text on the screen. Acrobat extracts characters to &lt;br /&gt;Unicode text when you read a PDF with a screen reader or the Read Out Loud tool, or when you save as text &lt;br /&gt;for a braille printer. This extraction fails if Acrobat cannot determine how to map the font to Unicode &lt;br /&gt;characters.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Interactive form fields&lt;br /&gt;Some PDFs contain forms that a person is to fill out using a computer. To be accessible, form fields must be &lt;br /&gt;interactive—meaning that a user must be able to enter values into the form fields (See “Step 3: Add &lt;br /&gt;Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8). Interactive PDF forms also have a defined tab &lt;br /&gt;order allowing users of assistive technology to use the tab key in order to progress from one form field or &lt;br /&gt;interactive control in a logical manner.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Other Features: Buttons, hyperlinks, and navigational aids&lt;br /&gt;Navigational aids in a PDF—such as links, bookmarks, headings, a table of contents, and a preset tab order &lt;br /&gt;for form fields—assist all users in using the document without having to read through the entire document, &lt;br /&gt;word by word. Bookmarks are especially useful and can be created from document headings. Many of these &lt;br /&gt;aids can be accessed using the keyboard without relying on the mouse (See “Step 3: Add Interactive &lt;br /&gt;Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8). and (See “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on &lt;br /&gt;page 16)..&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction | 3&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Document language&lt;br /&gt;Specifying the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;language (See “Document Language” on page 16).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security that will not interfere with assistive technology&lt;br /&gt;Some authors of PDFs restrict users from printing, copying, extracting, adding comments to, or editing text. &lt;br /&gt;The text of an accessible PDF must be available to a screen reader. You can use Acrobat to ensure that &lt;br /&gt;security settings don’t interfere with a screen reader’s ability to convert the on-screen text to speech (See “Set &lt;br /&gt;Security That Permits Accessibility” on page 17).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document structure tags and proper read order&lt;br /&gt;To read a document’s text and present it in a way that makes sense to the user, a screen reader or other text-&lt;br /&gt;to-speech tool requires that the document be structured. Document structure tags in a PDF define the &lt;br /&gt;reading order and identify headings, paragraphs, sections, tables, and other page elements (See “Step 5: &lt;br /&gt;Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File” on page 20).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Alternative text descriptions&lt;br /&gt;Document features such as images and interactive form fields can’t be read by a screen reader unless they &lt;br /&gt;have associated alternative text. Though web links are read by screen readers, you can provide more &lt;br /&gt;meaningful descriptions as alternative text. Alternative text and tool tips can aid many users, including those &lt;br /&gt;with learning disabilities (See “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader Accessibility Features&lt;br /&gt;Accessibility features in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader fall into two broad categories: features to make &lt;br /&gt;the reading of PDF documents more accessible and features to create accessible PDF documents. To create &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF documents, you must use Acrobat, not Reader.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Accessible Reading of PDFs&lt;br /&gt; Preferences and commands to optimize output for assistive software and devices, such as saving as &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;accessible text for a Braille printer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Preferences and commands to make navigation of PDFs more accessible, such as automatic &lt;br /&gt;scrolling and opening PDFs to the last page read&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Accessibility Setup Assistant for easy setting of most preferences related to accessibility&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Keyboard alternates to mouse actions&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Reflow capability to temporarily present the text of a PDF in a single easy-to-read column&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Read Out Loud text-to-speech conversion.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Support for screen readers and screen magnifiers&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Creating Accessible PDFs&lt;br /&gt; Creation of tagged PDFs from authoring applications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Conversion of untagged PDFs to tagged PDFs from within Acrobat&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Security setting that allows screen readers to access text while preventing users from copying, &lt;br /&gt;printing, editing, and extracting text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Ability to add text to scanned pages to improve accessibility&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Tools for editing reading order and document structure &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Tools for creating accessible PDF forms &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction4 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Though Acrobat Standard provides some functionality for making existing PDFs accessible, you must use &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat Pro or Acrobat Pro Extended to perform certain tasks—such as editing reading order or editing &lt;br /&gt;document structure tags—that may be necessary to make some PDF documents and forms accessible (See &lt;br /&gt;“Table 1: Features for Creating Accessible PDF Files by Product” on page 4).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 1: Features for Creating Accessible PDF Files by Product  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Reader 9 Acrobat 9 Standard&lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Pro&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;Pro &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Extended&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create PDF documents from any &lt;br /&gt;application that prints&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert Microsoft Word, Excel, &lt;br /&gt;PowerPoint, Publisher, and &lt;br /&gt;Access files to PDF with one-&lt;br /&gt;button ease*&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Capture web pages as rich, &lt;br /&gt;dynamic PDF files for review &lt;br /&gt;and archiving&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Scan paper documents to PDF &lt;br /&gt;and automatically recognize text &lt;br /&gt;with optical character recogni-&lt;br /&gt;tion (OCR)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Save PDF files as Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word documents, retaining the &lt;br /&gt;layout, fonts, formatting, and &lt;br /&gt;tables, to facilitate reuse of con-&lt;br /&gt;tent&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Easily create fillable PDF forms &lt;br /&gt;from paper or existing files using &lt;br /&gt;the Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enable users of Adobe Reader® &lt;br /&gt;(version 8 or later) to fill in and &lt;br /&gt;save PDF forms locally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create dynamic XML forms with &lt;br /&gt;Adobe LiveCycle® Designer ES &lt;br /&gt;(included)*&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create and validate accessible &lt;br /&gt;PDF documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;* Windows Only&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility &lt;br /&gt;Repair Workflow&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility Workflow Summary&lt;br /&gt;At a high level, the process of making existing PDF files accessible consists of a few basic steps:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1. Analyze and evaluate the PDF document before you (See “Step 1: Analyze the PDF File” on &lt;br /&gt;page 5).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2. Determine if the PDF file originated from a scan. If so, perform Optical Character Recognition &lt;br /&gt;(OCR) using the OCR Text Recognition command in Adobe Acrobat 9 (See “Step 2: Determine if &lt;br /&gt;the PDF is a Scanned Document” on page 5).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;3. Add fillable form fields and buttons with short descriptions if the PDF file is intended to work as an &lt;br /&gt;interactive document. Set the tab order for the form field (See “Step 3: Add Interactive Features: &lt;br /&gt;Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;4. Add other accessibility features to the PDF such as bookmarks and security that does not interfere &lt;br /&gt;with assistive technology (See “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on page 16).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;5. Add tags to the PDF if it has not been tagged (See “Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged &lt;br /&gt;PDF File” on page 20).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;6. Determine if the PDF file has been properly tagged (See “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is &lt;br /&gt;Properly Tagged” on page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;7. Use the Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro accessibility checker to evaluate the PDF and repair tagging problems &lt;br /&gt;and other issues such as missing alternate text descriptions, missing short descriptions for form &lt;br /&gt;fields, and improper read order. Run the accessibility checker and follow its suggestions for repair &lt;br /&gt;until no problems are found (See “Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File” &lt;br /&gt;on page 44).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Though these stages are presented in an order that suits most needs, you may perform tasks in these stages in &lt;br /&gt;a different order or iterate between some of the stages. In all cases, you should first examine the document, &lt;br /&gt;determine its intended purpose, and use that analysis to determine the workflow that you should apply.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 1: Analyze the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;When you open the PDF file, take a moment to analyze the document before you. Take a moment to note its &lt;br /&gt;characteristics. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Is it a short document with a small number of pages or a long document consisting of many pages? &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Is the document mostly text or a mixture of text and graphics?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Does the document appear to have form fields?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Another item to note is the complexity of the document’s layout. In some instances, documents of &lt;br /&gt;shorter length may be more challenging from an accessibility perspective than longer docments &lt;br /&gt;because their layout and read order are more complex.  Is the layout simple, a single column with a &lt;br /&gt;limited number of graphics, or is it complex with multiple columns, mixed layouts, tables and many &lt;br /&gt;graphics?  Complex layouts are an indicator that you may be spending more time with the &lt;br /&gt;document doing more detailed accessibility enhancements with the Touch Up Read Order Tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;A common method for making PDF documents is to place a paper copy of a document into a scanner and &lt;br /&gt;then opening the resulting electronic version using Adobe Acrobat to view the newly scanned document as a &lt;br /&gt;PDF file. Unfortunately, this process results in creating an image of text and not the actual text itself. This &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;5&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow6 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;means the content is not accessible to users who rely on assistive technology to hear the contents of the page. &lt;br /&gt;Additional work must take place to make the document accesible.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain that the PDF document is not a scanned document or it has previously &lt;br /&gt;undergone optical character recognition, you can skip this discussion and proceed to &lt;br /&gt;“Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;There are a number of indications that a PDF file originated from a scanned page. Onscreen, the document &lt;br /&gt;appears to contain text, but the page is actually an image. Choose the method that suits you best for &lt;br /&gt;determining if the PDF is from a scan and is an “image only” PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Note if the page appears to be skewed.  Sometimes sheets are not properly fed into the &lt;br /&gt;scanner with the effect being the page appears to be crooked, or skewed on the screen . &lt;br /&gt;Lines of text will not be straight but will appear to slant up or down (See “Figure 1 Skewed &lt;br /&gt;Text Indicates a Scanned PDF” on page 6) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  1 Skewed Text Indicates a Scanned PDF&lt;br /&gt;• Search for characters that appear on the page. Use the find command in Acrobat to &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;search for text that appears on the page. Select Edit &amp;gt; Find (Ctrl + F on Windows or &lt;br /&gt;Option + F on Mac OS) and type a term that appears on the page in the search field.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the document was scanned, Acrobat will not find the search but will display a message &lt;br /&gt;indicating “Acrobat has finished searching the document. No matches were found”.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Zoom in and check for jagged edges on smooth characters. Scanned images are bitmaps &lt;br /&gt;(See “Figure 2 Bitmap text (top) and text that has undergone OCR (bottom)” on &lt;br /&gt;page 7)The edges of curves on bit maps will not appear to be smooth or rounded but will &lt;br /&gt;be jagged as shown in the top sample illustrating the word “Ozone” in Figure 2 on page 7  &lt;br /&gt;Use the marquee zoom tool in Acrobat to define the area and magnify the edges of curved &lt;br /&gt;letters such as “c”, “s”, and “o”. Text that has undergone the OCR process using the &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 7&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;ClearScan option will display smoother edges as shown in the bottom illustration of the &lt;br /&gt;word “Ozone” in Figure 2 on page 7 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  2 Bitmap text (top) and text that has undergone OCR (bottom)&lt;br /&gt;• Use assistive technology or the Read Out Loud feature. Acrobat 9 Pro can detect the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;presence of assistive technology and if it encounters a scanned document will announce an &lt;br /&gt;audible empty page warning and display the Scanned Page Alert dialog (See “Figure 3 &lt;br /&gt;Scanned Page Alert Dialog” on page 7)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  3 Scanned Page Alert Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;Perform Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to convert the bitmap image of text to actual characters. In &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro. You can do this by selecting “OK” from the Scanned Page Alert dialog (See “Figure 3 &lt;br /&gt;Scanned Page Alert Dialog” on page 7) You can also run the “Recognize Text Using OCR” command in &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Document &amp;gt; OCR Text Recognition &amp;gt; Recognize Text Using OCR...&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; or use the keyboard accelerator: ALT + D + C + R &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;All three of these methods will result in the display of the Recognize Text dialog (See “Figure 4 Recognize &lt;br /&gt;Text Dialog and Recognize Text Settings” on page 8) Use the Edit button in the scanned page dialog to set &lt;br /&gt;the desired characteristics for the resulting file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Primary OCR Language (user should select the applicable document language)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; PDF Output Style should be ClearScan. ClearScan will allow the resulting PDF to “reflow”. The &lt;br /&gt;other two options, “Searchable Image” and “Searchable Image Exact” will work with assistive &lt;br /&gt;technology but will result in a PDF file that cannot be reflowed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Downsample should be set to the lowest downsampling which results in the highest resolution as &lt;br /&gt;measured in dots per inch (dpi). This should be 600 dpi.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow8 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  4 Recognize Text Dialog and Recognize Text Settings&lt;br /&gt;For additional information on performing optical character recognition using Adobe Acrobat, refer to the &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 Help.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is Not a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;Proceed to “Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons&lt;br /&gt;Determining if a PDF file is meant to be an interactive form is a matter of visually examining the file and &lt;br /&gt;looking for the presence of form fields, or areas in the document where some kind of information is being &lt;br /&gt;asked for such as name, address, social security number. Boxes or fields drawn on the page are also typical &lt;br /&gt;indications that the document is meant to function as a form. If you want users to be able to complete the &lt;br /&gt;form online, rather than resort to printing a paper copy in order to complete the form, then the form is &lt;br /&gt;meant to be an interactive form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document is not intended to have fillable form fields or buttons, &lt;br /&gt;you can skip this discussion and proceed to “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on &lt;br /&gt;page 16.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can make form fields accessible to vision impaired users and users with mobility challenges by adding &lt;br /&gt;fillable fields to the PDF and by properly structuring it. In addition, you can use the Tooltip field property to &lt;br /&gt;provide the user with information about the field or to provide instructions. For example, using the Tooltip &lt;br /&gt;property value, the screen reader user would hear “Check this box if you will be attending the luncheon.”  &lt;br /&gt;Without the tool tip property, a screen reader simply provides the name of  the form field (Check Box 1), its &lt;br /&gt;type (Check Box), and its state (Unchecked). It would not be clear to someone listening to the form that they &lt;br /&gt;are indicating their desire to attend a luncheon.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can have Acrobat Pro detect and create the form fields automatically or you can manually create the &lt;br /&gt;necessary fields using Acrobat Pro’s form tools.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 9&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;This discussion limits itself to the accessibility issues involved with PDF forms. For a more detailed &lt;br /&gt;discussion of forms, refer to the Adobe Acrobat 9 Online Help.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;A PDF form created with Acrobat can contain the following types of fields:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text field.  Lets the user type in text, such as name, address, or phone number. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Check box.  Presents yes-or-no choices for individual items. If the form contains multiple &lt;br /&gt;check boxes, the user can typically select as many or few of these as needed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Radio button. Presents a group of choices from which the user can select only one item. &lt;br /&gt;All radio buttons with the same name work together as a group.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• List box. Displays a list of options the user can select. You can set a form field property &lt;br /&gt;that enables the user to Shift-click or Control-click to select multiple items on the list.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Combo box.  Lets the user either choose and item from a pop-up menu or type in a value.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Button.  Initiates a change on the user’s computer, such as opening a file, playing a sound, &lt;br /&gt;or submitting data to a web server. These buttons can be customized with images, text, and &lt;br /&gt;visual changes triggered by mouse actions.  Action buttons have a different purpose than &lt;br /&gt;radio buttons, which represent data choices made by the user.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Digital signature field.  Lets the user electronically sign a PDF document with a digital &lt;br /&gt;signature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Barcode.  Encodes the input form selected fields and diplays it as a visual pattern that can &lt;br /&gt;be interpreted by decoding software or hardware (available separately). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Acrobat to Detect and Create Interactive Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;You can convert an existing electronic document (for example a Word, Excel, or PDF document) or scan a &lt;br /&gt;paper document to a PDF form, and then add interactive form fields to the form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you convert a document to an Acrobat form, Acrobat can detect the form fields in the document. In &lt;br /&gt;many instances, Acrobat will use the form field labels to name the field and provide a Tooltip. While the &lt;br /&gt;results are often acceptable, this is not a foolproof process. You will need to examine the document carefully &lt;br /&gt;to verify that Acrobat accurately detected the fields and labelled them appropriately.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can use the Form Wizard in Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro or Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended to create &lt;br /&gt;interactive forms from an existing electronic document (for example a Word, PDF, or Excel document) or &lt;br /&gt;scan a paper form into a PDF form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Forms &amp;gt; Start Form Wizard.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This displays the Create or Edit Form Dialog. From the Create or Edit Form Dialog, do one of the following, &lt;br /&gt;and then follow the on-screen instructions. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To convert an existing electronic document (for example Word or PDF) to a PDF form, select An &lt;br /&gt;Existing Electronic Document. This places the document in Form Editing Mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To scan a paper form and convert it to a PDF form, select A Paper Form. The form will be scanned &lt;br /&gt;and placed in Form Editing Mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To use LiveCycle Designer to create a form from scratch or from one of the available templates, &lt;br /&gt;select No Existing Form.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Using the Adobe LiveCycle Designer, included in Adobe Acrobat Pro and Adobe Acrobat &lt;br /&gt;Pro Extended for Windows, to create accessible PDF forms is beyond the scope of this Best &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow10 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Practices Guide.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Form Wizard completes its analysis of the document, adds any form fields it may detect and places the &lt;br /&gt;PDF form in Forms Editing Mode where you can edit the automatically created fields or add additional form &lt;br /&gt;fields (See “Forms Editing Mode” on page 11).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;During form field detection, Acrobat may have missed some fields or created unneeded fields. It may have &lt;br /&gt;also created fields of the wrong type. Please verify the fields and field names on your form. You can select &lt;br /&gt;Add New Field on the Forms Editing toolbar to add more fields or right click on the form to edit or delete &lt;br /&gt;fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter Forms Editing Mode Directly&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you don’t want to use the Form Wizard, you can open the file, and  place the document in Form Editing &lt;br /&gt;Mode directly.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the Acrobat Menu, select Forms &amp;gt; Add Or Edit Fields  (Keyboard shortcut is Shift + Ctrl 7).  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This displays the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog (See “Figure 5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog” on &lt;br /&gt;page 10)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Answering “Yes” to the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog question “Do you want Acrobat to detect form fields &lt;br /&gt;for you?”  results in the automatic detection of form fields prior to placing the document in Form Editing &lt;br /&gt;Mode. This is the same as if you had proceeded using the Form Wizard on the current PDF.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat completes its analysis of the document, adds any form fields it may detect and places the PDF form &lt;br /&gt;in Forms Editing Mode where you can edit the automatically created fields or add additional form fields (See &lt;br /&gt;“Forms Editing Mode” on page 11).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;During form field detection, Acrobat may have missed some fields or created unneeded fields. It may have &lt;br /&gt;also created fields of the wrong type. Please verify the fields and field names on your form. You can select &lt;br /&gt;Add New Field on the Forms Editing toolbar to add more fields or right click on the form to edit or delete &lt;br /&gt;fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Answering “No” to the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog question “Do you want Acrobat to detect form fields &lt;br /&gt;for you?” also places the document in Form Editing mode, but does not create form fields automatically. You &lt;br /&gt;will have to add the form fields manually.  Proceed to the next section, “Create Form Fields Manually” on &lt;br /&gt;page 10 for futher information.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Form Fields Manually&lt;br /&gt;To add form fields manually you first select Forms &amp;gt; Add or Edit Fields (Keyboard shortcut is Shift + Ctrl 7) &lt;br /&gt;and answer “No” to the question “Do you want Acrobat to detect the Form Fields for you?” in the resulting &lt;br /&gt;dialog (See “Figure 5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog” on page 10) This places the document in Forms &lt;br /&gt;Editing Mode without automatically creating any fields. You can now add new form fields to the PDF form. &lt;br /&gt;Proceed to the next section “Forms Editing Mode” on page 11 for further instruction.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 11&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Forms Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;With the PDF form in Forms Editing Mode, you can add new fields and buttons to the form and edit or &lt;br /&gt;delete any existing field or button (See “Figure 6 Adobe Acrobat 9 Forms Editing Mode” on page 11) The &lt;br /&gt;Forms Editing Mode changes the Acrobat user interface slightly. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; A Forms Editing Toolbar provides access to the Select Object tool, the Add New Field button,  and &lt;br /&gt;the Form Preview button.  You can configure the Add New Field button to display the Forms tools &lt;br /&gt;on the toolbar instead of the Add New Field button if you prefer.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; On the right hand side of the Forms Editing Toolbar, are the Distribute Form button and the Close &lt;br /&gt;Form editing button.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; A fields panel  appears on the left side of the document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; There is a forms menu bar which offers users choices that are mostly restricted to forms editing &lt;br /&gt;functions. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  6 Adobe Acrobat 9 Forms Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating a New Form Field&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In Acrobat, you create a form field by choosing one of the form tools. For each field type, you can set a &lt;br /&gt;variety of options through the form field Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can access the forms tools one of three ways.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; You can select “Add New Field” on the Forms Editing Toolbar to add more fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the Forms Editing menu you can select Forms &amp;gt; Form Tools (Keyboard accelerator ALT + R &lt;br /&gt;+ O). This will provide access to the Acrobat form tools.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow12 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; You can right click over the form to present options that allow you to add, edit, or delete fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The cursor becomes a cross hair.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; On the page, click where you want to add the field to create a field with the default size. To create a &lt;br /&gt;field using a custom size, drag a rectangle to define the size of the field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Field Name box, type the name of the field and specify if you want the field to be a required &lt;br /&gt;field.  Acrobat provides a default name based upon the field type and the number of fields drawn on &lt;br /&gt;the page. You should choose a name that is relevant and descriptive to make organizing and &lt;br /&gt;collecting the data easier (See “Figure 7 Field Name Box” on page 12)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To display the Properties dialog box and modify any other field properties, click Show All &lt;br /&gt;Properties (See “Figure 7 Field Name Box” on page 12)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you have selected the Keep Tool Selected option in the forms toolbar, the Field Name &lt;br /&gt;box doesn’t appear after adding a field. Each time you click the page, a new field is added &lt;br /&gt;to the form. To exit this mode, press the Esc key or click the Select Object Tool button. To &lt;br /&gt;modify the properties of the field, double-click the field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  7 Field Name Box&lt;br /&gt;To test your form, click the Preview button. Previewing a form allows you to view the form the same way the &lt;br /&gt;form recipients will and gives you a chance to verify the form. If you are previewing a form, you can click the &lt;br /&gt;Edit Layout button to go back to the Forms Editing mode.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Form Field Properties&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How a form field behaves is determined by settings in the Properties dialog box for that individual field. You &lt;br /&gt;can set properties that apply formatting, determine how the form field information relates to other form &lt;br /&gt;fields, impose limitations on what the user can enter in the form field, trigger custom scripts, and so forth.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can set a variety of properties for an Acrobat form field, depending on the form field type. The &lt;br /&gt;properties for each type of form field are selected on a series of tabs. When you change a property, it is &lt;br /&gt;applied as soon as you select another property or press Enter.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;All the form field types have a General tab, Appearance tab, and an Actions tab. Other tabs appear only in &lt;br /&gt;specific types of form fields. The Options tab appears for most form field types but the options available are &lt;br /&gt;unique to each type of form field.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you are changing the properties of multiple fields, you can leave the Properties dialog box open. Click on &lt;br /&gt;each field to change its properties.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For accessibility, the Tooltip option on the General tab is important for entering text that will be announced &lt;br /&gt;by screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can make form fields accessible to people with disabilities by adding tags to the PDF and by properly &lt;br /&gt;structuring it. In addition, you can use the tool tip form field property to provide the user with information &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 13&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;about the field or to provide instructions. For example, using the tool tip property value, the screen reader &lt;br /&gt;could say “Your first name.” Without the tool tip property, a screen reader announces the type and name of &lt;br /&gt;the form field (See “Figure 8 Adding a Tooltip for Form Fields” on page 13)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If necessary, choose Forms &amp;gt; Add or Edit Fields, and make sure that the Select Object tool is &lt;br /&gt;selected. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Double-click a selected form field to open the Properties window. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the General tab, type a description into the tool tip box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Tooltip also displays text that users may find helpful in filling in the form field. Tooltips appear when &lt;br /&gt;the pointer hovers briefly over the form field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  8 Adding a Tooltip for Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Radio Buttons&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To create a set of mutually exclusive Radio Buttons, where only one field can be selected at a time, give each &lt;br /&gt;field the same name but different Button values. The Button value is a field in the options tab of the Radio &lt;br /&gt;Button Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To make a radio button accessible, in addition to entering  unique text in the Button Value field for each &lt;br /&gt;choice, you would enter identical text in the Tooltip field of the General properties tab for each radio button &lt;br /&gt;in the group (See “Figure 9 Tooltips and Button Values for Radio Button Short Descriptions” on &lt;br /&gt;page 14)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For example, you may have a radio button group that asks the question, “Are You a Citizen?”. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; You would create two radio buttons. For each button, you would enter the text “Are You a &lt;br /&gt;Citizen?” in the Tooltip field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; For one button you would enter “Yes” in the Button Value field under the options tab, for the other &lt;br /&gt;“No” should be entered in the Button Value field.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow14 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  9 Tooltips and Button Values for Radio Button Short Descriptions&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing or Modifying an Existing Form Field&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can access Acrobat form field properties only when you are in editing mode (by choosing Forms &amp;gt; Add &lt;br /&gt;Or Edit Fields). You can change the properties for multiple form fields at a time. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Open the Properties dialog box using one of the following methods: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To edit a single form field, double-click it or right-click/Control-click it and choose Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To edit multiple form fields, select the fields that you want to edit, right-click/Control-click one of &lt;br /&gt;the selected fields, and choose Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the properties on each of the available tabs, as needed. The property is changed as soon as you select &lt;br /&gt;another property or press Enter.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Close to close the Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you select form fields that have different property values, some options in the Properties dialog box are not &lt;br /&gt;available. Otherwise, changes to the available options are applied to all selected form fields. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To avoid accidental changes to the form field, select Locked in the lower left corner of the Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;box before you close it. To unlock, click the check box again.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Deleting a Form Field&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;With the document in Forms Editing mode, click on the field you would like to delete and do any of the &lt;br /&gt;following.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Right mouse click and select delete&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Press the delete key.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the menu, select Edit &amp;gt; Delete (ALT + ED)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 15&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Note: You can select multiple fields by holding the Control key as you click on each one.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons&lt;br /&gt;Buttons are most commonly associated with forms, but you can add them to any document. Buttons can &lt;br /&gt;open a file, play a sound or movie clip, submit data to a web server, and much more. When deciding on how &lt;br /&gt;to initiate an action, remember that buttons offer the following capabilities that links and bookmarks do not:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; A button can activate a single action or a series of actions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; A button can change appearance in response to mouse actions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; A button can be easily copied across many pages.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Mouse actions can activate different button actions. For example, Mouse Down (a click), Mouse Up &lt;br /&gt;(releasing after a click), Mouse Enter (moving the pointer over the button), and Mouse Exit &lt;br /&gt;(moving the pointer away from the button) can all start a different action for the same button.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons are an easy, intuitive way to let users initiate an action in PDF documents. Buttons are added the &lt;br /&gt;same way as form fields while in Forms Editing mode. They also should be given a name and a Tooltip and &lt;br /&gt;their behavior is determined by the actions the user assigns the button on the actions tab of the Button &lt;br /&gt;Properties dialog. They also appear in the Tab order tree. See the Adobe Acrobat Help for a complete &lt;br /&gt;discussion of PDF fields and buttons.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set the Tab Order&lt;br /&gt;If a PDF document doesn’t have a specified tab order, the default tabbing order is based on the document &lt;br /&gt;structure unless the user has deselected the Tab Order option in the Accessibility preferences.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can change the tabbing order after you create the fields. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If you are in Forms Editing mode, you can order the tabs by document structure (default), row, or &lt;br /&gt;column. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; You can also choose the order manually by dragging and dropping fields in the Fields panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If you are not in Forms Editing mode, you can change the page properties to order the tabs by row &lt;br /&gt;or column. However, you can’t customize the tab order manually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To change the tab order, first select “Order Tabs Manually” from the Tab Order button on the Fields panel. &lt;br /&gt;Then you can drag and drop fields where you want them within the Fields panel to modify the tab order (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel” on page 16)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To assist in determining tab order, you can select “Show Tab Numbers” from the Tab Order button of the &lt;br /&gt;Fields panel (See “Figure 10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel” on page 16)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the example shown in Figure 10 on page 16 , the check box labelled “operating system” is in the fifth &lt;br /&gt;position. Selecting the entry for operating system in the Forms panel highlights the corresponding field in &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow16 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;the document view. To move it to the second position, drag it up and drop it below the check box for “office &lt;br /&gt;suite”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features&lt;br /&gt;This stage includes setting the document language, making sure that security settings do not interfere with &lt;br /&gt;screen readers, creating accessible links, and adding bookmarks.