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14    <Metadata name="Title">Anne Boleyn: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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37&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; height=&quot;667&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
38  &lt;tbody&gt;
39    &lt;tr&gt;
40      &lt;td height=&quot;29&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
41      &lt;/td&gt;
42      &lt;td height=&quot;29&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
43      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;'[A] woman who is the scandal of
44      Christendom.'&lt;br&gt;
45      &lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon describes her
46rival, 1531&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
47      &lt;/td&gt;
48    &lt;/tr&gt;
49    &lt;tr&gt;
50      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
51      &lt;/td&gt;
52      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot;&gt;
53      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
54&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
55      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
56&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleyncardinalbig.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Anne Boleyn&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;90&quot; width=&quot;352&quot;&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
57      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;b&gt;
58      &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynmainjpg.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;the most famous portrait of Anne Boleyn; at the NPG, London&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;357&quot; width=&quot;275&quot;&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
59      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt; &lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;portrait of Anne Boleyn by an unknown
60      artist, late 16th century&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
61      &lt;p&gt; &lt;b&gt; &lt;br&gt;Anne Boleyn is one of the most famous queens
62in English history, though she ruled for just three years.&amp;nbsp; The
63daughter of an ambitious knight and niece of the duke of Norfolk, Anne
64spent her adolescence in France.&amp;nbsp; When she returned to England,
65her wit and style were her greatest charms.&amp;nbsp; She had a circle of
66admirers and became secretly engaged to Henry Percy.&amp;nbsp; She also
67entered the service of Katharine of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; But she soon caught
68the eye of Henry VIII.&amp;nbsp; He ordered Percy from court and tried to
69make Anne his mistress.&amp;nbsp; She refused.&amp;nbsp; Her sister, Mary, had
70been the king's mistress and gained little from it but scandal.&amp;nbsp;
71Her hopes with Percy dashed, Anne demanded that the king marry
72her.&amp;nbsp; She waited nearly seven years for Henry to obtain an
73annulment.&amp;nbsp; It finally took an irrevocable breach with the Holy
74See before they wed in 1533.&amp;nbsp; But she was unable to give Henry the
75son he desperately needed and their marriage ended tragically for
76Anne.&amp;nbsp; She was executed on patently false charges of witchcraft,
77incest and adultery on 19 May 1536.&amp;nbsp; Her daughter, Elizabeth,
78would become England's greatest queen.&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
79      &lt;blockquote&gt;
80        &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpsamepagelink_#Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
81        &lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;Read the biography of Anne Boleyn&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
82        &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
83Primary Sources&lt;/b&gt; &lt;br&gt;
84Read &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletters.html&quot;&gt;letters
85written by Anne&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
86        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fab-percy.html&quot;&gt;The
87romance between Anne &amp;amp; Henry Percy,&lt;/a&gt; c1523&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
88Eyewitness accounts of &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprianne1.html&quot;&gt;her coronation in
891533&lt;/a&gt; &amp;amp; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprianne2.html&quot;&gt;her
90execution in 1536&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
91        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fab-lastdays.html&quot;&gt;An
92account of Anne's last days&lt;/a&gt; &lt;br&gt;
93        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprianne3.html&quot;&gt;Anne's
94last words&lt;/a&gt;, 19 May 1536&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
95        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fexanne.html&quot;&gt;Another
96account of her execution&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
97          &lt;p&gt;
98          &lt;b&gt;Secondary Sources&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;Read JA Froude's 1891 work &lt;i&gt;
99          &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fsecondary.html&quot;&gt;The Divorce
100          of Catherine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/i&gt;.&amp;nbsp; &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Understandably, it also
101          discusses Anne Boleyn as well as Henry VIII's rumored affair with her
102          sister Mary.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
103      &lt;/blockquote&gt;
104      &lt;blockquote&gt;
105        &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fannedesc.html&quot;&gt;Contemporary
106descriptions of Anne&lt;/a&gt; &lt;br&gt;
107        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2flovelett.html&quot;&gt;Henry
108VIII's love letters to Anne&lt;/a&gt; &lt;br&gt;
109        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fboleyn-poems.html&quot;&gt;Poetry
110about Anne Boleyn&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
111        &lt;p&gt;Visit &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fimages.html&quot;&gt;Tudor
112England: Images&lt;/a&gt; to view portraits of Anne.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
113Visit the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz.html&quot;&gt;Queen
114Elizabeth I site&lt;/a&gt; to learn more about Anne's daughter.&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
115Read about Anne's sister, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fboleyn.html&quot;&gt;Mary Boleyn&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2ffiveanne.html&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;The
116Boleyn-Howard connection&lt;/a&gt; &lt;br&gt;
117        &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Anne's relationship to Henry VIII's fifth wife&lt;/font&gt;
118        &lt;/p&gt;
119        &lt;p&gt;Test your knowledge of Anne Boleyn's life at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2ftudor1.html&quot;&gt;Tudor Quizzes&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
