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1<html>
2 <head>
3 <title></title>
4 <meta content="">
5 <style></style>
6 </head>
7 <body>
8 <h3>GNU Free Documentation License</h3>
9<p>
10 Version 1.2, November 2002
11</p>
12
13<pre>
14 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
15 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
16 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
17 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
18</pre>
19
20<p>
21 <strong>0. PREAMBLE</strong>
22</p>
23
24<p>
25 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
26 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
27 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
28 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
29 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
30 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
31 for modifications made by others.
32</p>
33
34<p>
35
36 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
37 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
38 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
39 license designed for free software.
40</p>
41
42<p>
43 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
44 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
45 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
46 software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
47 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
48 whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
49 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53 <strong>1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS</strong>
54</p>
55
56<p>
57
58 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
59 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
60 distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
61 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
62 work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
63 refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
64 licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
65 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
66 under copyright law.
67</p>
68
69<p>
70 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
71 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
72 modifications and/or translated into another language.
73</p>
74
75<p>
76 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
77 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
78 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
79 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
80 within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
81 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
82 mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
83 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
84 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
85 them.
86</p>
87
88<p>
89 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
90 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
91 that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
92 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
93 allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
94 Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
95 Sections then there are none.
96
97</p>
98
99<p>
100 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
101 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
102 the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
103 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
104</p>
105
106<p>
107 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
108 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
109 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
110 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
111 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
112 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
113 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
114 to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
115 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
116 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
117 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
118 of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
119</p>
120
121<p>
122 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
123 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
124 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
125 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
126 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
127 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
128 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
129 processing tools are not generally available, and the
130 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
131 processors for output purposes only.
132</p>
133
134<p>
135 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
136 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
137 this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
138 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
139 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
140 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
141</p>
142
143<p>
144 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
145 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
146 text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
147 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
148 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
149 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
150 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
151</p>
152
153<p>
154 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
155 states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
156 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
157 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
158 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
159 no effect on the meaning of this License.
160</p>
161
162<p>
163
164 <strong>2. VERBATIM COPYING</strong>
165</p>
166
167<p>
168 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
169 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
170 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
171 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
172 conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
173 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
174 copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
175 compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
176 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
177</p>
178
179<p>
180 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
181 you may publicly display copies.
182</p>
183
184<p>
185
186 <strong>3. COPYING IN QUANTITY</strong>
187</p>
188
189<p>
190 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
191 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
192 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
193 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
194 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
195 the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
196 you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
197 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
198 visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
199 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
200 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
201 as verbatim copying in other respects.
202</p>
203
204<p>
205 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
206 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
207 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
208 pages.
209</p>
210
211<p>
212 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
213 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
214 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
215 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
216 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
217 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
218 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
219 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
220 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
221 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
222 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
223 edition to the public.
224</p>
225
226<p>
227 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
228 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
229 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
230</p>
231
232<p>
233 <strong>4. MODIFICATIONS</strong>
234</p>
235
236<p>
237
238 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
239 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
240 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
241 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
242 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
243 of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
244</p>
245
246<ul>
247 <li><strong>A.</strong> Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
248 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
249 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
250 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
251 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.</li>
252 <li><strong>B.</strong> List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
253 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
254 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
255 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
256 unless they release you from this requirement.</li>
257
258 <li><strong>C.</strong> State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
259 Modified Version, as the publisher.</li>
260 <li><strong>D.</strong> Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.</li>
261 <li><strong>E.</strong> Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
262 adjacent to the other copyright notices.</li>
263
264 <li><strong>F.</strong> Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
265 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
266 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.</li>
267 <li><strong>G.</strong> Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
268 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.</li>
269 <li><strong>H.</strong> Include an unaltered copy of this License.</li>
270 <li><strong>I.</strong> Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
271 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
272 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
273 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
274 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
275 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
276 Version as stated in the previous sentence.</li>
277
278 <li><strong>J.</strong> Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
279 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
280 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
281 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
282 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
283 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
284 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.</li>
285 <li><strong>K.</strong> For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
286 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
287 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
288 and/or dedications given therein.</li>
289 <li><strong>L.</strong> Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
290 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
291 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.</li>
292 <li><strong>M.</strong> Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
293 may not be included in the Modified Version.</li>
294
295 <li><strong>N.</strong> Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
296 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.</li>
297 <li><strong>O.</strong> Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.</li>
298</ul>
299
300<p>
301 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
302 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
303 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
304 of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
305 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
306 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
307
308</p>
309
310<p>
311 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
312 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
313 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
314 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
315 standard.
316</p>
317
318<p>
319 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
320 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
321 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
322 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
323 through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
324 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
325 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
326 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
327 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
328</p>
329
330<p>
331 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
332 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
333 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
334</p>
335
336<p>
337 <strong>5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS</strong>
338</p>
339
340<p>
341 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
342 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
343 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
344 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
345 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
346 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
347</p>
348
349<p>
350 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
351 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
352 copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
353 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
354 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
355 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
356 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
357 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
358</p>
359
360<p>
361 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
362 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
363 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
364 and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
365 Entitled "Endorsements."
366</p>
367
368<p>
369 <strong>6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS</strong>
370</p>
371
372<p>
373 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
374 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
375 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
376 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
377 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
378</p>
379
380<p>
381 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
382 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
383 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
384 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
385</p>
386
387<p>
388 <strong>7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS</strong>
389</p>
390
391<p>
392 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
393 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
394 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
395 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
396 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
397 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
398 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
399 derivative works of the Document.
400</p>
401
402<p>
403
404 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
405 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
406 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
407 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
408 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
409 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
410 aggregate.
411</p>
412
413<p>
414 <strong>8. TRANSLATION</strong>
415</p>
416
417<p>
418 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
419 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
420 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
421 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
422 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
423 original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
424 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
425 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
426 the original English version of this License and the original versions
427 of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
428 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
429 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
430</p>
431
432<p>
433
434 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
435 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
436 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
437 title.
438</p>
439
440<p>
441 <strong>9. TERMINATION</strong>
442</p>
443
444<p>
445 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
446 as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
447 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
448 automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
449 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
450 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
451 parties remain in full compliance.
452</p>
453
454<p>
455
456 <strong>10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE</strong>
457</p>
458
459<p>
460 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
461 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
462 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
463 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
464 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
465</p>
466
467<p>
468 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
469 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
470 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
471 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
472 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
473 Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
474 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
475 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
476</p>
477
478<h3>How to use this License for your documents</h3>
479
480<p>
481 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
482 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
483 license notices just after the title page:
484</p>
485
486<pre>
487 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
488 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
489 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
490 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
491 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
492 Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
493 Free Documentation License".
494</pre>
495
496<p>
497 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
498 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
499</p>
500
501<pre>
502
503 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
504 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
505</pre>
506
507<p>
508 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
509 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
510 situation.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
515 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
516 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
517 to permit their use in free software.
518</p>
519 </body>
520</html>
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