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language&lt;br /&gt;Setting the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate language. &lt;br /&gt;You can set the document language for an entire document with Acrobat Pro, Acrobat Pro Extended, or &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat Standard. You can set the document language for specific portions of a multilanguage document &lt;br /&gt;with Acrobat Pro or Acrobat Pro Extended (See “Figure 11 Setting the document language” on page 17)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To set the language for an entire document:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose File &amp;gt; Properties, (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS) and select a language from &lt;br /&gt;the Language menu in the Reading Options area of the Advanced tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To set the language for an entire document to a language not in the Language menu: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; choose File &amp;gt; Properties (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS), and enter the ISO 639 code &lt;br /&gt;for the language in the Language field in the Reading Options area of the Advanced tab. For more &lt;br /&gt;information, see the ISO Language Codes on http://www.loc.gov/standards. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can also set the language for individual sections or words: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the desired text element in the Tags tab and right click (See “ Tags Panel” on page 38)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Properties from the Options menu. In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag &lt;br /&gt;tab. Select a language from the Language menu, and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The language that you specify for an element also applies to all elements nested under it &lt;br /&gt;in the logical structure tree.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 17&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  11 Setting the document language&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set Security That Permits Accessibility&lt;br /&gt;You should ensure the Acrobat 9 security settings permit access to the document by assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;You can verify the Acrobat 9 or Adobe Reader 9 security settings do not prohibit access to assistive &lt;br /&gt;technology by checking the security preferences tab of the document properties dialog.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select File &amp;gt; Properties (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the Security Tab of the Document Properties dialog (See “Figure 12 Security Tab Location &lt;br /&gt;in Document Properties Dialog” on page 18)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow18 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  12 Security Tab Location in Document Properties Dialog&lt;br /&gt; Select “Password Security” as the security method from the drop-down list. In the Permissions &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;section of the Password Security Settings dialog, verify the box labelled “Enable text access for &lt;br /&gt;screen reader devices for the visually impaired” is checked. This is the default setting for Adobe &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 and Adobe Reader 9 (See “Figure 13 Password Security Settings” on page 18)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  13 Password Security Settings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Certain applications allow you to set the security settings for PDF files you plan to generate from within the &lt;br /&gt;application (See “Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 19&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Create Accessible Links&lt;br /&gt;With thoughtfully provided links, users can quickly move from one part of a document to another, to related &lt;br /&gt;information in a different document, or to a website that is relevant to the content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For URLs to be accessible to screen readers, you must convert them to active links and make sure that they &lt;br /&gt;are correctly tagged in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you tagged the Adobe PDF during conversion from an authoring application, the links &lt;br /&gt;and URLs in the document are probably already active and included in the tag tree so that &lt;br /&gt;they are accessible to screen readers. You probably don’t have to do this task unless you &lt;br /&gt;want to add more links. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat provides several ways to create active links for text, objects, and URLs in a PDF. However, the &lt;br /&gt;methods differ in how they affect the tag tree. The best way to create accessible links is with the Create Link &lt;br /&gt;command.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Unlike the other methods for creating links in a tagged PDF (by using the Links tool or the Create From &lt;br /&gt;URLs In Document command), the Create Link command adds all three tags that screen readers require in &lt;br /&gt;order to recognize a link. The other methods create only one of the three tags, meaning that you must &lt;br /&gt;manually edit the tag tree to add the remaining two tags for each link and place these tags in the proper &lt;br /&gt;reading order in the tree. Although you must activate links one by one, using the Create Link command &lt;br /&gt;provides the fastest results and the least amount of follow-up work to make the links accessible to screen &lt;br /&gt;readers. All that is left to do is optional editing of the tag tree to add alternate text to the new links.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Automatically detected URLs in PDF documents are not accessible. Avoid using the Create &lt;br /&gt;Links from URLs command (Advanced &amp;gt; Document Processing &amp;gt; Create Links from URLs... &lt;br /&gt;or ALT + A D C) . Also, ensure that the Basic Tools General Preference, “Create Links from &lt;br /&gt;URLs” is unchecked (Edit &amp;gt; Preferences &amp;gt; General). While these are a convenient way to &lt;br /&gt;detect text that is possibly a URL which allows users to click and go to the URL, the result is &lt;br /&gt;not an accessible link.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating links with Acrobat Standard doesn’t generate any tags for the links. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do the following to make links active and add them to the tag tree:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the text or object for which you want to create a link. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Right-click the selection, and choose Create Link from the context menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Create Link dialog box, select the appropriate options, and then follow the on-screen &lt;br /&gt;instructions to specify a URL, page view, or file as the link target. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;By default, the selected text for each link becomes the link text. After you add all the links, you can edit the &lt;br /&gt;tag tree to add alternate text to the links, further improving the accessibility of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Bookmarks&lt;br /&gt;A bookmark is a type of link with representative text in the Bookmarks panel in the navigation pane. Each &lt;br /&gt;bookmark goes to a different view or page in the document. Bookmarks are generated automatically during &lt;br /&gt;PDF creation from the table-of-contents entries of documents created by most desktop publishing &lt;br /&gt;programs. These bookmarks are often tagged and can be used to make edits in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Initially, a bookmark displays the page that was in view when the bookmark was created, which is the &lt;br /&gt;bookmark’s destination. In Acrobat, you can set bookmark destinations as you create each bookmark. &lt;br /&gt;However, it is sometimes easier to create a group of bookmarks, and then set the destinations later. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow20 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;In Acrobat, you can use bookmarks to mark a place in the PDF to which you want to return, or to jump to a &lt;br /&gt;destination in the PDF, another document, or a web page. Bookmarks can also perform actions, such as &lt;br /&gt;executing a menu item or submitting a form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: An Acrobat user can add bookmarks to a document only if the security settings allow it.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File&lt;br /&gt;Tagging is essential for PDF accessibility, it is used to establish logical read order and to provide hooks for &lt;br /&gt;adding alternative text descriptions to non-text elements that are in the PDF document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you have been following the workflow up to this point,  you will have a PDF file that is searchable because &lt;br /&gt;you performed optical character recognition on a scanned document, or it was searchable to begin with. You &lt;br /&gt;have also added any desired interactivity in the form of navigational controls or interactive form fields. At &lt;br /&gt;this point it may or may not be a tagged PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document has been tagged, you can skip this discussion and &lt;br /&gt;proceed to “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is Tagged&lt;br /&gt;There are several ways to determine if a PDF file has been tagged. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• View Document Properties. File &amp;gt; Document Properties (Ctrl +D) - In the lower left &lt;br /&gt;hand corner of the Description tab, is an indication as to whether or not the document is &lt;br /&gt;tagged (See “Figure 14 Tagged PDF File Property” on page 21)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 21&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  14 Tagged PDF File Property&lt;br /&gt;• Reveal the Tags Panel. View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. An untagged document will &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;display the words &amp;quot;No Tags Available&amp;quot; as its root. A tagged document will show structure.  &lt;br /&gt;To expand the entire tree fully, Cntrl + click on the root node labelled “Tags”.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: In certain instances, a document may not be considered tagged by Acrobat even though a &lt;br /&gt;structure is visible in the Tags panel.  Select the tags options icon and ensure a check mark &lt;br /&gt;appears before the entry “Document is Tagged PDF.” If it does not, simply select this entry &lt;br /&gt;to add the missing check mark (See “Figure 15 Document is Tagged PDF Indicator in a &lt;br /&gt;Structured Document” on page 22)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow22 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  15 Document is Tagged PDF Indicator in a Structured Document&lt;br /&gt;• Run the Accessibility Quick Check . Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Quick Check (Shift + &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Ctrl + 6). If the document is not tagged, the Accessibility Quick Check will indicate the &lt;br /&gt;document is not structured.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Run the Accessibility Full Check. Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check. If the &lt;br /&gt;document is not tagged, the Accessibility Full Check will indicate the document is not &lt;br /&gt;tagged.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use the Touch Up Read Order Tool. Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading &lt;br /&gt;Order - An untagged document will not appear to have undergone a change. A tagged &lt;br /&gt;document will display shaded areas on the page that are numbered. An untagged &lt;br /&gt;document will not display these numbered rectangles (See “ TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;Tool (TURO)” on page 23)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged&lt;br /&gt;Add tags to the document using Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the menu, select Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Add Tags to Document (Keyboard Accelerator is &lt;br /&gt;ALT + AAA)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;About the Add Tags Report&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If Acrobat encounters potential problems while running the Add Tags To Document command, the Add &lt;br /&gt;Tags Report opens in the navigation pane. The report lists potential problems by page, provides a &lt;br /&gt;navigational link to each problem, and offers suggestions for fixing them. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 23&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;You could choose to repair the problems at this time by following the suggestions in the Add Tags report or &lt;br /&gt;now that the file is tagged proceed to the next step “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” &lt;br /&gt;on page 23. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you choose to repair the document at this stage, remember to assess the context of any error before &lt;br /&gt;following a particular suggestion for fixing it. For example, the report might state that an element that has &lt;br /&gt;been tagged as a figure and requires alternate text to make it accessible. When you examine the figure in its &lt;br /&gt;context on the page, you may decide that the figure is a background design element, not an illustration that &lt;br /&gt;conveys valuable meaning to the user. In the case of a nonessential image, and you would change the Figure &lt;br /&gt;tag to a Background tag; in the case of an image intended to convey meaning to the reader, you would add &lt;br /&gt;the missing alternate text (See “ Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Add Tags Report highlights tagging-related problems only, and it is a temporary file &lt;br /&gt;that you cannot save. You can assess other tagging, reading order, and accessibility &lt;br /&gt;problems by using Full Check.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If adding tags to a PDF in Adobe Acrobat results in a tagging structure that is overly complicated or too &lt;br /&gt;problematic to fix, you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to remove or replace the current structure. &lt;br /&gt;If the document contains mostly text, you can select a page and then remove headings, tables, and other &lt;br /&gt;elements to create a cleaner, simpler tagging structure (See “TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)” on &lt;br /&gt;page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Tagged&lt;br /&gt;Proceed to the next step, “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged&lt;br /&gt;The easiest way to determine if the PDF file has been properly tagged is to use the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;Tool (See “ TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)” on page 23)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the menu, select Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Touchup Reading Order.... (Keyboard &lt;br /&gt;Accelerator is ALT + AAT)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Touch Up Reading Order Tool divides a tagged page into shaded segments. Each segment is numbered &lt;br /&gt;indicating the read order of the item on the page. You can also verify the read order of items on the page by &lt;br /&gt;displaying the order panel from the Touch Up Read Order Tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document is properly tagged, you can skip this discussion and &lt;br /&gt;proceed to “Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File” on page 44.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)&lt;br /&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool provides the easiest and quickest way to fix reading order and basic &lt;br /&gt;tagging problems. When you select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, a dialog box opens that lets you see &lt;br /&gt;overlay highlights that show the order of page content. Each highlighted region is numbered and highlighted &lt;br /&gt;with gray or colored blocks; the number indicates the region’s placement in the page’s reading order. After &lt;br /&gt;you check the reading order of the page, you can correct other, more subtle tagging issues as needed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool is intended for repairing PDFs that were tagged using Acrobat, not for &lt;br /&gt;repairing PDFs that were tagged during conversion from an authoring application. Whenever possible, you &lt;br /&gt;should return to the source file and add accessibility features in the authoring application. Repairing the &lt;br /&gt;original file ensures that you don’t have to repeatedly touch up future iterations of the PDF in Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to perform the following accessibility tasks:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Visually check, and then repair, the reading order of page content&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow24 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Tag fillable form fields and their labels&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Add alternative text to figures and descriptions to form fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Fix the tagging of simple tables, and prepare complex tables for more advanced manipulation in the &lt;br /&gt;logical structure tree&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Remove nonessential content, such as ornamental page borders, from the logical structure tree&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  16 TouchUp Reading Order Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select the TouchUp Reading Order Tool, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading Order (ALT + AAT)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Tools &amp;gt; Advanced Editing &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading Order Tool (ALT + TAG).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the TouchUp Reading Order tool button in the Advanced Editing toolbar.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you select TouchUp Reading Order, a dialog box opens that lets you see overlay highlights that show &lt;br /&gt;the order of page content (See “Figure 17 Result of Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool” on &lt;br /&gt;page 25)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 25&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Each highlighted region is numbered and highlighted with gray or colored blocks; the number indicates the &lt;br /&gt;region’s placement in the page’s reading order.l&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  17 Result of Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool Options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can select TouchUp Reading Order options from the dialog box, from the pop-up menu that appears &lt;br /&gt;when you right-click a highlighted region, or from the Options menu in the Order tab. The TouchUp &lt;br /&gt;Reading Order tool includes the following options:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text . Tags the selection as text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Figure . Tags the selection as a figure. Text contained within a figure tag is defined as part &lt;br /&gt;of the image and is not read by screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Form Field . Tags the selection as a form field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Figure/Caption . Tags a selected figure and caption as a single tag. Any text contained in &lt;br /&gt;the tag is defined as a caption. Useful for tagging photos and captions and preventing &lt;br /&gt;caption text from being incorrectly added to adjacent text blocks. Figures may require &lt;br /&gt;alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3 . Tags the selection as a first, second, or third level &lt;br /&gt;heading tag. You can convert heading tags to bookmarks to help users navigate the &lt;br /&gt;document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Table . Tags the selection as a table after the selection is analyzed to determine the location &lt;br /&gt;of headings, columns, and rows. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cell . Tags the selection as a table or header cell. Use this option to merge cells that are &lt;br /&gt;incorrectly split. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow26 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Formula . Tags the selection as a formula. Because speech software may handle formula &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;tags differently from normal text, you may want to add a description using alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Background . Tags the selection as a background element, or artifact, removing the item &lt;br /&gt;from the tag tree so that it doesn’t appear in the reflowed document and isn’t read by &lt;br /&gt;screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Table Editor . Automatically analyzes the selected table into cells and applies the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate tags. The table must be tagged as a table before you can use the Table Editor &lt;br /&gt;command on it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Page Content Order . Shows content elements as highlighted areas that contain &lt;br /&gt;numbers to indicate the reading order. The rectangle next to this entry is a color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;Specify the desired highlight color for page content order by clicking the color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Table Cells . Highlights the content of individual table cells. The rectangle next to &lt;br /&gt;this entry is a color swatch. Specify the highlight color for Table Cells by clicking the color &lt;br /&gt;swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Tables And Figures . Outlines each table and figure with a crossed-out box. The &lt;br /&gt;box also indicates whether the element includes alternate text. The rectangle next to this &lt;br /&gt;entry is a color swatch. Specify the highlight color for Tables and Figures by clicking the &lt;br /&gt;color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Clear Page Structure . Removes the tagging structure from the page. Use this option to &lt;br /&gt;start over and create a new structure if the existing structure contains too many problems. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Order Panel . Opens the Order tab to allow you to reorder highlighted content. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Alternate Text . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted figure. Allows the user to add or edit a text description about the figure &lt;br /&gt;properties that is read by a screen reader or other assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Form Field Text . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a form &lt;br /&gt;field. Allows the user to add or edit a form field text description that is read by a screen &lt;br /&gt;reader or other assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Table Summary . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted table. Allows the user to add or edit a text description about the table &lt;br /&gt;properties that is read by a screen reader or other assistive technology.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tips for using the TouchUp Reading Order tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, you should be mindful of the following tips for use:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Save the document (or a copy of it) before you use the TouchUp Reading Order tool. You can’t use &lt;br /&gt;Undo to reverse changes made with this tool, so reverting to a saved document is the only way to &lt;br /&gt;undo such a change. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose View &amp;gt; Page Display &amp;gt; Single Page, when using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. When &lt;br /&gt;you click the Clear Structure button, Acrobat clears tags from all visible pages—even pages that are &lt;br /&gt;only partially visible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Checking Read Order with the Touch Up Read Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;You can quickly check the reading order of tagged PDFs by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. You can &lt;br /&gt;also use this tool to add alternate text to images and correct many types of tagging problems that are outlined &lt;br /&gt;in the report that Acrobat generates when you add tags to a PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Reading-order problems are readily apparent when you use the TouchUp Reading Order tool. Each section &lt;br /&gt;of contiguous page content appears as a separate highlighted region and is numbered according to its &lt;br /&gt;placement in the reading order. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 27&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Within each region, text is ordered left to right and top to bottom. (You can change this order in the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp preferences.) If a single highlighted region contains two columns of text or text that won’t flow &lt;br /&gt;normally, divide the region into parts that can be reordered. Because highlighted regions are rectangular, &lt;br /&gt;they may overlap somewhat, especially if their page content is irregularly shaped. Unless page content &lt;br /&gt;overlaps or is contained within two highlighted regions, no reading order problem is indicated. Page content &lt;br /&gt;should belong to no more than one highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can change the reading order of the highlighted regions by moving an item in the Order Panel or by &lt;br /&gt;dragging it on the page in the document pane. By reordering highlighted regions on the page, you can make &lt;br /&gt;a figure and caption read at the specific point that they are referenced in the text. By changing the order of a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region, you effectively change the reading order of that item without changing the actual &lt;br /&gt;appearance of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check reading order with the TouchUp Reading Order tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If highlighted regions don’t appear in the document pane, the document doesn’t contain &lt;br /&gt;tags.  You will need to tag the document (See “ What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged” &lt;br /&gt;on page 22)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Optionally, do any of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To specify a highlight color, click the color swatch, and then click the color you want.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To highlight tables and figures, and to view alternate text for figures, select Show Tables And &lt;br /&gt;Figures.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Check the reading order of text within each highlighted region. Zooming in can make this step &lt;br /&gt;easier. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Check the numbered order of all highlighted regions. If consecutive, numbered regions don’t &lt;br /&gt;follow one another, reorder them in the Order tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Show Order Panel, and then select each content entry (in square brackets [ ]) in the Order tab &lt;br /&gt;to highlight that content region in the document pane. Use this method to find numbered regions &lt;br /&gt;that you can’t see or locate on the page.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order by dragging on the page&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, place the pointer over the number for the highlighted region you want to &lt;br /&gt;move, and drag it to where you want it to be read. The text-insertion pointer shows target locations &lt;br /&gt;within the text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you release the highlighted region, the location of the text-insertion pointer becomes the &lt;br /&gt;dividing line as the underlying highlighted region is split into two new highlighted regions. All &lt;br /&gt;highlighted regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order using the Order panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Show Order Panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Order tab, navigate to view a list of highlighted regions that appear in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, drag the tag for a highlighted region to the location you want. As you drag, a line &lt;br /&gt;appears to show potential locations. After you drag an item to a new location, the highlighted &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow28 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. You can select and move multiple, adjacent &lt;br /&gt;regions (See “Figure 25 Acrobat 9 Pro Order Panel” on page 38).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing Tags with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;You can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to create tags in untagged PDFs or to add new tags to an &lt;br /&gt;existing structure. However, this manual tagging doesn’t provide the same level of detail to the tagging &lt;br /&gt;structure as the Add Tags To Document command, such as paragraphs, bulleted and numbered lists, line &lt;br /&gt;breaks, and hyphens. Before you clear the existing structure, make sure that manual tagging is your only &lt;br /&gt;recourse.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tag a region&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, drag within the document pane to select a region of the &lt;br /&gt;page that contains one type of content (for example, a text block). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To add more page content to the current selection, Shift-drag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To remove page content from the current selection, Ctrl-drag/Command-drag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the appropriate button in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box to specify the tag type.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the tag for a region&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If Acrobat tags a page element incorrectly, you can change the tag type for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select a highlighted region, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Drag to select it.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the number of a highlighted region.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add or remove content from a tagged region&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool always displays as few highlighted regions as possible. If content within a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region doesn’t flow properly, you may need to split a region to reorder it. Highlighted regions &lt;br /&gt;may also contain adjacent page content that is unrelated or that requires a different tag type. Page content &lt;br /&gt;may become orphaned from related elements, particularly if the content doesn’t fit within a rectangular &lt;br /&gt;shape. Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to add or remove content from a region, or to split a region to &lt;br /&gt;reorder the content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, select a highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To add content to the current selection, Shift-click the content you want to add. The pointer &lt;br /&gt;changes to include a plus sign (+).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To remove content from the current selection, Ctrl-click/Command-click the content you want to &lt;br /&gt;remove. The pointer changes to include a minus sign (-).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Split a region into two regions&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 29&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, drag to select a small portion of content near the boundary of the first region &lt;br /&gt;that you want to create. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the Background button in the dialog box. The highlighted region splits into two regions, &lt;br /&gt;numbered from right to left. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If you need to correct the reading order, click Show Order Panel, and drag the new highlighted &lt;br /&gt;region to the correct location in the Order tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Drag to select the first content region you created, including the region you defined as Background, and then &lt;br /&gt;set the tag by clicking a button in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a heading tag&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To help readers navigate a document and find the information they need, make sure that headings are tagged &lt;br /&gt;with the appropriate level to indicate their hierarchy in the content. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then select the heading text in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click the button corresponding to the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;heading tag (for example, Heading 1, Heading 2). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove page elements from the tag structure&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When tagging a PDF, Acrobat can’t always distinguish between instructive figures and decorative page &lt;br /&gt;elements. Items that visually enhance page layout, such as decorative borders, lines, or background elements, &lt;br /&gt;can add clutter to the structure layout and should be removed. Therefore, Acrobat may incorrectly tag &lt;br /&gt;artifacts or page elements as figure tags. You can remove artifacts and irrelevant page elements from the tag &lt;br /&gt;structure by redefining them with the Background tag or by deleting their tags. If a tagged image in the &lt;br /&gt;document doesn’t contain useful or illustrative information for the user, you can remove the element from &lt;br /&gt;the tagging structure so that it isn’t read out loud or reflowed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order and Show Tables And &lt;br /&gt;Figures. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Remove the page element by doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, select the page element, and then click Background in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, select the page element, and then press Delete.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a figure tag&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can select an element and define it as a figure by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. Once you &lt;br /&gt;define it as a figure, you can add alternate text to describe the figure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, select the figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, right-click the region and choose Edit Alternate Text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter alternate text, and click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using TouchUp Reading Order to Check and Correct Figure Tags&lt;br /&gt;You can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to identify and correct tagging results for figures. Determine &lt;br /&gt;whether figures include or require alternate text in order to be read correctly with assistive technologies. &lt;br /&gt;Ideally, figure tags should identify image content that is meaningful to the document as a whole, such as &lt;br /&gt;graphs or illustrative photographs. If background elements that shouldn’t be read are tagged as figures, &lt;br /&gt;redefine them as background.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow30 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Do any of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If a figure isn’t tagged as a figure, select the content region you want, and then click Figure or &lt;br /&gt;Figure/Caption in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To remove text that was incorrectly combined with a figure, drag to select the text, and click the &lt;br /&gt;Text button in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To include a caption that is grouped with the figure, select the figure and caption, and click the Figure/&lt;br /&gt;Caption button in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adding Alternate Text with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you want screen readers to describe graphical elements that illustrate important concepts in a document, &lt;br /&gt;you must provide the description using alternate text. Figures aren’t recognized or read by a screen reader &lt;br /&gt;unless you add alternate text to the tag properties. If you apply alternate text to text elements, only the &lt;br /&gt;description, not the actual text, is read. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box. Figures that are missing Alternate Text will have &lt;br /&gt;a flag indicating “Figure - No alternate text exists” (See “Figure 18 Add / Edit Alternate Text with &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order” on page 30).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Right-click the figure, and choose Edit Alternate Text from the pop-up menu. (See “Figure 18 Add &lt;br /&gt;/ Edit Alternate Text with TouchUp Reading Order” on page 30)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Edit Alternate Text dialog box, type a new (or edit an existing) description for the figure, and then &lt;br /&gt;click OK (See “Figure 19 TouchUp Reading Order Alternate Text Dialog” on page 31) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  18 Add / Edit Alternate Text with TouchUp Reading Order&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 31&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  19 TouchUp Reading Order Alternate Text Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using the TouchUp Reading Order Tool Table Editor&lt;br /&gt;Tables pose a special challenge for screen readers because they present textual or numerical data to be easily &lt;br /&gt;referenced visually. Content within table cells can be complex and might contain lists, paragraphs, form &lt;br /&gt;fields, or another table.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor automatically analyzes the selected table into cells and applies the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate tags. The table must be tagged as a table before you can use the Table Editor command on it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For best results when tagging tables, use the application that you created the document with to add tags &lt;br /&gt;when you create the PDF. If a PDF isn’t tagged, you can add tags by using the Add Tags To Document &lt;br /&gt;command. Most tables are properly recognized using this command; however, the command may not &lt;br /&gt;recognize a table that lacks clear borders, headings, columns, and rows. Use the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;tool to determine if the table has been properly recognized and to correct recognition problems. To add &lt;br /&gt;specialized formatting to tables and table cells, use the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can use the Table Editor to automatically analyze a table into its components and apply the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;tags, but you may still need to check and correct some of these tags manually. By viewing table tags, you can &lt;br /&gt;determine whether columns, rows, and cells have been correctly identified. Tables that lack well-defined &lt;br /&gt;borders and rules are often tagged incorrectly or contain adjacent page elements. You can correct poorly &lt;br /&gt;tagged tables by selecting and redefining them; you can split combined cells by creating a tag for each cell. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If the table isn’t clearly labeled in the document pane, drag to select the entire table, and then click &lt;br /&gt;Table in the dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Show Table Cells to make sure that all cells in the table are defined as individual elements.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If cells don’t appear as separate elements, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If one or more cells are merged, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select the area within a &lt;br /&gt;single cell, and then click Cell in the dialog box. Repeat for each merged cell.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If cells aren’t highlighted, the table might not use standard table formatting. Re-create the table in &lt;br /&gt;the authoring application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add a Table Summary&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; With the cursor over the table, right click to add a Table Summary. The Edit Table Summary option &lt;br /&gt;is available in the menu that appears when you right-click a highlighted table. This allows the user &lt;br /&gt;to add or edit a text description about the table properties that is read by a screen reader or other &lt;br /&gt;assistive technology.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Place the Table in Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;There are two ways to place Tables in Table Editing Mode with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow32 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; With the cursor over the table, right click to select Table Editor from the drop down list to place the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;table in Table Editing mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; You can also click the Show Order Panel in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog and select the table &lt;br /&gt;from the Order Panel. One technique is to highlight the snippets of text in the Order Panel that &lt;br /&gt;match the headings of  the first row in the table. This often activates the Table Editor when it cannot &lt;br /&gt;otherwise be activated. You then select the Table Editor button on the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;dialog  to place the table in Table Editing Mode (See “Figure 20 Using the Order Panel to Activate &lt;br /&gt;the Table Editor” on page 32)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  20 Using the Order Panel to Activate the Table Editor&lt;br /&gt;Once in Table Editing Mode, the borders of the table cells are highlighted. You can change the color of the &lt;br /&gt;border to suit your needs (See “Figure 21 Table Editing Mode” on page 33). You can select individual cells &lt;br /&gt;by clicking within the borders with the mouse. You can select multiple table cells by holding down Shift and &lt;br /&gt;clicking. This is an effecient method for selecting the first row of data cells in a table which need to be &lt;br /&gt;changed to header cells.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 33&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  21 Table Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;Once in Table Editing Mode, you can right click to display the Table Cell Properties dialog or the Table &lt;br /&gt;Editor Options dialog. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Table Cell Properties dialog (See “Figure 22 Table Cell Properties” on page 34) allows you to: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Specify the type of cell the selected cell should be, whether a Header cell or Data cell&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Set the cells attibutes for row span and column span. Assign a unique header ID for Table Headers &lt;br /&gt;or associate Data cells with Header IDs that have been created for the table&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow34 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  22 Table Cell Properties&lt;br /&gt;The Table Editor Options dialog allows users to control how table cells and table headers are displayed by &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat when using the TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor (See “Figure 23 Table Editor Options” on &lt;br /&gt;page 34).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  23 Table Editor Options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To correct complex tagging problems for tables, you often must use the Tags Panel. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 35&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Remove or replace document structure tags&lt;br /&gt;If the tags in a PDF file in Acrobat appear to be overly complicated you can try retagging an already tagged &lt;br /&gt;document.  To do this,  you must first remove all existing tags from the tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If adding tags to a PDF in Adobe Acrobat results in a tagging structure that is overly complicated or too &lt;br /&gt;problematic to fix, you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to remove or replace the current structure. &lt;br /&gt;If the document contains mostly text, you can select a page and then remove headings, tables, and other &lt;br /&gt;elements to create a cleaner, simpler tagging structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat can retag an already tagged document after you first remove all existing tags from the tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Replace the existing tag structure&lt;br /&gt;This procedure works best in pages that contain a single column of text. If the page contains multiple &lt;br /&gt;columns, each column must be selected and tagged individually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the document pane, drag to select the entire page. The selection includes both text and nontext &lt;br /&gt;elements. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Ctrl-drag/Command-drag around nontext page elements—such as figures and captions—to &lt;br /&gt;deselect them, until only text is selected on the page. Click Text in the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the document pane, select a nontext page element, such as a figure and caption, and click the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;button in the dialog box to tag it. Repeat until all page content is tagged. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove all tags from a PDF&lt;br /&gt; Open the Tags tab (View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags) and select the root (topmost) tag, Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, choose Options &amp;gt; Delete tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Clear Page Structure command in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box removes all &lt;br /&gt;tags from the currently visible pages.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Complex Structures&lt;br /&gt;While you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to create tags in untagged PDFs or to add new tags to an &lt;br /&gt;existing structure, this manual tagging doesn’t provide the same level of detail to the tagging structure as the &lt;br /&gt;Add Tags To Document command, such as paragraphs, bulleted and numbered lists, line breaks, and &lt;br /&gt;hyphens. Before you clear the existing structure, make sure that manual tagging is your only recourse.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To perform more advanced reading order and tagging tasks—such as fixing complex tables, removing &lt;br /&gt;obsolete tags after you delete pages, and adding alternative text to links—you may need to use the Content &lt;br /&gt;Panel and the Tags panel, which provide an alternate set of tools and features for manipulating PDF tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Panel&lt;br /&gt;Use the Content Panel to correct reflow problems in a PDF that can’t be corrected by using the TouchUp &lt;br /&gt;Reading Order tool. Because you can damage a PDF by editing content objects, make sure that you’re &lt;br /&gt;familiar with PDF structure before you change anything. For comprehensive information about PDF &lt;br /&gt;structure, see the PDF Reference Sixth Edition: Adobe Portable Document Format Version 1.7, on the PDF &lt;br /&gt;reference page (English only) of the Adobe website.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Content Panel provides a hierarchical view of the objects that make up a PDF, including the PDF object &lt;br /&gt;itself. Each document includes one or more pages, a set of annotations (such as comments and links), and &lt;br /&gt;the content objects for the page, consisting of containers, text, paths, and images. Objects are listed in the &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow36 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;order in which they appear on the page, similar to tags in the logical structure tree. However, PDFs don’t &lt;br /&gt;require tags for you to view or change the object structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Content Panel may open in the document viewing area. It may be part of a panel group that also &lt;br /&gt;includes the Order Panel and the Tags Panel. You can drag the individual panel and dock it in the &lt;br /&gt;Navigation pane. You can also a the menu command to dock all panels in the Navigation Pane:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Dock All Panels (ALT + VNK) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the plus sign (+) (Windows) or the triangle (Mac OS) next to the document name to view pages and &lt;br /&gt;objects.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: You may find it helpful to have Acrobat highlight items in the document view when the &lt;br /&gt;associated item in the Content Panel is selected. From the Content Panel Options Menu, &lt;br /&gt;select “Highlight Content” (See “Figure 24 Set Highlighting On for the Content Panel” on &lt;br /&gt;page 36). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a container or object by selecting it and doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Drag it to the location you want. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Cut from the Options menu, select the tag above the location you want to paste the cut tag, &lt;br /&gt;and choose Paste from the Options menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  24 Set Highlighting On for the Content Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Container elements can’t be pasted directly to page elements. To move a container to &lt;br /&gt;another page, cut the container you want to move, select a container on the page you &lt;br /&gt;want to move the container to, and choose Paste from the Options menu. Then, drag the &lt;br /&gt;container out one level to the location that you want. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 37&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Content Tab Options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Content tab, use the Options menu or right-click an object to choose from the following options:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• New Container . Adds a new container object at the end of the selected page or container. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Container Dictionary . Specifies the dictionary for the container. Errors in this &lt;br /&gt;dialog box may damage the PDF. Available only for containers that include dictionaries. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cut . Cuts and copies the selected object (not the related page content). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Paste . Pastes content directly below the selected object at the same hierarchical level. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Paste Child . Pastes content into the selected object as a child content item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Delete . Removes the object (not the related page content) from the document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find Content From Selection . Searches for the object in the Content tab that contains &lt;br /&gt;the object selected in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find . Searches for unmarked (untagged) artifacts, content, comments, and links. Options &lt;br /&gt;allow you to search the page or document, and to add tags to found items. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Artifact . Defines selected objects as artifacts. Artifacts are not read by a screen &lt;br /&gt;reader or by the Read Out Loud feature. Page numbers, headers, and footers are often best &lt;br /&gt;tagged as artifacts. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Remove Artifact . Removes the artifact definition from the selected object. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Highlight Content . When selected, highlights appear in the document pane around &lt;br /&gt;content that relates to a selected object in the Content tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Metadata . Allows viewing and editing of image or object metadata. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Properties . Opens the TouchUp Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Order Panel&lt;br /&gt;You can change the reading order of the highlighted regions by moving an item in the Order tab or by &lt;br /&gt;dragging it on the page in the document pane. By reordering highlighted regions on the page, you can make &lt;br /&gt;a figure and caption read at the specific point that they are referenced in the text. By changing the order of a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region, you effectively change the reading order of that item without changing the actual &lt;br /&gt;appearance of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select the Order Panel, do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Show &lt;br /&gt;Order Panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the Acrobat menu select View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Order (ALT + VNO)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Order Panel may open in the document viewing area. It may be part of a panel group that also includes &lt;br /&gt;the Content Panel and the Tags Panel. You can drag the individual panel and dock it in the Navigation pane. &lt;br /&gt;You can also use a menu command to dock all panels in the Navigation Pane:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;  View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Dock All Panels (ALT + VNK) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To change the order of content using the Order Panel:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Order panel, navigate to view a list of highlighted regions that appear in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, drag the tag for a highlighted region to the location you want. As you drag, a line &lt;br /&gt;appears to show potential locations. After you drag an item to a new location, the highlighted &lt;br /&gt;regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. You can select and move multiple, adjacent &lt;br /&gt;regions. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow38 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  25 Acrobat 9 Pro Order Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;The Tags Panel allows you to view and edit tags in the logical structure tree, or tags tree, of a PDF. In the &lt;br /&gt;Tags Panel, tags appear in a hierarchical order that indicates the reading sequence of the document. The first &lt;br /&gt;item in this structure is the Tags root. All other items are tags and are children of the Tags root. Tags use &lt;br /&gt;coded element types that appear in angle brackets (&amp;lt; &amp;gt;). Each element, including structural elements such as &lt;br /&gt;sections and articles, appears in the logical structure order by type, followed by a title and the element’s &lt;br /&gt;content or a description of the content. Structural elements are typically listed as container—or parent—tags &lt;br /&gt;and include several smaller elements—or child tags—within them.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Though you can correct most tagging issues by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, you must use the &lt;br /&gt;Tags Panel to address detailed tagging of tables and substructure items—such as paragraphs, lists, and &lt;br /&gt;sections that require multiple languages. Add tags manually to a document using the Tags tab only as a last &lt;br /&gt;resort. First consider using the Add Tags To Document feature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Important: Operations performed in the Tags tab cannot be undone with the Undo &lt;br /&gt;command.  Save a backup copy of a document before you begin work on it in the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select the Tags Panel:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Then do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Expand the tag for the section you want.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Ctrl-click the plus sign (Windows) or Option-click the triangle (Mac OS) next to the Tags root to &lt;br /&gt;show all tags in the logical structure tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: You may find it helpful to have Acrobat highlight items in the document view when the &lt;br /&gt;associated item in the Tags Panel is selected. From the Content Panel Options menu, &lt;br /&gt;select “Highlight Content” (See “Figure 26 Set Content Highlighting On for the Tags &lt;br /&gt;Panel” on page 39). &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 39&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  26 Set Content Highlighting On for the Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit tags with the Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can edit a tag title, change a tag location, or change the tag type for an element. All page content must be &lt;br /&gt;tagged, marked as an artifact, or removed from the logical structure tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To reveal the TouchUp Properties for any tag select the desired tag in the Tags panel and do one of the &lt;br /&gt;following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Right click and select Properties from the context menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select Properties from the Tags Panel Option Menu&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow40 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  27 Revealing TouchUp Properties for Tags &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit a tag title&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to edit. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; To edit the title, Select the tag, choose Properties from the Options menu, enter text in the Title box, &lt;br /&gt;and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a tag&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, expand the Tags root to view all tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the Tag icon of the element that you want to move. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Drag the tag to the location you want. As you drag, a line appears at viable locations. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Cut from the Options menu, and select the tag that appears above the location you want to &lt;br /&gt;paste the cut tag. From the Options menu, choose Paste to move the tag to the same level as the &lt;br /&gt;selected tag, or choose Paste Child to move the tag within the selected tag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the element type&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to change. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select an element and choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose a new element type from the Type menu, and then click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags tab options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Tags tab, use the Options menu or right-click a tag in the logical structure tree to choose from the &lt;br /&gt;following options:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 41&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• New Tag . Creates a new tag in the logical structure tree after the currently selected item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Specify type and title of the new tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cut . Removes the selected tag from its current location and puts it on the clipboard. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Paste . Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, replacing the &lt;br /&gt;selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Paste Child . Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, as a child of &lt;br /&gt;the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Delete Tag . Removes the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find Tag From Selection . Searches for the tag in the Tags tab that contains the text or &lt;br /&gt;object selected in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Tag From Selection . Creates a new tag in the logical structure tree after the item &lt;br /&gt;selected in the document pane. Specify type and title of the new tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find . Searches for artifacts, OCR suspects, and unmarked (untagged) content, comments, &lt;br /&gt;links, and annotations. Options allow you to search the page or document and add tags to &lt;br /&gt;found items. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Change Tag To Artifact . Changes selected tags to artifacts and removes the tagged &lt;br /&gt;content from the structure tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Copy Contents To Clipboard . Copies all content contained within the selected tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Class Map . Allows you to add, change, and delete the class map, or style dictionary, &lt;br /&gt;for the document. Class maps store attributes that are associated with each element. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Role Map . Allows you to add, change, and delete role maps for the document. Role &lt;br /&gt;maps allow each document to contain a uniquely defined tag set. By mapping these &lt;br /&gt;custom tags to predefined tags in Acrobat, custom tags are easier to identify and edit. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Tag Annotations . When selected, all new comments and form fields are added to the tag &lt;br /&gt;tree after the selected tag element; existing comments and form fields aren’t added to the &lt;br /&gt;tag tree. Highlight and Underline comments are automatically associated and tagged with &lt;br /&gt;the text that they annotate and don’t require this option. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Document Is Tagged PDF . Flags the PDF as a tagged document. Deselect to remove the &lt;br /&gt;flag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Important: This option doesn’t necessarily indicate that the PDF conforms to PDF guidelines and &lt;br /&gt;should be used judiciously. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Highlight Content . When selected, causes highlights to appear around content in the &lt;br /&gt;document pane when you select the related tag in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Metadata . Opens a read-only dialog box that contains reference information about &lt;br /&gt;the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Properties . Opens the TouchUp Properties dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text and supplementary information to tags&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Some tagged PDFs might not contain all the information necessary to make the document contents fully &lt;br /&gt;accessible. For example, if you want to make a document available to a screen reader, the PDF should &lt;br /&gt;contain alternate text for figures, language properties for portions of the text that use a different language &lt;br /&gt;than the default language for the document, and expansion text for abbreviations. Designating the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate language for different text elements ensures that the correct characters are used when you &lt;br /&gt;repurpose the document and that it is spell-checked with the correct dictionary. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow42 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;You can add alternate text and multiple languages to a tag from the Tags tab. (If only one language is &lt;br /&gt;required, choose the language with File &amp;gt; Properties instead.) You can also add alternate text by using the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: Keep alternate text descriptions as concise as possible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text to links&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Screen readers can read the URLs of web links out loud, but adding meaningful alternate text to links can &lt;br /&gt;help users immensely. For example, by adding alternate text you can have a screen reader tell a user to “go to &lt;br /&gt;the Acrobat accessibility page of adobe.com” rather than “go to http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/&lt;br /&gt;solutionsacc.html.” &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You add alternate text to the &amp;lt;Link&amp;gt; tag of a link.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: You must add alternate text only to tags that don’t have child tags. Adding &lt;br /&gt;alternate text to a parent tag prevents a screen reader from reading any of that tag’s child &lt;br /&gt;tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the tag tree, select the &amp;lt;Link&amp;gt; tag for the link and choose Options &amp;gt; Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Type alternate text for the link, and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for a figure&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Expand the logical structure tree to find and select the &amp;lt;Figure&amp;gt; tag element for the image. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To find a tag more easily, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select the figure—or text near the &lt;br /&gt;figure—in the document pane, and then choose Find Tag From Selection from the Options menu &lt;br /&gt;in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Highlight Content from the Options menu in the Tags tab to see a highlighted area in the &lt;br /&gt;document that corresponds to the tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Properties from the Options menu in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, click the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; For Alternate Text, type text that describes the figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for an abbreviated term&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Tags panel, locate the abbreviated term by doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Expand the tag tree as needed to see the elements that contain the abbreviation.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Use the TouchUp Text tool or the Select tool to select the abbreviation in the document, and then &lt;br /&gt;choose Find Tag From Selection from the Options menu to locate the text in the tag tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the tag for that element, and choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: If the abbreviation includes additional text, cut the additional text and place it in a &lt;br /&gt;new &amp;lt;Span&amp;gt; child tag within the same &amp;lt;Span&amp;gt; parent tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; For Alternate Text, type the unabbreviated version of the term. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click Close. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 43&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Create a new child tag&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, select the parent node (the icon located at the same level at which you want to &lt;br /&gt;create a child tag) in the Tags tree for which you want to create a child tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose New Tag from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Select the appropriate tag type from the Type pop-up menu, or type a custom tag type, name the tag &lt;br /&gt;(optional), and then click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add tags to comments&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you tag a PDF that includes comments, the comments are tagged as well. However, if you add &lt;br /&gt;comments to a PDF that’s already tagged, your comments are untagged unless you enable comment tagging &lt;br /&gt;first. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To Enable comment tagging in a PDF, in the Tags tab, choose Tag Annotations from the &lt;br /&gt;Options menu. Comments or markups that you add to the PDF are tagged automatically. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If a document contains untagged comments, you can locate them in the logical structure tree and tag them &lt;br /&gt;by using the Find command in the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, choose Find from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Find Element dialog box, choose Unmarked Comments from the Find pop-up menu, and &lt;br /&gt;click Find. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; When the comment type appears in the Type field (for example, Text), click Tag Element, choose &lt;br /&gt;Annotation from the Type pop-up menu in the New Tag dialog box, and then click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Find Element dialog box, click Find Next to locate and tag all comments, and then click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Correct table tags with the Tags tab&lt;br /&gt;Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to make sure that tables are tagged correctly. If you need to structure &lt;br /&gt;figures and text within the cells of your table, you may prefer to re-create the table in the authoring &lt;br /&gt;application before you convert it as an accessible PDF. Adding tags on a cell level in Acrobat is a labor-&lt;br /&gt;intensive procedure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Before you make any changes to table elements, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to determine that the &lt;br /&gt;table is tagged correctly.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check table elements&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, expand the tags root to view a table tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the table tag &amp;lt;Table&amp;gt; and verify that it contains one of the following elements: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table Rows, each of which contains Table Header &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; or Table Data &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; cells.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;&amp;lt;THead&amp;gt;, &amp;lt;TBody&amp;gt;, and &amp;lt;TFoot&amp;gt; sections, each of which contains Table Rows. (The Table Rows &lt;br /&gt;contain &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; cells, &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; cells, or both.)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one or more of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If the tag for the table doesn’t contain these elements, but rows, columns, and cells appear in the &lt;br /&gt;table in the document pane, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select and define the table or &lt;br /&gt;individual cells.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If the table contains rows that span two or more columns, set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes for &lt;br /&gt;these rows in the tag structure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Re-create the table in the authoring application, and then convert it to a tagged PDF.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow44 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tags tab, select a &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; or &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; element. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, click the Tag tab, and then click Edit Attribute Objects. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select Attribute Objects, and then click New Item to create a new Attribute Object Dictionary. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Expand the new dictionary, select the Layout attribute, and then click Change Item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Change the Layout value to Table. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the Attribute Object Dictionary, and click New Item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Add Key And Value dialog box, type ColSpan or RowSpan in the Key box, enter the number of &lt;br /&gt;columns or rows spanned in the Value box, choose Integer from the Value Type pop-up menu, and click &lt;br /&gt;OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The accessibility checker tools (Quick Check and Full Check) can help to identify areas of &lt;br /&gt;documents that may be in conflict with Adobe's interpretations of the accessibility &lt;br /&gt;guidelines referenced in the application and its documentation. However, these tools &lt;br /&gt;don’t check documents against all accessibility criteria, including those in such referenced &lt;br /&gt;guidelines, and Adobe does not warrant that documents comply with any specific &lt;br /&gt;guidelines or regulations.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check&lt;br /&gt;Use Quick Check to check for document structure tags, searchable text, and appropriate security settings for &lt;br /&gt;accessibility. This method is often the best way to check for accessibility before attempting to use a PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check Results&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• This document has logical structure but it is not a Tagged PDF.  Some accessibility &lt;br /&gt;information may be missing.” Quick Check has found an underlying document structure &lt;br /&gt;in the document, so Acrobat will use the available document structure to control the &lt;br /&gt;reading order, rather than analyzing the document itself. However, this untagged &lt;br /&gt;document structure might be incomplete or unreliable, so assistive software and the &lt;br /&gt;accessibility features in Acrobat (such as the Read Out Loud and the Save As Text features) &lt;br /&gt;may not read the page properly. If the reading order of the page seems to be wrong, select &lt;br /&gt;Override The Reading Order In Tagged Documents in the Reading panel of the &lt;br /&gt;Preferences dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• This document is not structured, so the reading order may not be correct. Try different reading &lt;br /&gt;orders using the Reading Preferences panel.” . Quick Check has found no underlying &lt;br /&gt;document structure that Acrobat can use for reading order. Acrobat will analyze the &lt;br /&gt;reading order of the document using the current analysis method set in the Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;preference, but this PDF might not be read correctly by screen readers. If the reading order &lt;br /&gt;seems wrong, select a different option for Reading Order in the Reading panel of the &lt;br /&gt;Preferences dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• No accessibility problems were detected in this quick check. Choose the Full Check command to &lt;br /&gt;check more thoroughly. Quick Check has found that the PDF contains searchable text, is &lt;br /&gt;tagged, has an underlying document structure, and has no security settings that prohibit &lt;br /&gt;access for screen readers. To check for other types of accessibility problems that may be &lt;br /&gt;present in the PDF, use Full Check. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 45&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• This document’s security settings prevent access by screen readers. Quick Check has &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;found that the PDF has security settings that interfere with screen readers’ ability to extract &lt;br /&gt;text for conversion to speech. You may be able to use a screen reader with this document if &lt;br /&gt;your assistive technology product is registered with Adobe as a Trusted Agent. Contact &lt;br /&gt;your assistive technology product vendor. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• This document appears to contain no text. It may be a scanned image. Quick Check has &lt;br /&gt;found that the PDF contains no searchable text, probably because the document consists &lt;br /&gt;entirely of one or more scanned images. This means that screen readers, Read Out Loud, &lt;br /&gt;Reflow view, and most other accessibility features—which rely on text as input—will not &lt;br /&gt;work with this document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check&lt;br /&gt;Use Full Check to perform a more thorough check for many characteristics of accessible PDFs, such as the &lt;br /&gt;use of fonts that can be mapped reliably to Unicode text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check checks a PDF for many of the characteristics of accessible PDFs.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can choose which kinds of accessibility problems to look for and how you want to view the results.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select options for how you want to view the results.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can save the results as an HTML file or as comments that are located where the accessibility problems &lt;br /&gt;are detected. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select a page range if you prefer to do a full check on individual sections of a document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you have a large document, running a full check one section at a time can be more efficient. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select an accessibility standard (Adobe PDF, Section 508 (U.S.), or W3C ) from the Name menu, &lt;br /&gt;and then select the accessibility options to check for. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The standard that you select in the Name menu determines which accessibility options are &lt;br /&gt;available.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Start Checking. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The results are displayed in the left panel, which also has helpful links and hints for repairing issues (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 28 Acrobat 9 Pro Accessibility Report” on page 46)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you created a report in step 2, the results are available in the selected folder. Clicking on the links &lt;br /&gt;highlights the problem areas in the document. The Accessibility Checker panel also provides hints for repair &lt;br /&gt;which you should follow &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow46 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  28 Acrobat 9 Pro Accessibility Report&lt;br /&gt;Because the Full Check feature is unable to distinguish between essential and nonessential content types, &lt;br /&gt;some issues it reports don’t affect readability. It’s a good idea to review all issues to determine which ones &lt;br /&gt;require correction.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessibility Full Check Options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Accessibility Report . Creates an HTML report of accessibility issues, which is &lt;br /&gt;opened in the navigation pane and saved in the location indicated by the Folder field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Include Repair Hints In Accessibility Report . Adds suggestions for fixing accessibility &lt;br /&gt;problems to the HTML report or comments. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Comments In Document . Adds comments to the document that indicate &lt;br /&gt;accessibility problems. Delete all accessibility comments from the PDF after you repair the &lt;br /&gt;accessibility issues. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Page Range . The range of pages to check. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Name . The set of accessibility criteria to check. For the Section 508 and W3C guidelines, &lt;br /&gt;the options area includes a Browse button that links to the website for the respective &lt;br /&gt;guidelines. Select Adobe PDF to choose from options for the Adobe PDF accessibility &lt;br /&gt;standard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Alternative Descriptions Are Provided . Checks for tagged figures that are missing &lt;br /&gt;alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text Language Is Specified . Checks for paragraphs that don’t have a language specified &lt;br /&gt;for them. Setting the language for an entire document in the Document Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;box corrects all errors related to this option. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 47&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Reliable Character Encoding Is Provided . Checks for fonts that are inaccessible to &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;screen readers and other assistive software. Fonts must contain enough information for &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat to correctly extract all the characters to text. If one or more fonts don’t allow for &lt;br /&gt;the correct extraction of all the characters, the PDF is inaccessible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• All Content Is Contained In The Document Structure . Checks for page elements that &lt;br /&gt;may have been overlooked during tagging. Adding these elements to the tag tree (if &lt;br /&gt;necessary) ensures that a screen reader can present the content to a user. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• All Form Fields Have Descriptions . Checks for form fields that are missing descriptions. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Tab Order Is Consistent With The Structure Order . Checks whether tags properly &lt;br /&gt;reflect the document’s structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• List And Table Structure Is Correct . Checks whether tags that have been generated for &lt;br /&gt;lists and tables meet the requirements of tagged PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Continue Checking Until All Issues are Addressed&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repeat the process of running the Accessibility Checker and using familiar repair techniques or following &lt;br /&gt;the Hints for Repair until the Accessibility Checker indicates “The checker found no problems in this &lt;br /&gt;document” for the tests you have selected (See “Figure 29 A Successful Accessibility Check” on page 47)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: While the Accessibility Checker helps you evaluate the accessibility of your documents &lt;br /&gt;and helps identify areas that may be in conflict with Adobe's interpretations of the &lt;br /&gt;referenced guidelines, the Accessibility Checker does not check all accessibility guidelines &lt;br /&gt;and criteria, including those in such referenced guidelines, and Adobe does not warrant &lt;br /&gt;that your documents will comply with any specific guidelines or regulations. Please &lt;br /&gt;consult with your legal counsel for guidance on compliance with the referenced &lt;br /&gt;guidelines or any other accessibility guidelines.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  29 A Successful Accessibility Check&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Additional Validation Techniques&lt;br /&gt;Of course, the best way to test the accessibility of a document is to attempt to use the document with the &lt;br /&gt;tools that your readers will use. However, even if you don’t have a screen reader or braille printer, you can &lt;br /&gt;still use any of several methods provided by Acrobat for checking the accessibility of a PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Use Reflow view to quickly check reading order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Use Read Out Loud to experience the document as it will be experienced by readers who use this &lt;br /&gt;text-to-speech conversion tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Save the document as accessible text and then read the saved text file in a word-processing &lt;br /&gt;application to experience the document as it will be experienced by readers who use a braille &lt;br /&gt;printer.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool, Tags tab, and Content tab to examine the structure, reading &lt;br /&gt;order, and contents of a PDF in detail.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow48 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt; Creating Accessible PDF Files Using &lt;br /&gt;Authoring Applications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction&lt;br /&gt;In many cases, you can create tagged PDFs from within an authoring application, such as Adobe &lt;br /&gt;FrameMaker®, Adobe InDesign, Adobe LiveCycle Designer. This functionality extends to applications that &lt;br /&gt;are not from Adobe Systems, such as Microsoft® Office and OpenOffice.org Writer. Creating tags in the &lt;br /&gt;authoring application generally provides better results than adding tags in Acrobat. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In Windows, Acrobat installs both an Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and an Adobe PDF menu in many &lt;br /&gt;popular authoring applications. PDFMaker provides conversion settings that let you create tagged PDFs in &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint, and Word among others. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can use either the toolbar buttons or the Adobe PDF menu (the Action menu in Lotus Notes) to create &lt;br /&gt;PDFs, but the menu also provides access to conversion settings. Although many of the conversion options &lt;br /&gt;are common to all authoring applications, a few are application-specific.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: For Microsoft Office 2007 applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access, the &lt;br /&gt;options for creating PDFs are available from the Acrobat Ribbon. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In general, the following rules apply.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Design your source document with accessibility in mind&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do NOT use character formatting for headings, use the program’s styles.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do add alternative text to graphics in the source file &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do use a table editor if available to create tables&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do NOT use a table editor to design layouts&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do generate the PDF file in a way that generates tags&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do set your PDF output preferences option to tagged PDF&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do check the results in Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro using Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check &lt;br /&gt;(shortcut: Alt + A + A + F)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do follow the suggestions for repair and repeat checking until no errors are detected&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create an Accessible Microsoft Word Document&lt;br /&gt;You should author the original source document with accessibility in mind. This means you should add &lt;br /&gt;structure to the document by using styles rather than character formats for such items as headings and lists. &lt;br /&gt;You should also add alternate text descriptions to graphics that appear in the Word file using the format &lt;br /&gt;picture dialog. You should use Word’s column command and not tables to create multi-column documents. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Styles&lt;br /&gt;Design your documents with styles. Styles add the structure necessary to make your documents usable to &lt;br /&gt;people with disabilities.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Text&lt;br /&gt;The default text style for Microsoft Word is Normal. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Text should be at least 12 point type. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Avoid using Microsoft Word text boxes.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;49&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications50 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Avoid using Enter to create space between paragraphs. Use the space before and space after &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;properties in your styles &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Headings&lt;br /&gt;Use Styles to create heading formats. Title, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, etc. Make styles progress in a &lt;br /&gt;logical manner , a Heading 2 should come after a Heading 1 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 Headings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To create headings in Microsoft Word 2003 do the following&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Format &amp;gt; Styles and Formatting to reveal the styles and formatting task pane (See “Figure 30 &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Word 2003 Styles and Formatting” on page 50).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Apply the appropriate heading from the Styles and Formatting panel to your document text &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  30 Microsoft Word 2003 Styles and Formatting&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 Headings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the Home Ribbon in Word 2007 and select the proper heading from the styles group (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 31 Microsoft Word 2007 Styles and Formatting” on page 50).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  31 Microsoft Word 2007 Styles and Formatting&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 51&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images&lt;br /&gt;Alternative Text or Alt Text refers to text that can be read by a screen reader to describe graphics and images &lt;br /&gt;which people with visual dis-abilities cannot see.  All Graphics and Images should be provided with &lt;br /&gt;alternative text descriptions. Avoid placing graphics too close to text. This can cause problems when &lt;br /&gt;converting to PDF. Place white space between text and graphics. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Double Click on an image or right click and select the format picture dialog. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select the Web tab and enter the alternative text (See “Figure 32 Microsoft Word 2003 Web Tab &lt;br /&gt;for adding Alternative Text” on page 51).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  32 Microsoft Word 2003 Web Tab for adding Alternative Text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Right Click on an image and choose Size &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications52 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Select the Alt Text tab and enter the alternative text (See “Figure 33 Microsoft Word 2007 Alt Text &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;for adding Alternative Text” on page 52) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  33 Microsoft Word 2007 Alt Text for adding Alternative Text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Configure the PDFMaker&lt;br /&gt;Once you have authored your Microsoft Word document with accessibility in mind, you are ready to &lt;br /&gt;convert it to an accessible PDF file. To generate an accessible PDF document directly from the Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word source, you should use the Adobe PDFMaker to convert the file to PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDFMaker is an Acrobat feature that operates within many business applications, such as Microsoft Office &lt;br /&gt;applications and Lotus Notes. When you install Acrobat, PDFMaker controls appear in the work area of the &lt;br /&gt;authoring application. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using PDFMaker within an authoring application is a simple, one-click procedure. It involves clicking an &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar button or choosing a command on the Adobe PDF menu. It is not necessary to &lt;br /&gt;open Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In Windows, Acrobat installs both an Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and an Adobe PDF menu in many &lt;br /&gt;popular authoring applications. You can use either the toolbar buttons or the Adobe PDF menu to create &lt;br /&gt;PDFs, but the menu also provides access to conversion settings.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: For Microsoft Office 2007 applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access, the &lt;br /&gt;options for creating PDFs are available from the Acrobat ribbon (See “Figure 34 Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word 2007 Adobe Acrobat Ribbon and Group” on page 53).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 53&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  34 Microsoft Word 2007 Adobe Acrobat Ribbon and Group&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Show or activate PDFMaker in Microsoft Word&lt;br /&gt;If you don’t see the PDF toolbar buttons in Microsoft Word, you must show or activate the PDF toolbar. Use &lt;br /&gt;one of the following methods to show or activate PDFMaker.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2003 or earlier, &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Choose View &amp;gt; Toolbars &amp;gt; Acrobat PDFMaker 9.0&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2007&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the Office button, and then click the Word Options button&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Add-Ins on the left side of the dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin is not listed, choose COM Add-&lt;br /&gt;Ins from the Manage pop-up menu and click Go.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin is listed under Disabled &lt;br /&gt;Application Add-ins, select Disabled Items from the Manage pop-up menu and click Go.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin and click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Restart the Office application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;View PDFMaker conversion settings&lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker conversion settings determine what features of the Microsoft Word document will be included in &lt;br /&gt;the PDF and how they will be translated into the resulting PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications54 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;  Choose Adobe PDF &amp;gt; Change Conversion Settings (See “Figure 35 Change PDFMaker Settings &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in Word 2003” on page 54)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  35 Change PDFMaker Settings in Word 2003&lt;br /&gt; (Office 2007) In the Acrobat ribbon, click Preferences (See “Figure 36 Acrobat Preferences in &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007” on page 54).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  36 Acrobat Preferences in Word 2007&lt;br /&gt;If you wish to revert to the original default settings, click Restore Defaults on the Settings tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using PDFMaker (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 37 PDFMaker Settings Tab” on page 56). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Conversion Settings . Specifies the standard by which the PDF will be optimized. When &lt;br /&gt;you choose an item in the menu, a description of that preset appears immediately below it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• View Adobe PDF Result . Opens the converted document directly into Acrobat. &lt;br /&gt;(Exception: when you choose Convert To Adobe PDF And Email.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Prompt For Adobe PDF File Name . Lets you enter a custom filename for the resulting &lt;br /&gt;PDF. Deselect this option to save the file in the same folder as the source file, using the &lt;br /&gt;same name but with a .pdf extension. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Document Information . Adds document information from the Properties &lt;br /&gt;dialog box of the source file. This setting overrides the printer preferences and settings in &lt;br /&gt;the Advanced panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Advanced Settings button opens the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box, which contains &lt;br /&gt;many additional conversion options. These conversion settings apply to all Acrobat &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 55&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;features that create PDFs, such as Acrobat Distiller, PDFMaker, and the Acrobat &lt;br /&gt;application itself. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create PDF/A Compliant PDF File . Creates the PDF so that it conforms to this ISO &lt;br /&gt;standard for long-term preservation of electronic documents. (In the Microsoft Publisher &lt;br /&gt;application alone, PDFMaker does not support the PDF/A standard.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: When Conversion Settings are opened from within Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, this &lt;br /&gt;option specifies PDF/A 1-a:2005. When opened from within Microsoft Visio, Access, &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Project, or AutoCAD, it specifies PDF/A 1-b:2005.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Attach Source File . Includes the Word document that is being converted as an &lt;br /&gt;attachment to the resulting PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Bookmarks . Converts certain elements in original Office documents to PDF &lt;br /&gt;bookmarks: Word headings, Excel worksheet names, or PowerPoint titles. Selecting this &lt;br /&gt;option overrides any settings on the Bookmarks tab of the Conversion Settings dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Add Links . Includes active links and hypertext in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If this option is deselected, but the recipient of the PDF has the Create Links From URLs &lt;br /&gt;preference selected, URLs in the PDF are still active. For more information, see &lt;br /&gt;Preferences for viewing PDFs. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Accessibility And Reflow With Tagged Adobe PDF . Embeds tags in the PDF &lt;br /&gt;(on by default).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications56 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  37 PDFMaker Settings Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Security tab settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using &lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker (See “Figure 38 PDFMaker Security Tab” on page 57). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Require A Password To Open The Document . When selected, makes the Document &lt;br /&gt;Open Password option available, where you enter a password that users must use to open &lt;br /&gt;the document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Restrict Editing And Printing Of The Document . When selected, makes the other &lt;br /&gt;Permissions options available. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Change Permissions Password . Specifies a password you set that users must use in order &lt;br /&gt;to do any allowable printing or editing. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Printing Allowed . Specifies whether users who use the Permissions Password can print &lt;br /&gt;the document and at what resolution. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Changes Allowed . Specifies what kind of changes users who use the Permissions &lt;br /&gt;Password can make. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Copying Of Text, Images, And Other Contents . Prevents or allows users from &lt;br /&gt;copying from the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Text Access For Screen Reader Devices For The Visually Impaired . Prevents or &lt;br /&gt;allows screen reader devices to read text. (Selected by default.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Plaintext Metadata . Specifies whether the search engine can read the document &lt;br /&gt;metadata. Available only when the PDF-compatibility is set to Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5) or &lt;br /&gt;later.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 57&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  38 PDFMaker Security Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use the Word Tab to control how certain features in Microsoft Word will be rendered in PDF (See “Figure &lt;br /&gt;39 PDFMaker Word Tab” on page 58).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Displayed Comments To Notes In Adobe PDF . Changes any Word comment &lt;br /&gt;entries to PDF comments. If the currently open Word document contains comments, &lt;br /&gt;more options appear in the Comments list on this tab: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Reviewer. Lists the names of reviewers who have entered comments in the current &lt;br /&gt;Word document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Include. When deselected, does not include the comments in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Notes Open. Specifies whether the PDF comment windows automatically open or are &lt;br /&gt;closed for that reviewer’s comments. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Color . Shows the color for that reviewer’s comment icons. Clicking the color icon &lt;br /&gt;repeatedly cycles through a limited set of available colors. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• # Of Comments . Shows the number of comments that the reviewer made. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Cross-References And Table Of Contents To Links (Word 2002 and 2003 only). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enables one-click navigation of these elements in the new PDF. This option is not &lt;br /&gt;available in Word 2007. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Footnote And Endnote Links . Integrates these into the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Advanced Tagging . Integrates this into the PDF. Useful for Microsoft Word &lt;br /&gt;forms.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications58 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  39 PDFMaker Word Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks Tab (Microsoft Word)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The options you specify on this tab determine which items are converted into PDF bookmarks in the PDF &lt;br /&gt;(See “Figure 40 PDFMaker Bookmarks Tab” on page 59).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To include bookmarks in the conversion process, the Add Bookmarks To Adobe PDF &lt;br /&gt;option on the Settings tab must be selected. If you deselect that option, it overrides any &lt;br /&gt;options you select on this tab and no bookmarks are created. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Headings To Bookmarks . Selects all the headings in the Elements list for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Styles To Bookmarks . Selects all the text styles in the Elements list for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks. (Unselected by default.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Bookmarks . Converts any user-created Word bookmarks to PDF &lt;br /&gt;bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Element list . Specifies which Word headings and styles are converted to PDF bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Element . Lists the names of all available Word headings and styles. The icons for &lt;br /&gt;Headings and Styles indicate the element types. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Type . Also indicates whether the element is a heading or style in the Word &lt;br /&gt;document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Bookmark . Displays X’s, indicating whether individual elements are converted to &lt;br /&gt;PDF bookmarks. Clicking an individual Bookmark option changes the selection &lt;br /&gt;status for that element. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 59&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Level . Specifies where the element fits in the hierarchy structure of the PDF &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks panel. Clicking an individual Level number opens a menu that you can &lt;br /&gt;use to change the value. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: When some but not all of the available Word headings and styles are selected for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks, the marker in the corresponding check boxes at the top of &lt;br /&gt;the tab change. If all elements of the type are selected, a check mark appears. If only some &lt;br /&gt;of the elements of that type are selected, a colored square appears. Otherwise, the check &lt;br /&gt;box is empty.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  40 PDFMaker Bookmarks Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Video Tab (Microsoft Word and PowerPoint)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The options you specify on this tab determine settings for multimedia files that are converted to FLV format &lt;br /&gt;and inserted into Word or PowerPoint files (See “Figure 41 PDFMaker Video Tab” on page 60).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Save Video In . To save the converted video file in the same folder as the document, select &lt;br /&gt;Same As Document Folder. To save the converted video file in a different folder, select Use &lt;br /&gt;This Folder, and click Browse to locate and select a folder. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Video Quality . A higher Video Quality setting results in a larger PDF file size. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Deinterlace . Activates the video deinterlacing filter, which can improve video quality. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Encode Audio . If unselected, the converted video file does not include audio. If selected, &lt;br /&gt;specify the data rate at which to encode the audio in the FLV file.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications60 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  41 PDFMaker Video Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings for Other Microsoft Office Applications&lt;br /&gt;There are application specific options on the settings tab of the PDFMaker for other Microsoft Office &lt;br /&gt;applications.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Excel-specific options on the Settings tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;These options are specific to the Settings tab in the PDFMaker for the Excel spreadsheet application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Comments . Converts user-created Excel comments to notes and lists them in &lt;br /&gt;the Acrobat Comments panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Fit Worksheet To A Single Page . Adjusts the size of each worksheet so that all the entries &lt;br /&gt;on that worksheet appear on the same page of the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Fit To Paper Width . Adjusts the width of each worksheet so that all the columns on that &lt;br /&gt;worksheet appear on one page in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Prompt For Selecting Excel Sheets . Opens a dialog box at the beginning of the file &lt;br /&gt;conversion process. In this dialog box, you can specify which worksheets are included in &lt;br /&gt;the PDF and the order in which the sheets appear in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PowerPoint-specific options on the Settings tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;These options are specific to the Settings tab in the PDFMaker for the PowerPoint presenation application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Multimedia . Converts any linked audio-video file to an FLV file and embeds it &lt;br /&gt;in the PDF. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 61&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Preserve Animation (PowerPoint 2002 and 2003 only) . Converts any animation effects &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the PowerPoint file to equivalent animations in the PDF. This option is not available in &lt;br /&gt;PowerPoint 2007. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Preserve Slide Transitions . Converts PowerPoint slide transition effects to PDF &lt;br /&gt;transition effects. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Hidden Slides To PDF Pages . Converts any PowerPoint slides that are not seen &lt;br /&gt;in the usual playing of the presentation to PDF pages. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Speaker Notes . Converts any speaker notes for the PowerPoint presentation &lt;br /&gt;into Text notes in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use PowerPoint Printer Settings (PowerPoint 2002 and 2003 only) . Uses the same &lt;br /&gt;printer settings in the PDF as in the original file. This option is not available in PowerPoint &lt;br /&gt;2007.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert the Word Document to Accessible PDF&lt;br /&gt;Open the Microsoft Word file. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2003&lt;br /&gt;There are two controls on the Microsoft Word 2003 interface for converting to accessible PDF (See “Figure &lt;br /&gt;42 Convert to Adobe PDF in Word 2003” on page 61).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the Convert To Adobe PDF button on the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Convert to Adobe PDF from the Adobe PDF menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  42 Convert to Adobe PDF in Word 2003&lt;br /&gt;Enter a filename and location for the PDF, and click Save. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2007&lt;br /&gt;Do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the Create PDF button from the Create Adobe PDF Group on the Acrobat ribbon (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 43 Create Accessible PDF in Word 2007” on page 61).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  43 Create Accessible PDF in Word 2007&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications62 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Select Save as Adobe PDF from the Office button (See “Figure 44 Save as Accessible PDF in Word &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2007” on page 62).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  44  Save as Accessible PDF in Word 2007&lt;br /&gt;Enter a filename and location for the PDF, and click Save. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the Word Document is a Form&lt;br /&gt;If the Word document has been designed as a form and you want it to be a fillable PDF form, prepare the &lt;br /&gt;document as described. When you are ready to import it into PDF, do so from within Acrobat using the &lt;br /&gt;Form Wizard. From Acrobat 9 Pro do the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select Forms &amp;gt; Start Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Check the box indicating “An existing electronic document”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select “Import a file from file system” &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click the Browse button to locate the desired file&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click Next&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The document will be converted to PDF with Tags and fillable form fields. You may need to edit the results &lt;br /&gt;within Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check the PDF Version of the Document Using Acrobat&lt;br /&gt;Once you have converted the document, you will still need to check the results in Adobe Acrobat. To check &lt;br /&gt;the results, begin at Step 5 of the PDF Accessibility Workflow (see  “Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a &lt;br /&gt;Tagged PDF File” on page 20).  Depending upon the type of error, you may have to make adjustments in a &lt;br /&gt;particular location.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Adjustments to the Conversion Settings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Repairs You Make to the Source File&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Repairs You Make to the PDF File&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 63&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Changes to the Conversion Settings&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs will involve changes to the PDFMaker conversion settings. If, for example, your final check &lt;br /&gt;indicated that the PDF file was not tagged, you would need to verify that the Enable Accessibility and Reflow &lt;br /&gt;box was checked in the PDFMaker tabbed settings.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the Source File&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs can be made on the PDF file, but they would be erased the next time a PDF file was created &lt;br /&gt;from the same source. A good example is missing alternative text descriptions. You can certainly use the &lt;br /&gt;Touchup Reading Order Tool in Acrobat to add these to a PDF file, but if you want the change to last during &lt;br /&gt;updates to the file, it is better to add the alternative text in the Word document using the format picture &lt;br /&gt;dialog (See “Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images” on page 51).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs must take place on the PDF file using Adobe Acrobat 9.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In some instances, even if the document language has been specified in the source file, the information about &lt;br /&gt;document language is not conveyed to the PDFMaker.  Setting the language for an entire document in the &lt;br /&gt;Document Properties dialog box corrects all errors related to this option. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Select File &amp;gt; Properties (Ctrl + D)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Language drop down of the Reading Options section choose the appropriate language for the &lt;br /&gt;document.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tab Order is Consistent with Structure Order&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In some instances, even though the tags have been inherited from the source file, the Accessibility Checker &lt;br /&gt;will indicate that tab order is inconsistent with structure order. To correct this issue, do the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Open the Pages icon or select View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Pages (ALT + VNP)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; Click on any page icon and  type Cntrl + A (Command + A for the Mac OS) to select all the pages&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; From the Options button on the pages panel select “Page Properties”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; In the Tab Order Panel, check “Use Document Structure”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Establish Table Headings for Tables&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table headers are not always properly defined after the conversion from Microsoft Word to PDF. Use the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor to change table data cells that should be table headings to table &lt;br /&gt;headers or change the TD tags directly into TH tags within the tags panel.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications64 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;</Content> 
     66&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe® Acrobat® 9 Pro Accessibility Guide: &lt;br /&gt;Best Practices for Accessibility&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, Acrobat Connect, the Adobe PDF logo, Creative Suite, LiveCycle, and Reader are either registered trade-&lt;br /&gt;marks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. AutoCAD is either a registered trade-&lt;br /&gt;mark or a trademark of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. GeoTrust is a registered trademark of GeoTrust, Inc. Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All &lt;br /&gt;other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;© 2008 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents i&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Each PDF File is Different 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Two Workflows for Creating Accessible PDF Files 1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making an Existing PDF File Accessible  1&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Generating Accessible PDF Files from Authoring Applications  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Characteristics of Accessible PDF files 2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Searchable text  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Fonts that allow characters to be extracted to text  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Interactive form fields  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Other Features: Buttons, hyperlinks, and navigational aids  2&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document language  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security that will not interfere with assistive technology  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document structure tags and proper read order  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Alternative text descriptions  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader Accessibility Features 3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Accessible Reading of PDFs  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Creating Accessible PDFs  3&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow 5&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsii |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;PDF Accessibility Workflow Summary 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 1: Analyze the PDF File 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document 5&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is a Scanned Document  6&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is a Scanned Document  7&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is Not a Scanned Document  8&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons 8&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Form Fields  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Acrobat to Detect and Create Interactive Form Fields  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat Form Wizard  9&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter Forms Editing Mode Directly  10&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Form Fields Manually  10&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Forms Editing Mode  11&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating a New Form Field  11&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Form Field Properties  12&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Form Fields  12&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Radio Buttons  13&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing or Modifying an Existing Form Field  14&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Deleting a Form Field  14&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons  15&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set the Tab Order  15&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features 16&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language  16&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set Security That Permits Accessibility  17&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Accessible Links  19&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Bookmarks  19&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents | iii&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File 20&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is Tagged  20&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged  22&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;About the Add Tags Report  22&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Tagged  23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged 23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)  23&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  24&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool Options  25&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tips for using the TouchUp Reading Order tool  26&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Checking Read Order with the Touch Up Read Order Tool  26&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check reading order with the TouchUp Reading Order tool  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order by dragging on the page  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order using the Order panel  27&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing Tags with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tag a region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the tag for a region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add or remove content from a tagged region  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Split a region into two regions  28&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a heading tag  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove page elements from the tag structure  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a figure tag  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using TouchUp Reading Order to Check and Correct Figure Tags  29&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adding Alternate Text with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool  30&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using the TouchUp Reading Order Tool Table Editor  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add a Table Summary  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Place the Table in Editing Mode  31&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove or replace document structure tags  35&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsiv |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Replace the existing tag structure  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove all tags from a PDF  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Complex Structures  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Panel  35&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Tab Options  37&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Order Panel  37&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags Panel  38&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit tags with the Tags Panel  39&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit a tag title  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a tag  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the element type  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags tab options  40&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text and supplementary information to tags  41&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text to links  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for a figure  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for an abbreviated term  42&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create a new child tag  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add tags to comments  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Correct table tags with the Tags tab  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check table elements  43&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File 44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check Results  44&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check  45&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessibility Full Check Options  46&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Continue Checking Until All Issues are Addressed  47&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Additional Validation Techniques  47&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contents | v&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt; Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create an Accessible Microsoft Word Document 49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Styles  49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Text  49&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 Headings  50&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007  51&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Configure the PDFMaker 52&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Show or activate PDFMaker in Microsoft Word  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2003 or earlier,  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2007  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;View PDFMaker conversion settings  53&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings Tab  54&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security Tab  56&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word Tab  57&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks Tab (Microsoft Word)  58&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Video Tab (Microsoft Word and PowerPoint)  59&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings for Other Microsoft Office Applications  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Excel-specific options on the Settings tab  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PowerPoint-specific options on the Settings tab  60&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert the Word Document to Accessible PDF 61&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2003  61&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Contentsvi |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Office 2007  61&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the Word Document is a Form 62&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check the PDF Version of the Document Using Acrobat 62&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Changes to the Conversion Settings  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the Source File  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the PDF File  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tab Order is Consistent with Structure Order  63&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Establish Table Headings for Tables  63&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility&lt;br /&gt;A document or application is accessible if it can be used by people with disabilities—such as mobility &lt;br /&gt;impairments, blindness, and low vision—and not just by people who can see well and use a mouse. &lt;br /&gt;Accessibility features in Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Reader, and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) make &lt;br /&gt;it easier for people with disabilities to use PDF documents and forms, with or without the aid of assistive &lt;br /&gt;software and devices such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and braille printers.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDFs accessible tends to benefit all users. For example, the underlying document structure that &lt;br /&gt;makes it possible for a screen reader to properly read a PDF out loud also makes it possible for a mobile &lt;br /&gt;device to correctly reflow and display the document on a small screen. Similarly, the preset tab order of an &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF form helps all users—not just users with mobility impairments—fill the form more easily.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Each PDF File is Different&lt;br /&gt;Not all PDFs are the same. PDF files are created in a variety of ways, from a variety of applications, and for a &lt;br /&gt;variety of purposes. In addition to applying the proper accessibility enhancements to PDF documents, &lt;br /&gt;achieving your accessibility goals for an individual PDF file requires understanding the nature of the PDF &lt;br /&gt;and the uses for which it is intended. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using this guide, you will learn how to assess existing PDF files for certain characteristics which influence &lt;br /&gt;their accessibility. The order in which this assessment is conducted is important. By following these &lt;br /&gt;procedures in the recommended order, users can efficiently proceed through the analysis of a PDF file in a &lt;br /&gt;systematic fashion. Systematically ruling out or confirming certain characteristics which a PDF file may &lt;br /&gt;possess will guide you to the most appropriate next step for making an individual PDF accessible (See &lt;br /&gt;“Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5).&lt;br /&gt;This guide also discusses techniques for converting source files to accessible PDF. Using the Adobe &lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker with Microsoft Word as an example, this guide provides best practices for designing your source &lt;br /&gt;document with accessibility in mind so that the original document can be efficiently transformed into an &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF version (See “Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: These Best Practices techniques assume the user has access to Adobe Acrobat Pro 9 or &lt;br /&gt;Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended for Windows. Adobe Reader 9 and Adobe Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;Standard do not have the complete set of tools needed to create and validate PDF &lt;br /&gt;documents for accessibility.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Two Workflows for Creating Accessible PDF Files&lt;br /&gt;The PDF format is a destination file format. PDF files are typically created in some other application. What &lt;br /&gt;this means is that the author who is concerned with PDF accessibility will be confronted with one of two &lt;br /&gt;situations: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Individuals working with an existing PDF file will want to know how to edit/update it to be &lt;br /&gt;an accessible PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Authors will want to know how to use some other software application, such as a word processing &lt;br /&gt;or desktop publishing application, to generate an accessible PDF file from that application if &lt;br /&gt;possible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making an Existing PDF File Accessible&lt;br /&gt;“Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5 provides a step-by-step approach for &lt;br /&gt;analyzing PDF files and making them accessible based upon that analysis.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;1&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction2 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Generating Accessible PDF Files from Authoring Applications&lt;br /&gt;“Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53 provides an example using &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Word of how to use Acrobat’s PDFMaker to make an accessible PDF files from a word processing &lt;br /&gt;application. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Even if you generate an accessible PDF file from an authoring application, you should then follow the steps &lt;br /&gt;in “Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow” on page 5 in order to identify any items that may &lt;br /&gt;have been missed in the initial conversion or to add PDF accessibility features that are not provided by the &lt;br /&gt;authoring tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Characteristics of Accessible PDF files&lt;br /&gt;The Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) is the native file format of the Adobe® Acrobat® family of &lt;br /&gt;products. The goal of these products is to enable users to exchange and view electronic documents easily and &lt;br /&gt;reliably, independently of the environment in which they were created. PDF relies on the same imaging &lt;br /&gt;model as the PostScript® page description language to describe text and graphics in a device-independent &lt;br /&gt;and resolution-independent manner. To improve performance for interactive viewing, PDF defines a more &lt;br /&gt;structured format than that used by most PostScript language programs. PDF also includes objects, such as &lt;br /&gt;annotations and hypertext links, that are not part of the page itself but are useful for interactive viewing and &lt;br /&gt;document interchange. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessible PDFs have the following characteristics:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Searchable text&lt;br /&gt;A document that consists of scanned images of text is inherently inaccessible because the content of the &lt;br /&gt;document is a graphic representing the letters on the page, not searchable text. Assistive software cannot &lt;br /&gt;read or extract the words in a graphic representation, users cannot select or edit the text, and you cannot &lt;br /&gt;manipulate the PDF for accessibility. You must convert the scanned images of text to searchable text using &lt;br /&gt;optical character recognition (OCR) before you can use other accessibility features with the document (See &lt;br /&gt;“Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document” on page 5). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Fonts that allow characters to be extracted to text&lt;br /&gt;The fonts in an accessible PDF must contain enough information for Acrobat to correctly extract all of the &lt;br /&gt;characters to text for purposes other than displaying text on the screen. Acrobat extracts characters to &lt;br /&gt;Unicode text when you read a PDF with a screen reader or the Read Out Loud tool, or when you save as text &lt;br /&gt;for a braille printer. This extraction fails if Acrobat cannot determine how to map the font to Unicode &lt;br /&gt;characters.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Interactive form fields&lt;br /&gt;Some PDFs contain forms that a person is to fill out using a computer. To be accessible, form fields must be &lt;br /&gt;interactive—meaning that a user must be able to enter values into the form fields (See “Step 3: Add &lt;br /&gt;Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8). Interactive PDF forms also have a defined tab &lt;br /&gt;order allowing users of assistive technology to use the tab key in order to progress from one form field or &lt;br /&gt;interactive control in a logical manner.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Other Features: Buttons, hyperlinks, and navigational aids&lt;br /&gt;Navigational aids in a PDF—such as links, bookmarks, headings, a table of contents, and a preset tab order &lt;br /&gt;for form fields—assist all users in using the document without having to read through the entire document, &lt;br /&gt;word by word. Bookmarks are especially useful and can be created from document headings. Many of these &lt;br /&gt;aids can be accessed using the keyboard without relying on the mouse (See “Step 3: Add Interactive &lt;br /&gt;Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8). and (See “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on &lt;br /&gt;page 16)..&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction | 3&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Document language&lt;br /&gt;Specifying the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;language (See “Document Language” on page 16).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security that will not interfere with assistive technology&lt;br /&gt;Some authors of PDFs restrict users from printing, copying, extracting, adding comments to, or editing text. &lt;br /&gt;The text of an accessible PDF must be available to a screen reader. You can use Acrobat to ensure that &lt;br /&gt;security settings don’t interfere with a screen reader’s ability to convert the on-screen text to speech (See “Set &lt;br /&gt;Security That Permits Accessibility” on page 17).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document structure tags and proper read order&lt;br /&gt;To read a document’s text and present it in a way that makes sense to the user, a screen reader or other text-&lt;br /&gt;to-speech tool requires that the document be structured. Document structure tags in a PDF define the &lt;br /&gt;reading order and identify headings, paragraphs, sections, tables, and other page elements (See “Step 5: &lt;br /&gt;Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File” on page 20).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Alternative text descriptions&lt;br /&gt;Document features such as images and interactive form fields can’t be read by a screen reader unless they &lt;br /&gt;have associated alternative text. Though web links are read by screen readers, you can provide more &lt;br /&gt;meaningful descriptions as alternative text. Alternative text and tool tips can aid many users, including those &lt;br /&gt;with learning disabilities (See “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader Accessibility Features&lt;br /&gt;Accessibility features in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader fall into two broad categories: features to make &lt;br /&gt;the reading of PDF documents more accessible and features to create accessible PDF documents. To create &lt;br /&gt;accessible PDF documents, you must use Acrobat, not Reader.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Accessible Reading of PDFs&lt;br /&gt;• Preferences and commands to optimize output for assistive software and devices, such as saving as &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;accessible text for a Braille printer&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Preferences and commands to make navigation of PDFs more accessible, such as automatic &lt;br /&gt;scrolling and opening PDFs to the last page read&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Accessibility Setup Assistant for easy setting of most preferences related to accessibility&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Keyboard alternates to mouse actions&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Reflow capability to temporarily present the text of a PDF in a single easy-to-read column&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Read Out Loud text-to-speech conversion.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Support for screen readers and screen magnifiers&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Features for Creating Accessible PDFs&lt;br /&gt;• Creation of tagged PDFs from authoring applications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Conversion of untagged PDFs to tagged PDFs from within Acrobat&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Security setting that allows screen readers to access text while preventing users from copying, &lt;br /&gt;printing, editing, and extracting text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Ability to add text to scanned pages to improve accessibility&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Tools for editing reading order and document structure &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Tools for creating accessible PDF forms &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction4 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Though Acrobat Standard provides some functionality for making existing PDFs accessible, you must use &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat Pro or Acrobat Pro Extended to perform certain tasks—such as editing reading order or editing &lt;br /&gt;document structure tags—that may be necessary to make some PDF documents and forms accessible (See &lt;br /&gt;“Table 1: Features for Creating Accessible PDF Files by Product” on page 4).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table 1: Features for Creating Accessible PDF Files by Product  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Reader 9 Acrobat 9 Standard&lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Pro&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 &lt;br /&gt;Pro &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Extended&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create PDF documents from any &lt;br /&gt;application that prints&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert Microsoft Word, Excel, &lt;br /&gt;PowerPoint, Publisher, and &lt;br /&gt;Access files to PDF with one-&lt;br /&gt;button ease*&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Capture web pages as rich, &lt;br /&gt;dynamic PDF files for review &lt;br /&gt;and archiving&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Scan paper documents to PDF &lt;br /&gt;and automatically recognize text &lt;br /&gt;with optical character recogni-&lt;br /&gt;tion (OCR)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Save PDF files as Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word documents, retaining the &lt;br /&gt;layout, fonts, formatting, and &lt;br /&gt;tables, to facilitate reuse of con-&lt;br /&gt;tent&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Easily create fillable PDF forms &lt;br /&gt;from paper or existing files using &lt;br /&gt;the Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enable users of Adobe Reader® &lt;br /&gt;(version 8 or later) to fill in and &lt;br /&gt;save PDF forms locally&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• • •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create dynamic XML forms with &lt;br /&gt;Adobe LiveCycle® Designer ES &lt;br /&gt;(included)*&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create and validate accessible &lt;br /&gt;PDF documents&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• •&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;* Windows Only&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility &lt;br /&gt;Repair Workflow&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Accessibility Workflow Summary&lt;br /&gt;At a high level, the process of making existing PDF files accessible consists of a few basic steps:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;1. Analyze and evaluate the PDF document before you (See “Step 1: Analyze the PDF File” on &lt;br /&gt;page 5).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2. Determine if the PDF file originated from a scan. If so, perform Optical Character Recognition &lt;br /&gt;(OCR) using the OCR Text Recognition command in Adobe Acrobat 9 (See “Step 2: Determine if &lt;br /&gt;the PDF is a Scanned Document” on page 5).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;3. Add fillable form fields and buttons with short descriptions if the PDF file is intended to work as an &lt;br /&gt;interactive document. Set the tab order for the form field (See “Step 3: Add Interactive Features: &lt;br /&gt;Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;4. Add other accessibility features to the PDF such as bookmarks and security that does not interfere &lt;br /&gt;with assistive technology (See “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on page 16).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;5. Add tags to the PDF if it has not been tagged (See “Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged &lt;br /&gt;PDF File” on page 20).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;6. Determine if the PDF file has been properly tagged (See “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is &lt;br /&gt;Properly Tagged” on page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;7. Use the Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro accessibility checker to evaluate the PDF and repair tagging problems &lt;br /&gt;and other issues such as missing alternate text descriptions, missing short descriptions for form &lt;br /&gt;fields, and improper read order. Run the accessibility checker and follow its suggestions for repair &lt;br /&gt;until no problems are found (See “Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File” &lt;br /&gt;on page 44).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Though these stages are presented in an order that suits most needs, you may perform tasks in these stages in &lt;br /&gt;a different order or iterate between some of the stages. In all cases, you should first examine the document, &lt;br /&gt;determine its intended purpose, and use that analysis to determine the workflow that you should apply.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 1: Analyze the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;When you open the PDF file, take a moment to analyze the document before you. Take a moment to note its &lt;br /&gt;characteristics. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Is it a short document with a small number of pages or a long document consisting of many pages? &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Is the document mostly text or a mixture of text and graphics?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Does the document appear to have form fields?&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Another item to note is the complexity of the document’s layout. In some instances, documents of &lt;br /&gt;shorter length may be more challenging from an accessibility perspective than longer docments &lt;br /&gt;because their layout and read order are more complex.  Is the layout simple, a single column with a &lt;br /&gt;limited number of graphics, or is it complex with multiple columns, mixed layouts, tables and many &lt;br /&gt;graphics?  Complex layouts are an indicator that you may be spending more time with the &lt;br /&gt;document doing more detailed accessibility enhancements with the Touch Up Read Order Tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 2: Determine if the PDF is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;A common method for making PDF documents is to place a paper copy of a document into a scanner and &lt;br /&gt;then opening the resulting electronic version using Adobe Acrobat to view the newly scanned document as a &lt;br /&gt;PDF file. Unfortunately, this process results in creating an image of text and not the actual text itself. This &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;5&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow6 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;means the content is not accessible to users who rely on assistive technology to hear the contents of the page. &lt;br /&gt;Additional work must take place to make the document accesible.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain that the PDF document is not a scanned document or it has previously &lt;br /&gt;undergone optical character recognition, you can skip this discussion and proceed to &lt;br /&gt;“Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;There are a number of indications that a PDF file originated from a scanned page. Onscreen, the document &lt;br /&gt;appears to contain text, but the page is actually an image. Choose the method that suits you best for &lt;br /&gt;determining if the PDF is from a scan and is an “image only” PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Note if the page appears to be skewed.  Sometimes sheets are not properly fed into the &lt;br /&gt;scanner with the effect being the page appears to be crooked, or skewed on the screen . &lt;br /&gt;Lines of text will not be straight but will appear to slant up or down (See “Figure 1 Skewed &lt;br /&gt;Text Indicates a Scanned PDF” on page 6) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  1 Skewed Text Indicates a Scanned PDF&lt;br /&gt;• Search for characters that appear on the page. Use the find command in Acrobat to &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;search for text that appears on the page. Select Edit &amp;gt; Find (Ctrl + F on Windows or &lt;br /&gt;Option + F on Mac OS) and type a term that appears on the page in the search field.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the document was scanned, Acrobat will not find the search but will display a message &lt;br /&gt;indicating “Acrobat has finished searching the document. No matches were found”.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Zoom in and check for jagged edges on smooth characters. Scanned images are bitmaps &lt;br /&gt;(See “Figure 2 Bitmap text (top) and text that has undergone OCR (bottom)” on &lt;br /&gt;page 7)The edges of curves on bit maps will not appear to be smooth or rounded but will &lt;br /&gt;be jagged as shown in the top sample illustrating the word “Ozone” in Figure 2 on page 7  &lt;br /&gt;Use the marquee zoom tool in Acrobat to define the area and magnify the edges of curved &lt;br /&gt;letters such as “c”, “s”, and “o”. Text that has undergone the OCR process using the &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 7&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;ClearScan option will display smoother edges as shown in the bottom illustration of the &lt;br /&gt;word “Ozone” in Figure 2 on page 7 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  2 Bitmap text (top) and text that has undergone OCR (bottom)&lt;br /&gt;• Use assistive technology or the Read Out Loud feature. Acrobat 9 Pro can detect the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;presence of assistive technology and if it encounters a scanned document will announce an &lt;br /&gt;audible empty page warning and display the Scanned Page Alert dialog (See “Figure 3 &lt;br /&gt;Scanned Page Alert Dialog” on page 7)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  3 Scanned Page Alert Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;Perform Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to convert the bitmap image of text to actual characters. In &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro. You can do this by selecting “OK” from the Scanned Page Alert dialog (See “Figure 3 &lt;br /&gt;Scanned Page Alert Dialog” on page 7) You can also run the “Recognize Text Using OCR” command in &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Document &amp;gt; OCR Text Recognition &amp;gt; Recognize Text Using OCR...&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• or use the keyboard accelerator: ALT + D + C + R &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;All three of these methods will result in the display of the Recognize Text dialog (See “Figure 4 Recognize &lt;br /&gt;Text Dialog and Recognize Text Settings” on page 8) Use the Edit button in the scanned page dialog to set &lt;br /&gt;the desired characteristics for the resulting file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Primary OCR Language (user should select the applicable document language)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• PDF Output Style should be ClearScan. ClearScan will allow the resulting PDF to “reflow”. The &lt;br /&gt;other two options, “Searchable Image” and “Searchable Image Exact” will work with assistive &lt;br /&gt;technology but will result in a PDF file that cannot be reflowed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Downsample should be set to the lowest downsampling which results in the highest resolution as &lt;br /&gt;measured in dots per inch (dpi). This should be 600 dpi.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow8 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  4 Recognize Text Dialog and Recognize Text Settings&lt;br /&gt;For additional information on performing optical character recognition using Adobe Acrobat, refer to the &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 Help.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to Do if the PDF is Not a Scanned Document&lt;br /&gt;Proceed to “Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons” on page 8.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 3: Add Interactive Features: Form Fields and Buttons&lt;br /&gt;Determining if a PDF file is meant to be an interactive form is a matter of visually examining the file and &lt;br /&gt;looking for the presence of form fields, or areas in the document where some kind of information is being &lt;br /&gt;asked for such as name, address, social security number. Boxes or fields drawn on the page are also typical &lt;br /&gt;indications that the document is meant to function as a form. If you want users to be able to complete the &lt;br /&gt;form online, rather than resort to printing a paper copy in order to complete the form, then the form is &lt;br /&gt;meant to be an interactive form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document is not intended to have fillable form fields or buttons, &lt;br /&gt;you can skip this discussion and proceed to “Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features” on &lt;br /&gt;page 16.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can make form fields accessible to vision impaired users and users with mobility challenges by adding &lt;br /&gt;fillable fields to the PDF and by properly structuring it. In addition, you can use the Tooltip field property to &lt;br /&gt;provide the user with information about the field or to provide instructions. For example, using the Tooltip &lt;br /&gt;property value, the screen reader user would hear “Check this box if you will be attending the luncheon.”  &lt;br /&gt;Without the tool tip property, a screen reader simply provides the name of  the form field (Check Box 1), its &lt;br /&gt;type (Check Box), and its state (Unchecked). It would not be clear to someone listening to the form that they &lt;br /&gt;are indicating their desire to attend a luncheon.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can have Acrobat Pro detect and create the form fields automatically or you can manually create the &lt;br /&gt;necessary fields using Acrobat Pro’s form tools.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 9&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;This discussion limits itself to the accessibility issues involved with PDF forms. For a more detailed &lt;br /&gt;discussion of forms, refer to the Adobe Acrobat 9 Online Help.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDF Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;A PDF form created with Acrobat can contain the following types of fields:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text field.  Lets the user type in text, such as name, address, or phone number. &lt;br /&gt;• Check box.  Presents yes-or-no choices for individual items. If the form contains multiple &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;check boxes, the user can typically select as many or few of these as needed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Radio button. Presents a group of choices from which the user can select only one item. &lt;br /&gt;All radio buttons with the same name work together as a group.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• List box. Displays a list of options the user can select. You can set a form field property &lt;br /&gt;that enables the user to Shift-click or Control-click to select multiple items on the list.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Combo box.  Lets the user either choose and item from a pop-up menu or type in a value.&lt;br /&gt;• Button.  Initiates a change on the user’s computer, such as opening a file, playing a sound, &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;or submitting data to a web server. These buttons can be customized with images, text, and &lt;br /&gt;visual changes triggered by mouse actions.  Action buttons have a different purpose than &lt;br /&gt;radio buttons, which represent data choices made by the user.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Digital signature field.  Lets the user electronically sign a PDF document with a digital &lt;br /&gt;signature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Barcode.  Encodes the input form selected fields and diplays it as a visual pattern that can &lt;br /&gt;be interpreted by decoding software or hardware (available separately). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Acrobat to Detect and Create Interactive Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;You can convert an existing electronic document (for example a Word, Excel, or PDF document) or scan a &lt;br /&gt;paper document to a PDF form, and then add interactive form fields to the form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you convert a document to an Acrobat form, Acrobat can detect the form fields in the document. In &lt;br /&gt;many instances, Acrobat will use the form field labels to name the field and provide a Tooltip. While the &lt;br /&gt;results are often acceptable, this is not a foolproof process. You will need to examine the document carefully &lt;br /&gt;to verify that Acrobat accurately detected the fields and labelled them appropriately.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;You can use the Form Wizard in Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro or Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended to create &lt;br /&gt;interactive forms from an existing electronic document (for example a Word, PDF, or Excel document) or &lt;br /&gt;scan a paper form into a PDF form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Forms &amp;gt; Start Form Wizard.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This displays the Create or Edit Form Dialog. From the Create or Edit Form Dialog, do one of the following, &lt;br /&gt;and then follow the on-screen instructions. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To convert an existing electronic document (for example Word or PDF) to a PDF form, select An &lt;br /&gt;Existing Electronic Document. This places the document in Form Editing Mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To scan a paper form and convert it to a PDF form, select A Paper Form. The form will be scanned &lt;br /&gt;and placed in Form Editing Mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To use LiveCycle Designer to create a form from scratch or from one of the available templates, &lt;br /&gt;select No Existing Form.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Using the Adobe LiveCycle Designer, included in Adobe Acrobat Pro and Adobe Acrobat &lt;br /&gt;Pro Extended for Windows, to create accessible PDF forms is beyond the scope of this Best &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow10 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Practices Guide.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Form Wizard completes its analysis of the document, adds any form fields it may detect and places the &lt;br /&gt;PDF form in Forms Editing Mode where you can edit the automatically created fields or add additional form &lt;br /&gt;fields (See “Forms Editing Mode” on page 11).&lt;br /&gt;During form field detection, Acrobat may have missed some fields or created unneeded fields. It may have &lt;br /&gt;also created fields of the wrong type. Please verify the fields and field names on your form. You can select &lt;br /&gt;Add New Field on the Forms Editing toolbar to add more fields or right click on the form to edit or delete &lt;br /&gt;fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter Forms Editing Mode Directly&lt;br /&gt;If you don’t want to use the Form Wizard, you can open the file, and  place the document in Form Editing &lt;br /&gt;Mode directly.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the Acrobat Menu, select Forms &amp;gt; Add Or Edit Fields  (Keyboard shortcut is Shift + Ctrl 7).  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;This displays the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog (See “Figure 5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog” on &lt;br /&gt;page 10)&lt;br /&gt;Answering “Yes” to the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog question “Do you want Acrobat to detect form fields &lt;br /&gt;for you?”  results in the automatic detection of form fields prior to placing the document in Form Editing &lt;br /&gt;Mode. This is the same as if you had proceeded using the Form Wizard on the current PDF.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat completes its analysis of the document, adds any form fields it may detect and places the PDF form &lt;br /&gt;in Forms Editing Mode where you can edit the automatically created fields or add additional form fields (See &lt;br /&gt;“Forms Editing Mode” on page 11).&lt;br /&gt;During form field detection, Acrobat may have missed some fields or created unneeded fields. It may have &lt;br /&gt;also created fields of the wrong type. Please verify the fields and field names on your form. You can select &lt;br /&gt;Add New Field on the Forms Editing toolbar to add more fields or right click on the form to edit or delete &lt;br /&gt;fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Answering “No” to the Add or Edit Form Fields dialog question “Do you want Acrobat to detect form fields &lt;br /&gt;for you?” also places the document in Form Editing mode, but does not create form fields automatically. You &lt;br /&gt;will have to add the form fields manually.  Proceed to the next section, “Create Form Fields Manually” on &lt;br /&gt;page 10 for futher information.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create Form Fields Manually&lt;br /&gt;To add form fields manually you first select Forms &amp;gt; Add or Edit Fields (Keyboard shortcut is Shift + Ctrl 7) &lt;br /&gt;and answer “No” to the question “Do you want Acrobat to detect the Form Fields for you?” in the resulting &lt;br /&gt;dialog (See “Figure 5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog” on page 10) This places the document in Forms &lt;br /&gt;Editing Mode without automatically creating any fields. You can now add new form fields to the PDF form. &lt;br /&gt;Proceed to the next section “Forms Editing Mode” on page 11 for further instruction.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  5 Add or Edit Form Fields Dialog&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 11&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Forms Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;With the PDF form in Forms Editing Mode, you can add new fields and buttons to the form and edit or &lt;br /&gt;delete any existing field or button (See “Figure 6 Adobe Acrobat 9 Forms Editing Mode” on page 11) The &lt;br /&gt;Forms Editing Mode changes the Acrobat user interface slightly. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• A Forms Editing Toolbar provides access to the Select Object tool, the Add New Field button,  and &lt;br /&gt;the Form Preview button.  You can configure the Add New Field button to display the Forms tools &lt;br /&gt;on the toolbar instead of the Add New Field button if you prefer.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• On the right hand side of the Forms Editing Toolbar, are the Distribute Form button and the Close &lt;br /&gt;Form editing button.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• A fields panel  appears on the left side of the document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• There is a forms menu bar which offers users choices that are mostly restricted to forms editing &lt;br /&gt;functions. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  6 Adobe Acrobat 9 Forms Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating a New Form Field&lt;br /&gt;In Acrobat, you create a form field by choosing one of the form tools. For each field type, you can set a &lt;br /&gt;variety of options through the form field Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can access the forms tools one of three ways.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• You can select “Add New Field” on the Forms Editing Toolbar to add more fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the Forms Editing menu you can select Forms &amp;gt; Form Tools (Keyboard accelerator ALT + R &lt;br /&gt;+ O). This will provide access to the Acrobat form tools.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow12 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• You can right click over the form to present options that allow you to add, edit, or delete fields.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The cursor becomes a cross hair.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• On the page, click where you want to add the field to create a field with the default size. To create a &lt;br /&gt;field using a custom size, drag a rectangle to define the size of the field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Field Name box, type the name of the field and specify if you want the field to be a required &lt;br /&gt;field.  Acrobat provides a default name based upon the field type and the number of fields drawn on &lt;br /&gt;the page. You should choose a name that is relevant and descriptive to make organizing and &lt;br /&gt;collecting the data easier (See “Figure 7 Field Name Box” on page 12)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To display the Properties dialog box and modify any other field properties, click Show All &lt;br /&gt;Properties (See “Figure 7 Field Name Box” on page 12)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you have selected the Keep Tool Selected option in the forms toolbar, the Field Name &lt;br /&gt;box doesn’t appear after adding a field. Each time you click the page, a new field is added &lt;br /&gt;to the form. To exit this mode, press the Esc key or click the Select Object Tool button. To &lt;br /&gt;modify the properties of the field, double-click the field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  7 Field Name Box&lt;br /&gt;To test your form, click the Preview button. Previewing a form allows you to view the form the same way the &lt;br /&gt;form recipients will and gives you a chance to verify the form. If you are previewing a form, you can click the &lt;br /&gt;Edit Layout button to go back to the Forms Editing mode.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Form Field Properties&lt;br /&gt;How a form field behaves is determined by settings in the Properties dialog box for that individual field. You &lt;br /&gt;can set properties that apply formatting, determine how the form field information relates to other form &lt;br /&gt;fields, impose limitations on what the user can enter in the form field, trigger custom scripts, and so forth.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can set a variety of properties for an Acrobat form field, depending on the form field type. The &lt;br /&gt;properties for each type of form field are selected on a series of tabs. When you change a property, it is &lt;br /&gt;applied as soon as you select another property or press Enter.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;All the form field types have a General tab, Appearance tab, and an Actions tab. Other tabs appear only in &lt;br /&gt;specific types of form fields. The Options tab appears for most form field types but the options available are &lt;br /&gt;unique to each type of form field.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you are changing the properties of multiple fields, you can leave the Properties dialog box open. Click on &lt;br /&gt;each field to change its properties.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;For accessibility, the Tooltip option on the General tab is important for entering text that will be announced &lt;br /&gt;by screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can make form fields accessible to people with disabilities by adding tags to the PDF and by properly &lt;br /&gt;structuring it. In addition, you can use the tool tip form field property to provide the user with information &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 13&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;about the field or to provide instructions. For example, using the tool tip property value, the screen reader &lt;br /&gt;could say “Your first name.” Without the tool tip property, a screen reader announces the type and name of &lt;br /&gt;the form field (See “Figure 8 Adding a Tooltip for Form Fields” on page 13)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If necessary, choose Forms &amp;gt; Add or Edit Fields, and make sure that the Select Object tool is &lt;br /&gt;selected. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Double-click a selected form field to open the Properties window. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the General tab, type a description into the tool tip box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Tooltip also displays text that users may find helpful in filling in the form field. Tooltips appear when &lt;br /&gt;the pointer hovers briefly over the form field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  8 Adding a Tooltip for Form Fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tooltips for Radio Buttons&lt;br /&gt;To create a set of mutually exclusive Radio Buttons, where only one field can be selected at a time, give each &lt;br /&gt;field the same name but different Button values. The Button value is a field in the options tab of the Radio &lt;br /&gt;Button Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To make a radio button accessible, in addition to entering  unique text in the Button Value field for each &lt;br /&gt;choice, you would enter identical text in the Tooltip field of the General properties tab for each radio button &lt;br /&gt;in the group (See “Figure 9 Tooltips and Button Values for Radio Button Short Descriptions” on &lt;br /&gt;page 14)&lt;br /&gt;For example, you may have a radio button group that asks the question, “Are You a Citizen?”. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• You would create two radio buttons. For each button, you would enter the text “Are You a &lt;br /&gt;Citizen?” in the Tooltip field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• For one button you would enter “Yes” in the Button Value field under the options tab, for the other &lt;br /&gt;“No” should be entered in the Button Value field.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow14 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  9 Tooltips and Button Values for Radio Button Short Descriptions&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing or Modifying an Existing Form Field&lt;br /&gt;You can access Acrobat form field properties only when you are in editing mode (by choosing Forms &amp;gt; Add &lt;br /&gt;Or Edit Fields). You can change the properties for multiple form fields at a time. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Open the Properties dialog box using one of the following methods: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To edit a single form field, double-click it or right-click/Control-click it and choose Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To edit multiple form fields, select the fields that you want to edit, right-click/Control-click one of &lt;br /&gt;the selected fields, and choose Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the properties on each of the available tabs, as needed. The property is changed as soon as you select &lt;br /&gt;another property or press Enter.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Close to close the Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you select form fields that have different property values, some options in the Properties dialog box are not &lt;br /&gt;available. Otherwise, changes to the available options are applied to all selected form fields. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To avoid accidental changes to the form field, select Locked in the lower left corner of the Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;box before you close it. To unlock, click the check box again.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Deleting a Form Field&lt;br /&gt;With the document in Forms Editing mode, click on the field you would like to delete and do any of the &lt;br /&gt;following.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Right mouse click and select delete&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Press the delete key.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the menu, select Edit &amp;gt; Delete (ALT + ED)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 15&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Note: You can select multiple fields by holding the Control key as you click on each one.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons&lt;br /&gt;Buttons are most commonly associated with forms, but you can add them to any document. Buttons can &lt;br /&gt;open a file, play a sound or movie clip, submit data to a web server, and much more. When deciding on how &lt;br /&gt;to initiate an action, remember that buttons offer the following capabilities that links and bookmarks do not:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• A button can activate a single action or a series of actions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• A button can change appearance in response to mouse actions.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• A button can be easily copied across many pages.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Mouse actions can activate different button actions. For example, Mouse Down (a click), Mouse Up &lt;br /&gt;(releasing after a click), Mouse Enter (moving the pointer over the button), and Mouse Exit &lt;br /&gt;(moving the pointer away from the button) can all start a different action for the same button.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Buttons are an easy, intuitive way to let users initiate an action in PDF documents. Buttons are added the &lt;br /&gt;same way as form fields while in Forms Editing mode. They also should be given a name and a Tooltip and &lt;br /&gt;their behavior is determined by the actions the user assigns the button on the actions tab of the Button &lt;br /&gt;Properties dialog. They also appear in the Tab order tree. See the Adobe Acrobat Help for a complete &lt;br /&gt;discussion of PDF fields and buttons.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set the Tab Order&lt;br /&gt;If a PDF document doesn’t have a specified tab order, the default tabbing order is based on the document &lt;br /&gt;structure unless the user has deselected the Tab Order option in the Accessibility preferences.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can change the tabbing order after you create the fields. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If you are in Forms Editing mode, you can order the tabs by document structure (default), row, or &lt;br /&gt;column. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• You can also choose the order manually by dragging and dropping fields in the Fields panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If you are not in Forms Editing mode, you can change the page properties to order the tabs by row &lt;br /&gt;or column. However, you can’t customize the tab order manually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To change the tab order, first select “Order Tabs Manually” from the Tab Order button on the Fields panel. &lt;br /&gt;Then you can drag and drop fields where you want them within the Fields panel to modify the tab order (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel” on page 16)&lt;br /&gt;To assist in determining tab order, you can select “Show Tab Numbers” from the Tab Order button of the &lt;br /&gt;Fields panel (See “Figure 10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel” on page 16)&lt;br /&gt;In the example shown in Figure 10 on page 16 , the check box labelled “operating system” is in the fifth &lt;br /&gt;position. Selecting the entry for operating system in the Forms panel highlights the corresponding field in &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow16 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;the document view. To move it to the second position, drag it up and drop it below the check box for “office &lt;br /&gt;suite”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  10 Rearranging Tab Order with the Fields Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 4: Add Other Accessibility Features&lt;br /&gt;This stage includes setting the document language, making sure that security settings do not interfere with &lt;br /&gt;screen readers, creating accessible links, and adding bookmarks.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language&lt;br /&gt;Setting the document language in a PDF enables some screen readers to switch to the appropriate language. &lt;br /&gt;You can set the document language for an entire document with Acrobat Pro, Acrobat Pro Extended, or &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat Standard. You can set the document language for specific portions of a multilanguage document &lt;br /&gt;with Acrobat Pro or Acrobat Pro Extended (See “Figure 11 Setting the document language” on page 17)&lt;br /&gt;To set the language for an entire document:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose File &amp;gt; Properties, (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS) and select a language from &lt;br /&gt;the Language menu in the Reading Options area of the Advanced tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To set the language for an entire document to a language not in the Language menu: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• choose File &amp;gt; Properties (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS), and enter the ISO 639 code &lt;br /&gt;for the language in the Language field in the Reading Options area of the Advanced tab. For more &lt;br /&gt;information, see the ISO Language Codes on http://www.loc.gov/standards. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can also set the language for individual sections or words: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the desired text element in the Tags tab and right click (See “ Tags Panel” on page 38)&lt;br /&gt;• Choose Properties from the Options menu. In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;tab. Select a language from the Language menu, and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The language that you specify for an element also applies to all elements nested under it &lt;br /&gt;in the logical structure tree.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 17&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  11 Setting the document language&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Set Security That Permits Accessibility&lt;br /&gt;You should ensure the Acrobat 9 security settings permit access to the document by assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;You can verify the Acrobat 9 or Adobe Reader 9 security settings do not prohibit access to assistive &lt;br /&gt;technology by checking the security preferences tab of the document properties dialog.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select File &amp;gt; Properties (Cntrl + D for Windows, Cmnd + D Mac OS)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the Security Tab of the Document Properties dialog (See “Figure 12 Security Tab Location &lt;br /&gt;in Document Properties Dialog” on page 18)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow18 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  12 Security Tab Location in Document Properties Dialog&lt;br /&gt;• Select “Password Security” as the security method from the drop-down list. In the Permissions &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;section of the Password Security Settings dialog, verify the box labelled “Enable text access for &lt;br /&gt;screen reader devices for the visually impaired” is checked. This is the default setting for Adobe &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat 9 and Adobe Reader 9 (See “Figure 13 Password Security Settings” on page 18)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  13 Password Security Settings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Certain applications allow you to set the security settings for PDF files you plan to generate from within the &lt;br /&gt;application (See “Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications” on page 53).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 19&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Create Accessible Links&lt;br /&gt;With thoughtfully provided links, users can quickly move from one part of a document to another, to related &lt;br /&gt;information in a different document, or to a website that is relevant to the content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For URLs to be accessible to screen readers, you must convert them to active links and make sure that they &lt;br /&gt;are correctly tagged in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you tagged the Adobe PDF during conversion from an authoring application, the links &lt;br /&gt;and URLs in the document are probably already active and included in the tag tree so that &lt;br /&gt;they are accessible to screen readers. You probably don’t have to do this task unless you &lt;br /&gt;want to add more links. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat provides several ways to create active links for text, objects, and URLs in a PDF. However, the &lt;br /&gt;methods differ in how they affect the tag tree. The best way to create accessible links is with the Create Link &lt;br /&gt;command.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Unlike the other methods for creating links in a tagged PDF (by using the Links tool or the Create From &lt;br /&gt;URLs In Document command), the Create Link command adds all three tags that screen readers require in &lt;br /&gt;order to recognize a link. The other methods create only one of the three tags, meaning that you must &lt;br /&gt;manually edit the tag tree to add the remaining two tags for each link and place these tags in the proper &lt;br /&gt;reading order in the tree. Although you must activate links one by one, using the Create Link command &lt;br /&gt;provides the fastest results and the least amount of follow-up work to make the links accessible to screen &lt;br /&gt;readers. All that is left to do is optional editing of the tag tree to add alternate text to the new links.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Automatically detected URLs in PDF documents are not accessible. Avoid using the Create &lt;br /&gt;Links from URLs command (Advanced &amp;gt; Document Processing &amp;gt; Create Links from URLs... &lt;br /&gt;or ALT + A D C) . Also, ensure that the Basic Tools General Preference, “Create Links from &lt;br /&gt;URLs” is unchecked (Edit &amp;gt; Preferences &amp;gt; General). While these are a convenient way to &lt;br /&gt;detect text that is possibly a URL which allows users to click and go to the URL, the result is &lt;br /&gt;not an accessible link.  &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating links with Acrobat Standard doesn’t generate any tags for the links. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do the following to make links active and add them to the tag tree:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the text or object for which you want to create a link. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Right-click the selection, and choose Create Link from the context menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Create Link dialog box, select the appropriate options, and then follow the on-screen &lt;br /&gt;instructions to specify a URL, page view, or file as the link target. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;By default, the selected text for each link becomes the link text. After you add all the links, you can edit the &lt;br /&gt;tag tree to add alternate text to the links, further improving the accessibility of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add Bookmarks&lt;br /&gt;A bookmark is a type of link with representative text in the Bookmarks panel in the navigation pane. Each &lt;br /&gt;bookmark goes to a different view or page in the document. Bookmarks are generated automatically during &lt;br /&gt;PDF creation from the table-of-contents entries of documents created by most desktop publishing &lt;br /&gt;programs. These bookmarks are often tagged and can be used to make edits in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Initially, a bookmark displays the page that was in view when the bookmark was created, which is the &lt;br /&gt;bookmark’s destination. In Acrobat, you can set bookmark destinations as you create each bookmark. &lt;br /&gt;However, it is sometimes easier to create a group of bookmarks, and then set the destinations later. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow20 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;In Acrobat, you can use bookmarks to mark a place in the PDF to which you want to return, or to jump to a &lt;br /&gt;destination in the PDF, another document, or a web page. Bookmarks can also perform actions, such as &lt;br /&gt;executing a menu item or submitting a form. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: An Acrobat user can add bookmarks to a document only if the security settings allow it.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a Tagged PDF File&lt;br /&gt;Tagging is essential for PDF accessibility, it is used to establish logical read order and to provide hooks for &lt;br /&gt;adding alternative text descriptions to non-text elements that are in the PDF document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If you have been following the workflow up to this point,  you will have a PDF file that is searchable because &lt;br /&gt;you performed optical character recognition on a scanned document, or it was searchable to begin with. You &lt;br /&gt;have also added any desired interactivity in the form of navigational controls or interactive form fields. At &lt;br /&gt;this point it may or may not be a tagged PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document has been tagged, you can skip this discussion and &lt;br /&gt;proceed to “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;How to Tell if a PDF File is Tagged&lt;br /&gt;There are several ways to determine if a PDF file has been tagged. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• View Document Properties. File &amp;gt; Document Properties (Ctrl +D) - In the lower left &lt;br /&gt;hand corner of the Description tab, is an indication as to whether or not the document is &lt;br /&gt;tagged (See “Figure 14 Tagged PDF File Property” on page 21)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 21&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  14 Tagged PDF File Property&lt;br /&gt;• Reveal the Tags Panel. View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. An untagged document will &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;display the words &amp;quot;No Tags Available&amp;quot; as its root. A tagged document will show structure.  &lt;br /&gt;To expand the entire tree fully, Cntrl + click on the root node labelled “Tags”.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: In certain instances, a document may not be considered tagged by Acrobat even though a &lt;br /&gt;structure is visible in the Tags panel.  Select the tags options icon and ensure a check mark &lt;br /&gt;appears before the entry “Document is Tagged PDF.” If it does not, simply select this entry &lt;br /&gt;to add the missing check mark (See “Figure 15 Document is Tagged PDF Indicator in a &lt;br /&gt;Structured Document” on page 22)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow22 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  15 Document is Tagged PDF Indicator in a Structured Document&lt;br /&gt;• Run the Accessibility Quick Check . Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Quick Check (Shift + &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Ctrl + 6). If the document is not tagged, the Accessibility Quick Check will indicate the &lt;br /&gt;document is not structured.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Run the Accessibility Full Check. Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check. If the &lt;br /&gt;document is not tagged, the Accessibility Full Check will indicate the document is not &lt;br /&gt;tagged.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use the Touch Up Read Order Tool. Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading &lt;br /&gt;Order - An untagged document will not appear to have undergone a change. A tagged &lt;br /&gt;document will display shaded areas on the page that are numbered. An untagged &lt;br /&gt;document will not display these numbered rectangles (See “ TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;Tool (TURO)” on page 23)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged&lt;br /&gt;Add tags to the document using Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the menu, select Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Add Tags to Document (Keyboard Accelerator is &lt;br /&gt;ALT + AAA)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;About the Add Tags Report&lt;br /&gt;If Acrobat encounters potential problems while running the Add Tags To Document command, the Add &lt;br /&gt;Tags Report opens in the navigation pane. The report lists potential problems by page, provides a &lt;br /&gt;navigational link to each problem, and offers suggestions for fixing them. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 23&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;You could choose to repair the problems at this time by following the suggestions in the Add Tags report or &lt;br /&gt;now that the file is tagged proceed to the next step “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” &lt;br /&gt;on page 23. &lt;br /&gt;If you choose to repair the document at this stage, remember to assess the context of any error before &lt;br /&gt;following a particular suggestion for fixing it. For example, the report might state that an element that has &lt;br /&gt;been tagged as a figure and requires alternate text to make it accessible. When you examine the figure in its &lt;br /&gt;context on the page, you may decide that the figure is a background design element, not an illustration that &lt;br /&gt;conveys valuable meaning to the user. In the case of a nonessential image, and you would change the Figure &lt;br /&gt;tag to a Background tag; in the case of an image intended to convey meaning to the reader, you would add &lt;br /&gt;the missing alternate text (See “ Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Add Tags Report highlights tagging-related problems only, and it is a temporary file &lt;br /&gt;that you cannot save. You can assess other tagging, reading order, and accessibility &lt;br /&gt;problems by using Full Check.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If adding tags to a PDF in Adobe Acrobat results in a tagging structure that is overly complicated or too &lt;br /&gt;problematic to fix, you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to remove or replace the current structure. &lt;br /&gt;If the document contains mostly text, you can select a page and then remove headings, tables, and other &lt;br /&gt;elements to create a cleaner, simpler tagging structure (See “TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)” on &lt;br /&gt;page 23).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;What to do if the PDF File is Tagged&lt;br /&gt;Proceed to the next step, “Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged” on page 23.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 6: Determine if the PDF File is Properly Tagged&lt;br /&gt;The easiest way to determine if the PDF file has been properly tagged is to use the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;Tool (See “ TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)” on page 23)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the menu, select Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Touchup Reading Order.... (Keyboard &lt;br /&gt;Accelerator is ALT + AAT)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Touch Up Reading Order Tool divides a tagged page into shaded segments. Each segment is numbered &lt;br /&gt;indicating the read order of the item on the page. You can also verify the read order of items on the page by &lt;br /&gt;displaying the order panel from the Touch Up Read Order Tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If you are certain the PDF document is properly tagged, you can skip this discussion and &lt;br /&gt;proceed to “Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File” on page 44.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool (TURO)&lt;br /&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool provides the easiest and quickest way to fix reading order and basic &lt;br /&gt;tagging problems. When you select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, a dialog box opens that lets you see &lt;br /&gt;overlay highlights that show the order of page content. Each highlighted region is numbered and highlighted &lt;br /&gt;with gray or colored blocks; the number indicates the region’s placement in the page’s reading order. After &lt;br /&gt;you check the reading order of the page, you can correct other, more subtle tagging issues as needed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool is intended for repairing PDFs that were tagged using Acrobat, not for &lt;br /&gt;repairing PDFs that were tagged during conversion from an authoring application. Whenever possible, you &lt;br /&gt;should return to the source file and add accessibility features in the authoring application. Repairing the &lt;br /&gt;original file ensures that you don’t have to repeatedly touch up future iterations of the PDF in Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to perform the following accessibility tasks:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Visually check, and then repair, the reading order of page content&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow24 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Tag fillable form fields and their labels&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Add alternative text to figures and descriptions to form fields&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Fix the tagging of simple tables, and prepare complex tables for more advanced manipulation in the &lt;br /&gt;logical structure tree&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Remove nonessential content, such as ornamental page borders, from the logical structure tree&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  16 TouchUp Reading Order Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;To select the TouchUp Reading Order Tool, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading Order (ALT + AAT)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Tools &amp;gt; Advanced Editing &amp;gt; TouchUp Reading Order Tool (ALT + TAG).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the TouchUp Reading Order tool button in the Advanced Editing toolbar.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you select TouchUp Reading Order, a dialog box opens that lets you see overlay highlights that show &lt;br /&gt;the order of page content (See “Figure 17 Result of Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool” on &lt;br /&gt;page 25)&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 25&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Each highlighted region is numbered and highlighted with gray or colored blocks; the number indicates the &lt;br /&gt;region’s placement in the page’s reading order.l&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  17 Result of Selecting the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Tool Options&lt;br /&gt;You can select TouchUp Reading Order options from the dialog box, from the pop-up menu that appears &lt;br /&gt;when you right-click a highlighted region, or from the Options menu in the Order tab. The TouchUp &lt;br /&gt;Reading Order tool includes the following options:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text . Tags the selection as text. &lt;br /&gt;• Figure . Tags the selection as a figure. Text contained within a figure tag is defined as part &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;of the image and is not read by screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Form Field . Tags the selection as a form field. &lt;br /&gt;• Figure/Caption . Tags a selected figure and caption as a single tag. Any text contained in &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the tag is defined as a caption. Useful for tagging photos and captions and preventing &lt;br /&gt;caption text from being incorrectly added to adjacent text blocks. Figures may require &lt;br /&gt;alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3 . Tags the selection as a first, second, or third level &lt;br /&gt;heading tag. You can convert heading tags to bookmarks to help users navigate the &lt;br /&gt;document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Table . Tags the selection as a table after the selection is analyzed to determine the location &lt;br /&gt;of headings, columns, and rows. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cell . Tags the selection as a table or header cell. Use this option to merge cells that are &lt;br /&gt;incorrectly split. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow26 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Formula . Tags the selection as a formula. Because speech software may handle formula &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;tags differently from normal text, you may want to add a description using alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Background . Tags the selection as a background element, or artifact, removing the item &lt;br /&gt;from the tag tree so that it doesn’t appear in the reflowed document and isn’t read by &lt;br /&gt;screen readers. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Table Editor . Automatically analyzes the selected table into cells and applies the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate tags. The table must be tagged as a table before you can use the Table Editor &lt;br /&gt;command on it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Page Content Order . Shows content elements as highlighted areas that contain &lt;br /&gt;numbers to indicate the reading order. The rectangle next to this entry is a color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;Specify the desired highlight color for page content order by clicking the color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Table Cells . Highlights the content of individual table cells. The rectangle next to &lt;br /&gt;this entry is a color swatch. Specify the highlight color for Table Cells by clicking the color &lt;br /&gt;swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Tables And Figures . Outlines each table and figure with a crossed-out box. The &lt;br /&gt;box also indicates whether the element includes alternate text. The rectangle next to this &lt;br /&gt;entry is a color swatch. Specify the highlight color for Tables and Figures by clicking the &lt;br /&gt;color swatch. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Clear Page Structure . Removes the tagging structure from the page. Use this option to &lt;br /&gt;start over and create a new structure if the existing structure contains too many problems. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Order Panel . Opens the Order tab to allow you to reorder highlighted content. &lt;br /&gt;• Edit Alternate Text . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;highlighted figure. Allows the user to add or edit a text description about the figure &lt;br /&gt;properties that is read by a screen reader or other assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Form Field Text . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a form &lt;br /&gt;field. Allows the user to add or edit a form field text description that is read by a screen &lt;br /&gt;reader or other assistive technology. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Table Summary . Available in the menu that appears when you right-click a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted table. Allows the user to add or edit a text description about the table &lt;br /&gt;properties that is read by a screen reader or other assistive technology.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tips for using the TouchUp Reading Order tool&lt;br /&gt;When using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, you should be mindful of the following tips for use:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Save the document (or a copy of it) before you use the TouchUp Reading Order tool. You can’t use &lt;br /&gt;Undo to reverse changes made with this tool, so reverting to a saved document is the only way to &lt;br /&gt;undo such a change. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose View &amp;gt; Page Display &amp;gt; Single Page, when using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. When &lt;br /&gt;you click the Clear Structure button, Acrobat clears tags from all visible pages—even pages that are &lt;br /&gt;only partially visible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Checking Read Order with the Touch Up Read Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;You can quickly check the reading order of tagged PDFs by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. You can &lt;br /&gt;also use this tool to add alternate text to images and correct many types of tagging problems that are outlined &lt;br /&gt;in the report that Acrobat generates when you add tags to a PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Reading-order problems are readily apparent when you use the TouchUp Reading Order tool. Each section &lt;br /&gt;of contiguous page content appears as a separate highlighted region and is numbered according to its &lt;br /&gt;placement in the reading order. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 27&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Within each region, text is ordered left to right and top to bottom. (You can change this order in the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp preferences.) If a single highlighted region contains two columns of text or text that won’t flow &lt;br /&gt;normally, divide the region into parts that can be reordered. Because highlighted regions are rectangular, &lt;br /&gt;they may overlap somewhat, especially if their page content is irregularly shaped. Unless page content &lt;br /&gt;overlaps or is contained within two highlighted regions, no reading order problem is indicated. Page content &lt;br /&gt;should belong to no more than one highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can change the reading order of the highlighted regions by moving an item in the Order Panel or by &lt;br /&gt;dragging it on the page in the document pane. By reordering highlighted regions on the page, you can make &lt;br /&gt;a figure and caption read at the specific point that they are referenced in the text. By changing the order of a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region, you effectively change the reading order of that item without changing the actual &lt;br /&gt;appearance of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check reading order with the TouchUp Reading Order tool&lt;br /&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If highlighted regions don’t appear in the document pane, the document doesn’t contain &lt;br /&gt;tags.  You will need to tag the document (See “ What to do if the PDF File is Not Tagged” &lt;br /&gt;on page 22)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Optionally, do any of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To specify a highlight color, click the color swatch, and then click the color you want.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To highlight tables and figures, and to view alternate text for figures, select Show Tables And &lt;br /&gt;Figures.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Check the reading order of text within each highlighted region. Zooming in can make this step &lt;br /&gt;easier. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Check the numbered order of all highlighted regions. If consecutive, numbered regions don’t &lt;br /&gt;follow one another, reorder them in the Order tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Show Order Panel, and then select each content entry (in square brackets [ ]) in the Order tab &lt;br /&gt;to highlight that content region in the document pane. Use this method to find numbered regions &lt;br /&gt;that you can’t see or locate on the page.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order by dragging on the page&lt;br /&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, place the pointer over the number for the highlighted region you want to &lt;br /&gt;move, and drag it to where you want it to be read. The text-insertion pointer shows target locations &lt;br /&gt;within the text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you release the highlighted region, the location of the text-insertion pointer becomes the &lt;br /&gt;dividing line as the underlying highlighted region is split into two new highlighted regions. All &lt;br /&gt;highlighted regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the reading order using the Order panel&lt;br /&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Show Order Panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Order tab, navigate to view a list of highlighted regions that appear in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, drag the tag for a highlighted region to the location you want. As you drag, a line &lt;br /&gt;appears to show potential locations. After you drag an item to a new location, the highlighted &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow28 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. You can select and move multiple, adjacent &lt;br /&gt;regions (See “Figure 25 Acrobat 9 Pro Order Panel” on page 38).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Editing Tags with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;You can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to create tags in untagged PDFs or to add new tags to an &lt;br /&gt;existing structure. However, this manual tagging doesn’t provide the same level of detail to the tagging &lt;br /&gt;structure as the Add Tags To Document command, such as paragraphs, bulleted and numbered lists, line &lt;br /&gt;breaks, and hyphens. Before you clear the existing structure, make sure that manual tagging is your only &lt;br /&gt;recourse.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tag a region&lt;br /&gt;• Using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, drag within the document pane to select a region of the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;page that contains one type of content (for example, a text block). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To add more page content to the current selection, Shift-drag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To remove page content from the current selection, Ctrl-drag/Command-drag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the appropriate button in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box to specify the tag type.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the tag for a region&lt;br /&gt;If Acrobat tags a page element incorrectly, you can change the tag type for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select a highlighted region, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Drag to select it.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the number of a highlighted region.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add or remove content from a tagged region&lt;br /&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order tool always displays as few highlighted regions as possible. If content within a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region doesn’t flow properly, you may need to split a region to reorder it. Highlighted regions &lt;br /&gt;may also contain adjacent page content that is unrelated or that requires a different tag type. Page content &lt;br /&gt;may become orphaned from related elements, particularly if the content doesn’t fit within a rectangular &lt;br /&gt;shape. Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to add or remove content from a region, or to split a region to &lt;br /&gt;reorder the content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, select a highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To add content to the current selection, Shift-click the content you want to add. The pointer &lt;br /&gt;changes to include a plus sign (+).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To remove content from the current selection, Ctrl-click/Command-click the content you want to &lt;br /&gt;remove. The pointer changes to include a minus sign (-).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the button for the tag type that you want for the highlighted region. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Split a region into two regions&lt;br /&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 29&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, drag to select a small portion of content near the boundary of the first region &lt;br /&gt;that you want to create. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the Background button in the dialog box. The highlighted region splits into two regions, &lt;br /&gt;numbered from right to left. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If you need to correct the reading order, click Show Order Panel, and drag the new highlighted &lt;br /&gt;region to the correct location in the Order tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Drag to select the first content region you created, including the region you defined as Background, and then &lt;br /&gt;set the tag by clicking a button in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a heading tag&lt;br /&gt;To help readers navigate a document and find the information they need, make sure that headings are tagged &lt;br /&gt;with the appropriate level to indicate their hierarchy in the content. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then select the heading text in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click the button corresponding to the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;heading tag (for example, Heading 1, Heading 2). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove page elements from the tag structure&lt;br /&gt;When tagging a PDF, Acrobat can’t always distinguish between instructive figures and decorative page &lt;br /&gt;elements. Items that visually enhance page layout, such as decorative borders, lines, or background elements, &lt;br /&gt;can add clutter to the structure layout and should be removed. Therefore, Acrobat may incorrectly tag &lt;br /&gt;artifacts or page elements as figure tags. You can remove artifacts and irrelevant page elements from the tag &lt;br /&gt;structure by redefining them with the Background tag or by deleting their tags. If a tagged image in the &lt;br /&gt;document doesn’t contain useful or illustrative information for the user, you can remove the element from &lt;br /&gt;the tagging structure so that it isn’t read out loud or reflowed.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, select Show Page Content Order and Show Tables And &lt;br /&gt;Figures. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Remove the page element by doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, select the page element, and then click Background in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, select the page element, and then press Delete.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Apply a figure tag&lt;br /&gt;You can select an element and define it as a figure by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool. Once you &lt;br /&gt;define it as a figure, you can add alternate text to describe the figure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, select the figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, right-click the region and choose Edit Alternate Text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enter alternate text, and click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using TouchUp Reading Order to Check and Correct Figure Tags&lt;br /&gt;You can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to identify and correct tagging results for figures. Determine &lt;br /&gt;whether figures include or require alternate text in order to be read correctly with assistive technologies. &lt;br /&gt;Ideally, figure tags should identify image content that is meaningful to the document as a whole, such as &lt;br /&gt;graphs or illustrative photographs. If background elements that shouldn’t be read are tagged as figures, &lt;br /&gt;redefine them as background.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow30 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Do any of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If a figure isn’t tagged as a figure, select the content region you want, and then click Figure or &lt;br /&gt;Figure/Caption in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To remove text that was incorrectly combined with a figure, drag to select the text, and click the &lt;br /&gt;Text button in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To include a caption that is grouped with the figure, select the figure and caption, and click the Figure/&lt;br /&gt;Caption button in the dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Adding Alternate Text with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool&lt;br /&gt;If you want screen readers to describe graphical elements that illustrate important concepts in a document, &lt;br /&gt;you must provide the description using alternate text. Figures aren’t recognized or read by a screen reader &lt;br /&gt;unless you add alternate text to the tag properties. If you apply alternate text to text elements, only the &lt;br /&gt;description, not the actual text, is read. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select Show Tables And Figures in the dialog box. Figures that are missing Alternate Text will have &lt;br /&gt;a flag indicating “Figure - No alternate text exists” (See “Figure 18 Add / Edit Alternate Text with &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order” on page 30).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Right-click the figure, and choose Edit Alternate Text from the pop-up menu. (See “Figure 18 Add &lt;br /&gt;/ Edit Alternate Text with TouchUp Reading Order” on page 30)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Edit Alternate Text dialog box, type a new (or edit an existing) description for the figure, and then &lt;br /&gt;click OK (See “Figure 19 TouchUp Reading Order Alternate Text Dialog” on page 31) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  18 Add / Edit Alternate Text with TouchUp Reading Order&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 31&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  19 TouchUp Reading Order Alternate Text Dialog&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using the TouchUp Reading Order Tool Table Editor&lt;br /&gt;Tables pose a special challenge for screen readers because they present textual or numerical data to be easily &lt;br /&gt;referenced visually. Content within table cells can be complex and might contain lists, paragraphs, form &lt;br /&gt;fields, or another table.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor automatically analyzes the selected table into cells and applies the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate tags. The table must be tagged as a table before you can use the Table Editor command on it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For best results when tagging tables, use the application that you created the document with to add tags &lt;br /&gt;when you create the PDF. If a PDF isn’t tagged, you can add tags by using the Add Tags To Document &lt;br /&gt;command. Most tables are properly recognized using this command; however, the command may not &lt;br /&gt;recognize a table that lacks clear borders, headings, columns, and rows. Use the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;tool to determine if the table has been properly recognized and to correct recognition problems. To add &lt;br /&gt;specialized formatting to tables and table cells, use the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can use the Table Editor to automatically analyze a table into its components and apply the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;tags, but you may still need to check and correct some of these tags manually. By viewing table tags, you can &lt;br /&gt;determine whether columns, rows, and cells have been correctly identified. Tables that lack well-defined &lt;br /&gt;borders and rules are often tagged incorrectly or contain adjacent page elements. You can correct poorly &lt;br /&gt;tagged tables by selecting and redefining them; you can split combined cells by creating a tag for each cell. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool, and then click Show Tables And Figures. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If the table isn’t clearly labeled in the document pane, drag to select the entire table, and then click &lt;br /&gt;Table in the dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Show Table Cells to make sure that all cells in the table are defined as individual elements.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If cells don’t appear as separate elements, do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If one or more cells are merged, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select the area within a &lt;br /&gt;single cell, and then click Cell in the dialog box. Repeat for each merged cell.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If cells aren’t highlighted, the table might not use standard table formatting. Re-create the table in &lt;br /&gt;the authoring application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add a Table Summary&lt;br /&gt;• With the cursor over the table, right click to add a Table Summary. The Edit Table Summary option &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;is available in the menu that appears when you right-click a highlighted table. This allows the user &lt;br /&gt;to add or edit a text description about the table properties that is read by a screen reader or other &lt;br /&gt;assistive technology.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Place the Table in Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;There are two ways to place Tables in Table Editing Mode with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow32 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• With the cursor over the table, right click to select Table Editor from the drop down list to place the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;table in Table Editing mode.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• You can also click the Show Order Panel in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog and select the table &lt;br /&gt;from the Order Panel. One technique is to highlight the snippets of text in the Order Panel that &lt;br /&gt;match the headings of  the first row in the table. This often activates the Table Editor when it cannot &lt;br /&gt;otherwise be activated. You then select the Table Editor button on the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;dialog  to place the table in Table Editing Mode (See “Figure 20 Using the Order Panel to Activate &lt;br /&gt;the Table Editor” on page 32)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  20 Using the Order Panel to Activate the Table Editor&lt;br /&gt;Once in Table Editing Mode, the borders of the table cells are highlighted. You can change the color of the &lt;br /&gt;border to suit your needs (See “Figure 21 Table Editing Mode” on page 33). You can select individual cells &lt;br /&gt;by clicking within the borders with the mouse. You can select multiple table cells by holding down Shift and &lt;br /&gt;clicking. This is an effecient method for selecting the first row of data cells in a table which need to be &lt;br /&gt;changed to header cells.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 33&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  21 Table Editing Mode&lt;br /&gt;Once in Table Editing Mode, you can right click to display the Table Cell Properties dialog or the Table &lt;br /&gt;Editor Options dialog. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Table Cell Properties dialog (See “Figure 22 Table Cell Properties” on page 34) allows you to: &lt;br /&gt;• Specify the type of cell the selected cell should be, whether a Header cell or Data cell&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Set the cells attibutes for row span and column span. Assign a unique header ID for Table Headers &lt;br /&gt;or associate Data cells with Header IDs that have been created for the table&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow34 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  22 Table Cell Properties&lt;br /&gt;The Table Editor Options dialog allows users to control how table cells and table headers are displayed by &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat when using the TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor (See “Figure 23 Table Editor Options” on &lt;br /&gt;page 34).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  23 Table Editor Options&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To correct complex tagging problems for tables, you often must use the Tags Panel. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 35&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Remove or replace document structure tags&lt;br /&gt;If the tags in a PDF file in Acrobat appear to be overly complicated you can try retagging an already tagged &lt;br /&gt;document.  To do this,  you must first remove all existing tags from the tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If adding tags to a PDF in Adobe Acrobat results in a tagging structure that is overly complicated or too &lt;br /&gt;problematic to fix, you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to remove or replace the current structure. &lt;br /&gt;If the document contains mostly text, you can select a page and then remove headings, tables, and other &lt;br /&gt;elements to create a cleaner, simpler tagging structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat can retag an already tagged document after you first remove all existing tags from the tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Replace the existing tag structure&lt;br /&gt;This procedure works best in pages that contain a single column of text. If the page contains multiple &lt;br /&gt;columns, each column must be selected and tagged individually.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the document pane, drag to select the entire page. The selection includes both text and nontext &lt;br /&gt;elements. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Ctrl-drag/Command-drag around nontext page elements—such as figures and captions—to &lt;br /&gt;deselect them, until only text is selected on the page. Click Text in the TouchUp Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the document pane, select a nontext page element, such as a figure and caption, and click the appropriate &lt;br /&gt;button in the dialog box to tag it. Repeat until all page content is tagged. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Remove all tags from a PDF&lt;br /&gt;• Open the Tags tab (View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags) and select the root (topmost) tag, Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Tags tab, choose Options &amp;gt; Delete tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Clear Page Structure command in the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box removes all &lt;br /&gt;tags from the currently visible pages.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Complex Structures&lt;br /&gt;While you can use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to create tags in untagged PDFs or to add new tags to an &lt;br /&gt;existing structure, this manual tagging doesn’t provide the same level of detail to the tagging structure as the &lt;br /&gt;Add Tags To Document command, such as paragraphs, bulleted and numbered lists, line breaks, and &lt;br /&gt;hyphens. Before you clear the existing structure, make sure that manual tagging is your only recourse.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To perform more advanced reading order and tagging tasks—such as fixing complex tables, removing &lt;br /&gt;obsolete tags after you delete pages, and adding alternative text to links—you may need to use the Content &lt;br /&gt;Panel and the Tags panel, which provide an alternate set of tools and features for manipulating PDF tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Content Panel&lt;br /&gt;Use the Content Panel to correct reflow problems in a PDF that can’t be corrected by using the TouchUp &lt;br /&gt;Reading Order tool. Because you can damage a PDF by editing content objects, make sure that you’re &lt;br /&gt;familiar with PDF structure before you change anything. For comprehensive information about PDF &lt;br /&gt;structure, see the PDF Reference Sixth Edition: Adobe Portable Document Format Version 1.7, on the PDF &lt;br /&gt;reference page (English only) of the Adobe website.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Content Panel provides a hierarchical view of the objects that make up a PDF, including the PDF object &lt;br /&gt;itself. Each document includes one or more pages, a set of annotations (such as comments and links), and &lt;br /&gt;the content objects for the page, consisting of containers, text, paths, and images. Objects are listed in the &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow36 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;order in which they appear on the page, similar to tags in the logical structure tree. However, PDFs don’t &lt;br /&gt;require tags for you to view or change the object structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Content.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Content Panel may open in the document viewing area. It may be part of a panel group that also &lt;br /&gt;includes the Order Panel and the Tags Panel. You can drag the individual panel and dock it in the &lt;br /&gt;Navigation pane. You can also a the menu command to dock all panels in the Navigation Pane:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;•  View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Dock All Panels (ALT + VNK) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click the plus sign (+) (Windows) or the triangle (Mac OS) next to the document name to view pages and &lt;br /&gt;objects.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: You may find it helpful to have Acrobat highlight items in the document view when the &lt;br /&gt;associated item in the Content Panel is selected. From the Content Panel Options Menu, &lt;br /&gt;select “Highlight Content” (See “Figure 24 Set Highlighting On for the Content Panel” on &lt;br /&gt;page 36). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a container or object by selecting it and doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Drag it to the location you want. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Cut from the Options menu, select the tag above the location you want to paste the cut tag, &lt;br /&gt;and choose Paste from the Options menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  24 Set Highlighting On for the Content Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Container elements can’t be pasted directly to page elements. To move a container to &lt;br /&gt;another page, cut the container you want to move, select a container on the page you &lt;br /&gt;want to move the container to, and choose Paste from the Options menu. Then, drag the &lt;br /&gt;container out one level to the location that you want. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 37&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Content Tab Options&lt;br /&gt;In the Content tab, use the Options menu or right-click an object to choose from the following options:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• New Container . Adds a new container object at the end of the selected page or container. &lt;br /&gt;• Edit Container Dictionary . Specifies the dictionary for the container. Errors in this &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;dialog box may damage the PDF. Available only for containers that include dictionaries. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cut . Cuts and copies the selected object (not the related page content). &lt;br /&gt;• Paste . Pastes content directly below the selected object at the same hierarchical level. &lt;br /&gt;• Paste Child . Pastes content into the selected object as a child content item. &lt;br /&gt;• Delete . Removes the object (not the related page content) from the document. &lt;br /&gt;• Find Content From Selection . Searches for the object in the Content tab that contains &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the object selected in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find . Searches for unmarked (untagged) artifacts, content, comments, and links. Options &lt;br /&gt;allow you to search the page or document, and to add tags to found items. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Artifact . Defines selected objects as artifacts. Artifacts are not read by a screen &lt;br /&gt;reader or by the Read Out Loud feature. Page numbers, headers, and footers are often best &lt;br /&gt;tagged as artifacts. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Remove Artifact . Removes the artifact definition from the selected object. &lt;br /&gt;• Highlight Content . When selected, highlights appear in the document pane around &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;content that relates to a selected object in the Content tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Metadata . Allows viewing and editing of image or object metadata. &lt;br /&gt;• Properties . Opens the TouchUp Properties dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Order Panel&lt;br /&gt;You can change the reading order of the highlighted regions by moving an item in the Order tab or by &lt;br /&gt;dragging it on the page in the document pane. By reordering highlighted regions on the page, you can make &lt;br /&gt;a figure and caption read at the specific point that they are referenced in the text. By changing the order of a &lt;br /&gt;highlighted region, you effectively change the reading order of that item without changing the actual &lt;br /&gt;appearance of the PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select the Order Panel, do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the TouchUp Reading Order tool. In the TouchUp Reading Order dialog box, click Show &lt;br /&gt;Order Panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the Acrobat menu select View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Order (ALT + VNO)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The Order Panel may open in the document viewing area. It may be part of a panel group that also includes &lt;br /&gt;the Content Panel and the Tags Panel. You can drag the individual panel and dock it in the Navigation pane. &lt;br /&gt;You can also use a menu command to dock all panels in the Navigation Pane:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;•  View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Dock All Panels (ALT + VNK) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To change the order of content using the Order Panel:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Order panel, navigate to view a list of highlighted regions that appear in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Order tab, drag the tag for a highlighted region to the location you want. As you drag, a line &lt;br /&gt;appears to show potential locations. After you drag an item to a new location, the highlighted &lt;br /&gt;regions are renumbered to show the new reading order. You can select and move multiple, adjacent &lt;br /&gt;regions. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow38 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  25 Acrobat 9 Pro Order Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;The Tags Panel allows you to view and edit tags in the logical structure tree, or tags tree, of a PDF. In the &lt;br /&gt;Tags Panel, tags appear in a hierarchical order that indicates the reading sequence of the document. The first &lt;br /&gt;item in this structure is the Tags root. All other items are tags and are children of the Tags root. Tags use &lt;br /&gt;coded element types that appear in angle brackets (&amp;lt; &amp;gt;). Each element, including structural elements such as &lt;br /&gt;sections and articles, appears in the logical structure order by type, followed by a title and the element’s &lt;br /&gt;content or a description of the content. Structural elements are typically listed as container—or parent—tags &lt;br /&gt;and include several smaller elements—or child tags—within them.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Though you can correct most tagging issues by using the TouchUp Reading Order tool, you must use the &lt;br /&gt;Tags Panel to address detailed tagging of tables and substructure items—such as paragraphs, lists, and &lt;br /&gt;sections that require multiple languages. Add tags manually to a document using the Tags tab only as a last &lt;br /&gt;resort. First consider using the Add Tags To Document feature.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Important: Operations performed in the Tags tab cannot be undone with the Undo &lt;br /&gt;command.  Save a backup copy of a document before you begin work on it in the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To select the Tags Panel:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Then do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Expand the tag for the section you want.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Ctrl-click the plus sign (Windows) or Option-click the triangle (Mac OS) next to the Tags root to &lt;br /&gt;show all tags in the logical structure tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: You may find it helpful to have Acrobat highlight items in the document view when the &lt;br /&gt;associated item in the Tags Panel is selected. From the Content Panel Options menu, &lt;br /&gt;select “Highlight Content” (See “Figure 26 Set Content Highlighting On for the Tags &lt;br /&gt;Panel” on page 39). &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 39&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  26 Set Content Highlighting On for the Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit tags with the Tags Panel&lt;br /&gt;You can edit a tag title, change a tag location, or change the tag type for an element. All page content must be &lt;br /&gt;tagged, marked as an artifact, or removed from the logical structure tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To reveal the TouchUp Properties for any tag select the desired tag in the Tags panel and do one of the &lt;br /&gt;following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Right click and select Properties from the context menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select Properties from the Tags Panel Option Menu&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow40 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  27 Revealing TouchUp Properties for Tags &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Edit a tag title&lt;br /&gt;• In the Tags tab, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to edit. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• To edit the title, Select the tag, choose Properties from the Options menu, enter text in the Title box, &lt;br /&gt;and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Move a tag&lt;br /&gt;• In the Tags tab, expand the Tags root to view all tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the Tag icon of the element that you want to move. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Drag the tag to the location you want. As you drag, a line appears at viable locations. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Cut from the Options menu, and select the tag that appears above the location you want to &lt;br /&gt;paste the cut tag. From the Options menu, choose Paste to move the tag to the same level as the &lt;br /&gt;selected tag, or choose Paste Child to move the tag within the selected tag.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Change the element type&lt;br /&gt;• In the Tags tab, expand the section of the logical structure that you want to change. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select an element and choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose a new element type from the Type menu, and then click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tags tab options&lt;br /&gt;In the Tags tab, use the Options menu or right-click a tag in the logical structure tree to choose from the &lt;br /&gt;following options:&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 41&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• New Tag . Creates a new tag in the logical structure tree after the currently selected item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Specify type and title of the new tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Cut . Removes the selected tag from its current location and puts it on the clipboard. &lt;br /&gt;• Paste . Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, replacing the &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Paste Child . Places the tag that’s on the clipboard into the location specified, as a child of &lt;br /&gt;the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Delete Tag . Removes the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;• Find Tag From Selection . Searches for the tag in the Tags tab that contains the text or &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;object selected in the document pane. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Tag From Selection . Creates a new tag in the logical structure tree after the item &lt;br /&gt;selected in the document pane. Specify type and title of the new tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Find . Searches for artifacts, OCR suspects, and unmarked (untagged) content, comments, &lt;br /&gt;links, and annotations. Options allow you to search the page or document and add tags to &lt;br /&gt;found items. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Change Tag To Artifact . Changes selected tags to artifacts and removes the tagged &lt;br /&gt;content from the structure tree. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Copy Contents To Clipboard . Copies all content contained within the selected tags. &lt;br /&gt;• Edit Class Map . Allows you to add, change, and delete the class map, or style dictionary, &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;for the document. Class maps store attributes that are associated with each element. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Edit Role Map . Allows you to add, change, and delete role maps for the document. Role &lt;br /&gt;maps allow each document to contain a uniquely defined tag set. By mapping these &lt;br /&gt;custom tags to predefined tags in Acrobat, custom tags are easier to identify and edit. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Tag Annotations . When selected, all new comments and form fields are added to the tag &lt;br /&gt;tree after the selected tag element; existing comments and form fields aren’t added to the &lt;br /&gt;tag tree. Highlight and Underline comments are automatically associated and tagged with &lt;br /&gt;the text that they annotate and don’t require this option. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Document Is Tagged PDF . Flags the PDF as a tagged document. Deselect to remove the &lt;br /&gt;flag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Important: This option doesn’t necessarily indicate that the PDF conforms to PDF guidelines and &lt;br /&gt;should be used judiciously. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Highlight Content . When selected, causes highlights to appear around content in the &lt;br /&gt;document pane when you select the related tag in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Show Metadata . Opens a read-only dialog box that contains reference information about &lt;br /&gt;the selected tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Properties . Opens the TouchUp Properties dialog box.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text and supplementary information to tags&lt;br /&gt;Some tagged PDFs might not contain all the information necessary to make the document contents fully &lt;br /&gt;accessible. For example, if you want to make a document available to a screen reader, the PDF should &lt;br /&gt;contain alternate text for figures, language properties for portions of the text that use a different language &lt;br /&gt;than the default language for the document, and expansion text for abbreviations. Designating the &lt;br /&gt;appropriate language for different text elements ensures that the correct characters are used when you &lt;br /&gt;repurpose the document and that it is spell-checked with the correct dictionary. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow42 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;You can add alternate text and multiple languages to a tag from the Tags tab. (If only one language is &lt;br /&gt;required, choose the language with File &amp;gt; Properties instead.) You can also add alternate text by using the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: Keep alternate text descriptions as concise as possible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text to links&lt;br /&gt;Screen readers can read the URLs of web links out loud, but adding meaningful alternate text to links can &lt;br /&gt;help users immensely. For example, by adding alternate text you can have a screen reader tell a user to “go to &lt;br /&gt;the Acrobat accessibility page of adobe.com” rather than “go to http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/&lt;br /&gt;solutionsacc.html.” &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You add alternate text to the &amp;lt;Link&amp;gt; tag of a link.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: You must add alternate text only to tags that don’t have child tags. Adding &lt;br /&gt;alternate text to a parent tag prevents a screen reader from reading any of that tag’s child &lt;br /&gt;tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the tag tree, select the &amp;lt;Link&amp;gt; tag for the link and choose Options &amp;gt; Properties. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Type alternate text for the link, and click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for a figure&lt;br /&gt;• Choose View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Tags. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Expand the logical structure tree to find and select the &amp;lt;Figure&amp;gt; tag element for the image. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;To find a tag more easily, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select the figure—or text near the &lt;br /&gt;figure—in the document pane, and then choose Find Tag From Selection from the Options menu &lt;br /&gt;in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Highlight Content from the Options menu in the Tags tab to see a highlighted area in the &lt;br /&gt;document that corresponds to the tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Properties from the Options menu in the Tags tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, click the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• For Alternate Text, type text that describes the figure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add alternate text for an abbreviated term&lt;br /&gt;In the Tags panel, locate the abbreviated term by doing one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Expand the tag tree as needed to see the elements that contain the abbreviation.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use the TouchUp Text tool or the Select tool to select the abbreviation in the document, and then &lt;br /&gt;choose Find Tag From Selection from the Options menu to locate the text in the tag tree.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the tag for that element, and choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: Note: If the abbreviation includes additional text, cut the additional text and place it in a &lt;br /&gt;new &amp;lt;Span&amp;gt; child tag within the same &amp;lt;Span&amp;gt; parent tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, select the Tag tab. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• For Alternate Text, type the unabbreviated version of the term. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Click Close. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 43&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Create a new child tag&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Tags tab, select the parent node (the icon located at the same level at which you want to &lt;br /&gt;create a child tag) in the Tags tree for which you want to create a child tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose New Tag from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Select the appropriate tag type from the Type pop-up menu, or type a custom tag type, name the tag &lt;br /&gt;(optional), and then click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Add tags to comments&lt;br /&gt;When you tag a PDF that includes comments, the comments are tagged as well. However, if you add &lt;br /&gt;comments to a PDF that’s already tagged, your comments are untagged unless you enable comment tagging &lt;br /&gt;first. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To Enable comment tagging in a PDF, in the Tags tab, choose Tag Annotations from the &lt;br /&gt;Options menu. Comments or markups that you add to the PDF are tagged automatically. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If a document contains untagged comments, you can locate them in the logical structure tree and tag them &lt;br /&gt;by using the Find command in the Tags tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Tags tab, choose Find from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Find Element dialog box, choose Unmarked Comments from the Find pop-up menu, and &lt;br /&gt;click Find. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• When the comment type appears in the Type field (for example, Text), click Tag Element, choose &lt;br /&gt;Annotation from the Type pop-up menu in the New Tag dialog box, and then click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Find Element dialog box, click Find Next to locate and tag all comments, and then click Close. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Correct table tags with the Tags tab&lt;br /&gt;Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to make sure that tables are tagged correctly. If you need to structure &lt;br /&gt;figures and text within the cells of your table, you may prefer to re-create the table in the authoring &lt;br /&gt;application before you convert it as an accessible PDF. Adding tags on a cell level in Acrobat is a labor-&lt;br /&gt;intensive procedure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Before you make any changes to table elements, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to determine that the &lt;br /&gt;table is tagged correctly.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check table elements&lt;br /&gt;• In the Tags tab, expand the tags root to view a table tag. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the table tag &amp;lt;Table&amp;gt; and verify that it contains one of the following elements: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Table Rows, each of which contains Table Header &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; or Table Data &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; cells.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;&amp;lt;THead&amp;gt;, &amp;lt;TBody&amp;gt;, and &amp;lt;TFoot&amp;gt; sections, each of which contains Table Rows. (The Table Rows &lt;br /&gt;contain &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; cells, &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; cells, or both.)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one or more of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If the tag for the table doesn’t contain these elements, but rows, columns, and cells appear in the &lt;br /&gt;table in the document pane, use the TouchUp Reading Order tool to select and define the table or &lt;br /&gt;individual cells.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If the table contains rows that span two or more columns, set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes for &lt;br /&gt;these rows in the tag structure.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Re-create the table in the authoring application, and then convert it to a tagged PDF.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow44 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Set ColSpan and RowSpan attributes&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Tags tab, select a &amp;lt;TD&amp;gt; or &amp;lt;TH&amp;gt; element. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Properties from the Options menu. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the TouchUp Properties dialog box, click the Tag tab, and then click Edit Attribute Objects. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select Attribute Objects, and then click New Item to create a new Attribute Object Dictionary. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Expand the new dictionary, select the Layout attribute, and then click Change Item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Change the Layout value to Table. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the Attribute Object Dictionary, and click New Item. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In the Add Key And Value dialog box, type ColSpan or RowSpan in the Key box, enter the number of &lt;br /&gt;columns or rows spanned in the Value box, choose Integer from the Value Type pop-up menu, and click &lt;br /&gt;OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Step 7: Use the Accessibility Checker to Evaluate the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The accessibility checker tools (Quick Check and Full Check) can help to identify areas of &lt;br /&gt;documents that may be in conflict with Adobe's interpretations of the accessibility &lt;br /&gt;guidelines referenced in the application and its documentation. However, these tools &lt;br /&gt;don’t check documents against all accessibility criteria, including those in such referenced &lt;br /&gt;guidelines, and Adobe does not warrant that documents comply with any specific &lt;br /&gt;guidelines or regulations.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check&lt;br /&gt;Use Quick Check to check for document structure tags, searchable text, and appropriate security settings for &lt;br /&gt;accessibility. This method is often the best way to check for accessibility before attempting to use a PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Quick Check Results&lt;br /&gt;• This document has logical structure but it is not a Tagged PDF.  Some accessibility &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;information may be missing.” Quick Check has found an underlying document structure &lt;br /&gt;in the document, so Acrobat will use the available document structure to control the &lt;br /&gt;reading order, rather than analyzing the document itself. However, this untagged &lt;br /&gt;document structure might be incomplete or unreliable, so assistive software and the &lt;br /&gt;accessibility features in Acrobat (such as the Read Out Loud and the Save As Text features) &lt;br /&gt;may not read the page properly. If the reading order of the page seems to be wrong, select &lt;br /&gt;Override The Reading Order In Tagged Documents in the Reading panel of the &lt;br /&gt;Preferences dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• This document is not structured, so the reading order may not be correct. Try different reading &lt;br /&gt;orders using the Reading Preferences panel.” . Quick Check has found no underlying &lt;br /&gt;document structure that Acrobat can use for reading order. Acrobat will analyze the &lt;br /&gt;reading order of the document using the current analysis method set in the Reading Order &lt;br /&gt;preference, but this PDF might not be read correctly by screen readers. If the reading order &lt;br /&gt;seems wrong, select a different option for Reading Order in the Reading panel of the &lt;br /&gt;Preferences dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• No accessibility problems were detected in this quick check. Choose the Full Check command to &lt;br /&gt;check more thoroughly. Quick Check has found that the PDF contains searchable text, is &lt;br /&gt;tagged, has an underlying document structure, and has no security settings that prohibit &lt;br /&gt;access for screen readers. To check for other types of accessibility problems that may be &lt;br /&gt;present in the PDF, use Full Check. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 45&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• This document’s security settings prevent access by screen readers. Quick Check has &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;found that the PDF has security settings that interfere with screen readers’ ability to extract &lt;br /&gt;text for conversion to speech. You may be able to use a screen reader with this document if &lt;br /&gt;your assistive technology product is registered with Adobe as a Trusted Agent. Contact &lt;br /&gt;your assistive technology product vendor. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• This document appears to contain no text. It may be a scanned image. Quick Check has &lt;br /&gt;found that the PDF contains no searchable text, probably because the document consists &lt;br /&gt;entirely of one or more scanned images. This means that screen readers, Read Out Loud, &lt;br /&gt;Reflow view, and most other accessibility features—which rely on text as input—will not &lt;br /&gt;work with this document&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check&lt;br /&gt;Use Full Check to perform a more thorough check for many characteristics of accessible PDFs, such as the &lt;br /&gt;use of fonts that can be mapped reliably to Unicode text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Full Check checks a PDF for many of the characteristics of accessible PDFs.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can choose which kinds of accessibility problems to look for and how you want to view the results.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Choose Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select options for how you want to view the results.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can save the results as an HTML file or as comments that are located where the accessibility problems &lt;br /&gt;are detected. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select a page range if you prefer to do a full check on individual sections of a document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;When you have a large document, running a full check one section at a time can be more efficient. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select an accessibility standard (Adobe PDF, Section 508 (U.S.), or W3C ) from the Name menu, &lt;br /&gt;and then select the accessibility options to check for. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The standard that you select in the Name menu determines which accessibility options are &lt;br /&gt;available.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Start Checking. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The results are displayed in the left panel, which also has helpful links and hints for repairing issues (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 28 Acrobat 9 Pro Accessibility Report” on page 46)&lt;br /&gt;If you created a report in step 2, the results are available in the selected folder. Clicking on the links &lt;br /&gt;highlights the problem areas in the document. The Accessibility Checker panel also provides hints for repair &lt;br /&gt;which you should follow &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow46 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  28 Acrobat 9 Pro Accessibility Report&lt;br /&gt;Because the Full Check feature is unable to distinguish between essential and nonessential content types, &lt;br /&gt;some issues it reports don’t affect readability. It’s a good idea to review all issues to determine which ones &lt;br /&gt;require correction.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Accessibility Full Check Options&lt;br /&gt;• Create Accessibility Report . Creates an HTML report of accessibility issues, which is &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;opened in the navigation pane and saved in the location indicated by the Folder field. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Include Repair Hints In Accessibility Report . Adds suggestions for fixing accessibility &lt;br /&gt;problems to the HTML report or comments. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Comments In Document . Adds comments to the document that indicate &lt;br /&gt;accessibility problems. Delete all accessibility comments from the PDF after you repair the &lt;br /&gt;accessibility issues. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Page Range . The range of pages to check. &lt;br /&gt;• Name . The set of accessibility criteria to check. For the Section 508 and W3C guidelines, &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;the options area includes a Browse button that links to the website for the respective &lt;br /&gt;guidelines. Select Adobe PDF to choose from options for the Adobe PDF accessibility &lt;br /&gt;standard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Alternative Descriptions Are Provided . Checks for tagged figures that are missing &lt;br /&gt;alternate text. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text Language Is Specified . Checks for paragraphs that don’t have a language specified &lt;br /&gt;for them. Setting the language for an entire document in the Document Properties dialog &lt;br /&gt;box corrects all errors related to this option. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow | 47&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Reliable Character Encoding Is Provided . Checks for fonts that are inaccessible to &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;screen readers and other assistive software. Fonts must contain enough information for &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat to correctly extract all the characters to text. If one or more fonts don’t allow for &lt;br /&gt;the correct extraction of all the characters, the PDF is inaccessible. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• All Content Is Contained In The Document Structure . Checks for page elements that &lt;br /&gt;may have been overlooked during tagging. Adding these elements to the tag tree (if &lt;br /&gt;necessary) ensures that a screen reader can present the content to a user. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• All Form Fields Have Descriptions . Checks for form fields that are missing descriptions. &lt;br /&gt;• Tab Order Is Consistent With The Structure Order . Checks whether tags properly &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;reflect the document’s structure. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• List And Table Structure Is Correct . Checks whether tags that have been generated for &lt;br /&gt;lists and tables meet the requirements of tagged PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Continue Checking Until All Issues are Addressed&lt;br /&gt;Repeat the process of running the Accessibility Checker and using familiar repair techniques or following &lt;br /&gt;the Hints for Repair until the Accessibility Checker indicates “The checker found no problems in this &lt;br /&gt;document” for the tests you have selected (See “Figure 29 A Successful Accessibility Check” on page 47)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: While the Accessibility Checker helps you evaluate the accessibility of your documents &lt;br /&gt;and helps identify areas that may be in conflict with Adobe's interpretations of the &lt;br /&gt;referenced guidelines, the Accessibility Checker does not check all accessibility guidelines &lt;br /&gt;and criteria, including those in such referenced guidelines, and Adobe does not warrant &lt;br /&gt;that your documents will comply with any specific guidelines or regulations. Please &lt;br /&gt;consult with your legal counsel for guidance on compliance with the referenced &lt;br /&gt;guidelines or any other accessibility guidelines.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  29 A Successful Accessibility Check&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Additional Validation Techniques&lt;br /&gt;Of course, the best way to test the accessibility of a document is to attempt to use the document with the &lt;br /&gt;tools that your readers will use. However, even if you don’t have a screen reader or braille printer, you can &lt;br /&gt;still use any of several methods provided by Acrobat for checking the accessibility of a PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use Reflow view to quickly check reading order. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use Read Out Loud to experience the document as it will be experienced by readers who use this &lt;br /&gt;text-to-speech conversion tool.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Save the document as accessible text and then read the saved text file in a word-processing &lt;br /&gt;application to experience the document as it will be experienced by readers who use a braille &lt;br /&gt;printer.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use the TouchUp Reading Order tool, Tags tab, and Content tab to examine the structure, reading &lt;br /&gt;order, and contents of a PDF in detail.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Acrobat 9 Pro PDF Accessibility Repair Workflow48 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt; Creating Accessible PDF Files Using &lt;br /&gt;Authoring Applications&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Introduction&lt;br /&gt;In many cases, you can create tagged PDFs from within an authoring application, such as Adobe &lt;br /&gt;FrameMaker®, Adobe InDesign, Adobe LiveCycle Designer. This functionality extends to applications that &lt;br /&gt;are not from Adobe Systems, such as Microsoft® Office and OpenOffice.org Writer. Creating tags in the &lt;br /&gt;authoring application generally provides better results than adding tags in Acrobat. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In Windows, Acrobat installs both an Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and an Adobe PDF menu in many &lt;br /&gt;popular authoring applications. PDFMaker provides conversion settings that let you create tagged PDFs in &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint, and Word among others. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;You can use either the toolbar buttons or the Adobe PDF menu (the Action menu in Lotus Notes) to create &lt;br /&gt;PDFs, but the menu also provides access to conversion settings. Although many of the conversion options &lt;br /&gt;are common to all authoring applications, a few are application-specific.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: For Microsoft Office 2007 applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access, the &lt;br /&gt;options for creating PDFs are available from the Acrobat Ribbon. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In general, the following rules apply.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Design your source document with accessibility in mind&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do NOT use character formatting for headings, use the program’s styles.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do add alternative text to graphics in the source file &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do use a table editor if available to create tables&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do NOT use a table editor to design layouts&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do generate the PDF file in a way that generates tags&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do set your PDF output preferences option to tagged PDF&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do check the results in Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro using Advanced &amp;gt; Accessibility &amp;gt; Full Check &lt;br /&gt;(shortcut: Alt + A + A + F)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do follow the suggestions for repair and repeat checking until no errors are detected&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Create an Accessible Microsoft Word Document&lt;br /&gt;You should author the original source document with accessibility in mind. This means you should add &lt;br /&gt;structure to the document by using styles rather than character formats for such items as headings and lists. &lt;br /&gt;You should also add alternate text descriptions to graphics that appear in the Word file using the format &lt;br /&gt;picture dialog. You should use Word’s column command and not tables to create multi-column documents. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Use Styles&lt;br /&gt;Design your documents with styles. Styles add the structure necessary to make your documents usable to &lt;br /&gt;people with disabilities.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Text&lt;br /&gt;The default text style for Microsoft Word is Normal. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Text should be at least 12 point type. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Avoid using Microsoft Word text boxes.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;49&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications50 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Avoid using Enter to create space between paragraphs. Use the space before and space after &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;properties in your styles &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Headings&lt;br /&gt;Use Styles to create heading formats. Title, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, etc. Make styles progress in a &lt;br /&gt;logical manner , a Heading 2 should come after a Heading 1 &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 Headings&lt;br /&gt;To create headings in Microsoft Word 2003 do the following&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Format &amp;gt; Styles and Formatting to reveal the styles and formatting task pane (See “Figure 30 &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Word 2003 Styles and Formatting” on page 50).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Apply the appropriate heading from the Styles and Formatting panel to your document text &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  30 Microsoft Word 2003 Styles and Formatting&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 Headings&lt;br /&gt;• Select the Home Ribbon in Word 2007 and select the proper heading from the styles group (See &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;“Figure 31 Microsoft Word 2007 Styles and Formatting” on page 50).&lt;br /&gt; &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  31 Microsoft Word 2007 Styles and Formatting&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 51&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images&lt;br /&gt;Alternative Text or Alt Text refers to text that can be read by a screen reader to describe graphics and images &lt;br /&gt;which people with visual dis-abilities cannot see.  All Graphics and Images should be provided with &lt;br /&gt;alternative text descriptions. Avoid placing graphics too close to text. This can cause problems when &lt;br /&gt;converting to PDF. Place white space between text and graphics. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2003 &lt;br /&gt;• Double Click on an image or right click and select the format picture dialog. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select the Web tab and enter the alternative text (See “Figure 32 Microsoft Word 2003 Web Tab &lt;br /&gt;for adding Alternative Text” on page 51).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  32 Microsoft Word 2003 Web Tab for adding Alternative Text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007 &lt;br /&gt;• Right Click on an image and choose Size &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications52 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Select the Alt Text tab and enter the alternative text (See “Figure 33 Microsoft Word 2007 Alt Text &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;for adding Alternative Text” on page 52) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  33 Microsoft Word 2007 Alt Text for adding Alternative Text&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Configure the PDFMaker&lt;br /&gt;Once you have authored your Microsoft Word document with accessibility in mind, you are ready to &lt;br /&gt;convert it to an accessible PDF file. To generate an accessible PDF document directly from the Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word source, you should use the Adobe PDFMaker to convert the file to PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PDFMaker is an Acrobat feature that operates within many business applications, such as Microsoft Office &lt;br /&gt;applications and Lotus Notes. When you install Acrobat, PDFMaker controls appear in the work area of the &lt;br /&gt;authoring application. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Using PDFMaker within an authoring application is a simple, one-click procedure. It involves clicking an &lt;br /&gt;Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar button or choosing a command on the Adobe PDF menu. It is not necessary to &lt;br /&gt;open Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;In Windows, Acrobat installs both an Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar and an Adobe PDF menu in many &lt;br /&gt;popular authoring applications. You can use either the toolbar buttons or the Adobe PDF menu to create &lt;br /&gt;PDFs, but the menu also provides access to conversion settings.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: For Microsoft Office 2007 applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access, the &lt;br /&gt;options for creating PDFs are available from the Acrobat ribbon (See “Figure 34 Microsoft &lt;br /&gt;Word 2007 Adobe Acrobat Ribbon and Group” on page 53).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 53&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  34 Microsoft Word 2007 Adobe Acrobat Ribbon and Group&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Show or activate PDFMaker in Microsoft Word&lt;br /&gt;If you don’t see the PDF toolbar buttons in Microsoft Word, you must show or activate the PDF toolbar. Use &lt;br /&gt;one of the following methods to show or activate PDFMaker.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2003 or earlier, &lt;br /&gt;• Choose View &amp;gt; Toolbars &amp;gt; Acrobat PDFMaker 9.0&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;For Office 2007&lt;br /&gt;Do the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the Office button, and then click the Word Options button&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Add-Ins on the left side of the dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Do one of the following: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin is not listed, choose COM Add-&lt;br /&gt;Ins from the Manage pop-up menu and click Go.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• If PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin is listed under Disabled &lt;br /&gt;Application Add-ins, select Disabled Items from the Manage pop-up menu and click Go.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select PDFMOutlook or Acrobat PDFMaker Office COM Addin and click OK. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Restart the Office application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;View PDFMaker conversion settings&lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker conversion settings determine what features of the Microsoft Word document will be included in &lt;br /&gt;the PDF and how they will be translated into the resulting PDF file.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Do one of the following: &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications54 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;•  Choose Adobe PDF &amp;gt; Change Conversion Settings (See “Figure 35 Change PDFMaker Settings &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in Word 2003” on page 54)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  35 Change PDFMaker Settings in Word 2003&lt;br /&gt;• (Office 2007) In the Acrobat ribbon, click Preferences (See “Figure 36 Acrobat Preferences in &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word 2007” on page 54).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  36 Acrobat Preferences in Word 2007&lt;br /&gt;If you wish to revert to the original default settings, click Restore Defaults on the Settings tab.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings Tab&lt;br /&gt;The settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using PDFMaker (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 37 PDFMaker Settings Tab” on page 56). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Conversion Settings . Specifies the standard by which the PDF will be optimized. When &lt;br /&gt;you choose an item in the menu, a description of that preset appears immediately below it. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• View Adobe PDF Result . Opens the converted document directly into Acrobat. &lt;br /&gt;(Exception: when you choose Convert To Adobe PDF And Email.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Prompt For Adobe PDF File Name . Lets you enter a custom filename for the resulting &lt;br /&gt;PDF. Deselect this option to save the file in the same folder as the source file, using the &lt;br /&gt;same name but with a .pdf extension. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Document Information . Adds document information from the Properties &lt;br /&gt;dialog box of the source file. This setting overrides the printer preferences and settings in &lt;br /&gt;the Advanced panel of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: The Advanced Settings button opens the Adobe PDF Settings dialog box, which contains &lt;br /&gt;many additional conversion options. These conversion settings apply to all Acrobat &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 55&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;features that create PDFs, such as Acrobat Distiller, PDFMaker, and the Acrobat &lt;br /&gt;application itself. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create PDF/A Compliant PDF File . Creates the PDF so that it conforms to this ISO &lt;br /&gt;standard for long-term preservation of electronic documents. (In the Microsoft Publisher &lt;br /&gt;application alone, PDFMaker does not support the PDF/A standard.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: When Conversion Settings are opened from within Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, this &lt;br /&gt;option specifies PDF/A 1-a:2005. When opened from within Microsoft Visio, Access, &lt;br /&gt;Microsoft Project, or AutoCAD, it specifies PDF/A 1-b:2005.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Attach Source File . Includes the Word document that is being converted as an &lt;br /&gt;attachment to the resulting PDF.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Create Bookmarks . Converts certain elements in original Office documents to PDF &lt;br /&gt;bookmarks: Word headings, Excel worksheet names, or PowerPoint titles. Selecting this &lt;br /&gt;option overrides any settings on the Bookmarks tab of the Conversion Settings dialog box. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Add Links . Includes active links and hypertext in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: If this option is deselected, but the recipient of the PDF has the Create Links From URLs &lt;br /&gt;preference selected, URLs in the PDF are still active. For more information, see &lt;br /&gt;Preferences for viewing PDFs. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Accessibility And Reflow With Tagged Adobe PDF . Embeds tags in the PDF &lt;br /&gt;(on by default).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications56 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  37 PDFMaker Settings Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Security Tab&lt;br /&gt;The Security tab settings available for PDFMaker depend on the application in which you’re using &lt;br /&gt;PDFMaker (See “Figure 38 PDFMaker Security Tab” on page 57). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Require A Password To Open The Document . When selected, makes the Document &lt;br /&gt;Open Password option available, where you enter a password that users must use to open &lt;br /&gt;the document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Restrict Editing And Printing Of The Document . When selected, makes the other &lt;br /&gt;Permissions options available. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Change Permissions Password . Specifies a password you set that users must use in order &lt;br /&gt;to do any allowable printing or editing. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Printing Allowed . Specifies whether users who use the Permissions Password can print &lt;br /&gt;the document and at what resolution. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Changes Allowed . Specifies what kind of changes users who use the Permissions &lt;br /&gt;Password can make. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Copying Of Text, Images, And Other Contents . Prevents or allows users from &lt;br /&gt;copying from the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Text Access For Screen Reader Devices For The Visually Impaired . Prevents or &lt;br /&gt;allows screen reader devices to read text. (Selected by default.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Enable Plaintext Metadata . Specifies whether the search engine can read the document &lt;br /&gt;metadata. Available only when the PDF-compatibility is set to Acrobat 6.0 (PDF 1.5) or &lt;br /&gt;later.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 57&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  38 PDFMaker Security Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Word Tab&lt;br /&gt;Use the Word Tab to control how certain features in Microsoft Word will be rendered in PDF (See “Figure &lt;br /&gt;39 PDFMaker Word Tab” on page 58).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Displayed Comments To Notes In Adobe PDF . Changes any Word comment &lt;br /&gt;entries to PDF comments. If the currently open Word document contains comments, &lt;br /&gt;more options appear in the Comments list on this tab: &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Reviewer. Lists the names of reviewers who have entered comments in the current &lt;br /&gt;Word document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Include. When deselected, does not include the comments in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;• Notes Open. Specifies whether the PDF comment windows automatically open or are &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;closed for that reviewer’s comments. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Color . Shows the color for that reviewer’s comment icons. Clicking the color icon &lt;br /&gt;repeatedly cycles through a limited set of available colors. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• # Of Comments . Shows the number of comments that the reviewer made. &lt;br /&gt;• Convert Cross-References And Table Of Contents To Links (Word 2002 and 2003 only). &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Enables one-click navigation of these elements in the new PDF. This option is not &lt;br /&gt;available in Word 2007. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Footnote And Endnote Links . Integrates these into the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;• Enable Advanced Tagging . Integrates this into the PDF. Useful for Microsoft Word &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;forms.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications58 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  39 PDFMaker Word Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks Tab (Microsoft Word)&lt;br /&gt;The options you specify on this tab determine which items are converted into PDF bookmarks in the PDF &lt;br /&gt;(See “Figure 40 PDFMaker Bookmarks Tab” on page 59).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: To include bookmarks in the conversion process, the Add Bookmarks To Adobe PDF &lt;br /&gt;option on the Settings tab must be selected. If you deselect that option, it overrides any &lt;br /&gt;options you select on this tab and no bookmarks are created. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Headings To Bookmarks . Selects all the headings in the Elements list for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Styles To Bookmarks . Selects all the text styles in the Elements list for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks. (Unselected by default.) &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Word Bookmarks . Converts any user-created Word bookmarks to PDF &lt;br /&gt;bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Element list . Specifies which Word headings and styles are converted to PDF bookmarks. &lt;br /&gt;• Element . Lists the names of all available Word headings and styles. The icons for &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Headings and Styles indicate the element types. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Type . Also indicates whether the element is a heading or style in the Word &lt;br /&gt;document. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Bookmark . Displays X’s, indicating whether individual elements are converted to &lt;br /&gt;PDF bookmarks. Clicking an individual Bookmark option changes the selection &lt;br /&gt;status for that element. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 59&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Level . Specifies where the element fits in the hierarchy structure of the PDF &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Bookmarks panel. Clicking an individual Level number opens a menu that you can &lt;br /&gt;use to change the value. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Note: When some but not all of the available Word headings and styles are selected for &lt;br /&gt;conversion to PDF bookmarks, the marker in the corresponding check boxes at the top of &lt;br /&gt;the tab change. If all elements of the type are selected, a check mark appears. If only some &lt;br /&gt;of the elements of that type are selected, a colored square appears. Otherwise, the check &lt;br /&gt;box is empty.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  40 PDFMaker Bookmarks Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Video Tab (Microsoft Word and PowerPoint)&lt;br /&gt;The options you specify on this tab determine settings for multimedia files that are converted to FLV format &lt;br /&gt;and inserted into Word or PowerPoint files (See “Figure 41 PDFMaker Video Tab” on page 60).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Save Video In . To save the converted video file in the same folder as the document, select &lt;br /&gt;Same As Document Folder. To save the converted video file in a different folder, select Use &lt;br /&gt;This Folder, and click Browse to locate and select a folder. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Video Quality . A higher Video Quality setting results in a larger PDF file size. &lt;br /&gt;• Deinterlace . Activates the video deinterlacing filter, which can improve video quality. &lt;br /&gt;• Encode Audio . If unselected, the converted video file does not include audio. If selected, &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;specify the data rate at which to encode the audio in the FLV file.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications60 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  41 PDFMaker Video Tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Settings for Other Microsoft Office Applications&lt;br /&gt;There are application specific options on the settings tab of the PDFMaker for other Microsoft Office &lt;br /&gt;applications.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Excel-specific options on the Settings tab&lt;br /&gt;These options are specific to the Settings tab in the PDFMaker for the Excel spreadsheet application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Comments . Converts user-created Excel comments to notes and lists them in &lt;br /&gt;the Acrobat Comments panel. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Fit Worksheet To A Single Page . Adjusts the size of each worksheet so that all the entries &lt;br /&gt;on that worksheet appear on the same page of the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Fit To Paper Width . Adjusts the width of each worksheet so that all the columns on that &lt;br /&gt;worksheet appear on one page in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Prompt For Selecting Excel Sheets . Opens a dialog box at the beginning of the file &lt;br /&gt;conversion process. In this dialog box, you can specify which worksheets are included in &lt;br /&gt;the PDF and the order in which the sheets appear in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;PowerPoint-specific options on the Settings tab&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;These options are specific to the Settings tab in the PDFMaker for the PowerPoint presenation application.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Multimedia . Converts any linked audio-video file to an FLV file and embeds it &lt;br /&gt;in the PDF. &lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 61&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Preserve Animation (PowerPoint 2002 and 2003 only) . Converts any animation effects &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;in the PowerPoint file to equivalent animations in the PDF. This option is not available in &lt;br /&gt;PowerPoint 2007. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Preserve Slide Transitions . Converts PowerPoint slide transition effects to PDF &lt;br /&gt;transition effects. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Hidden Slides To PDF Pages . Converts any PowerPoint slides that are not seen &lt;br /&gt;in the usual playing of the presentation to PDF pages. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert Speaker Notes . Converts any speaker notes for the PowerPoint presentation &lt;br /&gt;into Text notes in the PDF. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Use PowerPoint Printer Settings (PowerPoint 2002 and 2003 only) . Uses the same &lt;br /&gt;printer settings in the PDF as in the original file. This option is not available in PowerPoint &lt;br /&gt;2007.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Convert the Word Document to Accessible PDF&lt;br /&gt;Open the Microsoft Word file. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2003&lt;br /&gt;There are two controls on the Microsoft Word 2003 interface for converting to accessible PDF (See “Figure &lt;br /&gt;42 Convert to Adobe PDF in Word 2003” on page 61).&lt;br /&gt;Do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the Convert To Adobe PDF button on the Acrobat PDFMaker toolbar&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Convert to Adobe PDF from the Adobe PDF menu&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  42 Convert to Adobe PDF in Word 2003&lt;br /&gt;Enter a filename and location for the PDF, and click Save. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Microsoft Office 2007&lt;br /&gt;Do one of the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the Create PDF button from the Create Adobe PDF Group on the Acrobat ribbon (See &lt;br /&gt;“Figure 43 Create Accessible PDF in Word 2007” on page 61).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  43 Create Accessible PDF in Word 2007&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications62 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;• Select Save as Adobe PDF from the Office button (See “Figure 44 Save as Accessible PDF in Word &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;2007” on page 62).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Figure  44  Save as Accessible PDF in Word 2007&lt;br /&gt;Enter a filename and location for the PDF, and click Save. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;If the Word Document is a Form&lt;br /&gt;If the Word document has been designed as a form and you want it to be a fillable PDF form, prepare the &lt;br /&gt;document as described. When you are ready to import it into PDF, do so from within Acrobat using the &lt;br /&gt;Form Wizard. From Acrobat 9 Pro do the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select Forms &amp;gt; Start Form Wizard&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Check the box indicating “An existing electronic document”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select “Import a file from file system” &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click the Browse button to locate the desired file&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click Next&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;The document will be converted to PDF with Tags and fillable form fields. You may need to edit the results &lt;br /&gt;within Acrobat.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Check the PDF Version of the Document Using Acrobat&lt;br /&gt;Once you have converted the document, you will still need to check the results in Adobe Acrobat. To check &lt;br /&gt;the results, begin at Step 5 of the PDF Accessibility Workflow (see  “Step 5: Determine if the PDF File is a &lt;br /&gt;Tagged PDF File” on page 20).  Depending upon the type of error, you may have to make adjustments in a &lt;br /&gt;particular location.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Adjustments to the Conversion Settings&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Repairs You Make to the Source File&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Repairs You Make to the PDF File&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications | 63&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Changes to the Conversion Settings&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs will involve changes to the PDFMaker conversion settings. If, for example, your final check &lt;br /&gt;indicated that the PDF file was not tagged, you would need to verify that the Enable Accessibility and Reflow &lt;br /&gt;box was checked in the PDFMaker tabbed settings.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the Source File&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs can be made on the PDF file, but they would be erased the next time a PDF file was created &lt;br /&gt;from the same source. A good example is missing alternative text descriptions. You can certainly use the &lt;br /&gt;Touchup Reading Order Tool in Acrobat to add these to a PDF file, but if you want the change to last during &lt;br /&gt;updates to the file, it is better to add the alternative text in the Word document using the format picture &lt;br /&gt;dialog (See “Add Alternative Text to Word Graphics and Images” on page 51).&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Repairs You Should Make in the PDF File&lt;br /&gt;Some repairs must take place on the PDF file using Adobe Acrobat 9.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Document Language&lt;br /&gt;In some instances, even if the document language has been specified in the source file, the information about &lt;br /&gt;document language is not conveyed to the PDFMaker.  Setting the language for an entire document in the &lt;br /&gt;Document Properties dialog box corrects all errors related to this option. &lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Select File &amp;gt; Properties (Ctrl + D)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Language drop down of the Reading Options section choose the appropriate language for the &lt;br /&gt;document.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Tab Order is Consistent with Structure Order&lt;br /&gt;In some instances, even though the tags have been inherited from the source file, the Accessibility Checker &lt;br /&gt;will indicate that tab order is inconsistent with structure order. To correct this issue, do the following:&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Open the Pages icon or select View &amp;gt; Navigation Panels &amp;gt; Pages (ALT + VNP)&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• Click on any page icon and  type Cntrl + A (Command + A for the Mac OS) to select all the pages&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• From the Options button on the pages panel select “Page Properties”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;• In the Tab Order Panel, check “Use Document Structure”&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;p&gt;Establish Table Headings for Tables&lt;br /&gt;Table headers are not always properly defined after the conversion from Microsoft Word to PDF. Use the &lt;br /&gt;TouchUp Reading Order Table Editor to change table data cells that should be table headings to table &lt;br /&gt;headers or change the TD tags directly into TH tags within the tags panel.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;a name=0&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;page-break-before:always; page-break-after:always&quot;&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Creating Accessible PDF Files Using Authoring Applications64 |&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;div&gt;&lt;p&gt;Making PDF Accessible with Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro&lt;/p&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;&lt;br /&gt;</Content> 
    6767</Section> 
    6868</Archive> 
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