120        &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;Links&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;
121        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.geocities.com%2fboleynfamily&quot;&gt;The Boleyns&lt;/a&gt;: A
122        website dedicated to the entire Boleyn family, with particular emphasis
123        upon Anne.&lt;br&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fjack-of-all-trades.ca%2fmeandmine&quot;&gt;Me and Mine&lt;/a&gt;:
124        Biography and images of Anne Boleyn.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
125        &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
126        Interact&lt;br&gt;
127        &lt;/b&gt; Meet other Anne Boleyn enthusiasts at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.fine-eyes.net%2fanneboleyn%2findextwo.html&quot;&gt;Mistress
128Anne: The Official Anne Boleyn Fanlisting&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
129Meet other Six Wives enthusiasts at &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fladiesallfanlist.cjb.net&quot;&gt;Ladies All: A Fanlisting for
130the Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fgroups.yahoo.com%2fsearch%3fquery%3dAnne%2bBoleyn&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
131Anne Boleyn at Yahoo! Groups&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; There are numerous groups
132dedicated to Anne.&amp;nbsp; I think you need a Yahoo! ID to join.&lt;br&gt;
133        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2ftudorhistory.org%2flists%2flist.html&quot;&gt; Tudor Talk &lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp;This
134email discussion list is sponsored by Tudorhistory.org.&amp;nbsp; It does
135not focus exclusively on Anne.&lt;br&gt;
136        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fgroups.yahoo.com%2fgroup%2fReign%5fof%5fthe%5fTudors%5frpg&quot;&gt;Reign
137of the Tudors&lt;/a&gt;&amp;nbsp; This is a role-playing game set in 16th century
138England.&amp;nbsp; If you would like to 'play' Jane Grey or Anne Boleyn or
139other Tudors, click the link to join.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
140        &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;
141        &lt;b&gt;NEWS&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; September 2004&lt;br&gt;The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn:
142        The Most Happy&lt;/b&gt; by Eric Ives has just been published
143        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.amazon.co.uk%2fexec%2fobidos%2fASIN%2f0631234799%2fqid%3d1096393233%2fref%3dsr%5f8%5fxs%5fap%5fi1%5fxgl%2f026-3687195-0558069&quot;&gt;
144        in the UK&lt;/a&gt; and
145        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.amazon.com%2fexec%2fobidos%2ftg%2fdetail%2f-%2f0631234799%2fqid%3d1096393461%2fsr%3d8-1%2fref%3dsr%5f8%5fxs%5fap%5fi1%5fxgl14%2f002-7093489-7046463%3fv%3dglance%26amp;s%3dbooks%26amp;n%3d507846&quot;&gt;
146        US&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; I will be posting a lengthy review soon.&amp;nbsp;
147        &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;Professor Ives had previously written the definitive
148        biography of Anne in 1986; this work incorporates new research.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
149        &lt;p&gt;
150        &lt;b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
151        Anne
152Boleyn: A New Life of England's Tragic Queen&lt;/b&gt; by Joanna Denny
153        was published
154        &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.amazon.co.uk%2fexec%2fobidos%2fASIN%2f074995017X%2fqid%3d1076882496%2fsr%3d2-2%2fref%3dsr%5f2%5f11%5f2%2f026-9295844-3953254&quot;&gt;in the UK&lt;/a&gt;
155        in April 2004.&lt;/p&gt;
156        &lt;hr&gt;
157        &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;The above portrait of Anne Boleyn is a late
15816th copy of a lost original.&amp;nbsp; It can be viewed at the National Portrait
159Gallery, London.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
160        &lt;hr&gt; &lt;/blockquote&gt;
161      &lt;/td&gt;
162      &lt;td height=&quot;610&quot; width=&quot;25%&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
163      &lt;/td&gt;
164    &lt;/tr&gt;
165  &lt;/tbody&gt;
166&lt;/table&gt;
167&lt;blockquote&gt;
168  &lt;blockquote&gt;
169    &lt;blockquote&gt;
170      &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
171      &lt;br&gt;
172      &lt;/font&gt;&lt;a name=&quot;Biography&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
173      &lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'She is of middling stature, with a swarthy
174complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised, and in fact
175has nothing but the King's great appetite, and her eyes, which are
176black and beautiful - and take great effect on those who served the
177Queen when she was on the throne.&amp;nbsp; She lives like a queen, and the
178King accompanies her to Mass - and everywhere.'&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;the Venetian ambassador describes Anne, 1532&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
179    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
180    &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
181  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
182  &lt;p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Biography&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br&gt;
183Anne Boleyn's birthdate is unknown; even the year is widely
184debated.&amp;nbsp; General opinion now favors 1501 or 1502, though some
185historians persuasively argue for 1507.&amp;nbsp; She was probably born at
186Blickling Hall in Norfolk.&amp;nbsp; Her father was Sir Thomas Boleyn, a
187minor courtier with a talent for foreign languages; he was of London
188merchant stock and eager to advance in the world.&amp;nbsp; Like most men,
189he chose to marry well.&amp;nbsp; His bride was Elizabeth Howard, daughter
190of the second duke of Norfolk and sister of the third duke.&lt;/p&gt;
191  &lt;p&gt;Anne had two surviving siblings, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fboleyn.html&quot;&gt;Mary&lt;/a&gt;
192and George.&amp;nbsp; Their birthdates are also unknown, as is the order of their
193  births.&amp;nbsp; We only know that all three Boleyn siblings were close in age.&lt;/p&gt;
194  &lt;p&gt;In 1514, Henry VIII married his youngest sister, Mary, to the aged king of France.&amp;nbsp; Anne
195accompanied the Tudor princess as a very&lt;img alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Anne Boleyn&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynsmall.jpg&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;232&quot; width=&quot;175&quot;&gt; young lady-in-waiting; she remained in France after the French king died and
196  &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fbrandon.html&quot;&gt;Mary Tudor&lt;/a&gt;
197returned home.&amp;nbsp; Anne gained the subsequent honor of being educated
198under the watchful eye of the new French queen Claude.&amp;nbsp; This
199education had a uniquely French emphasis upon fashion and flirtation,
200though more intellectual skills were not neglected.&amp;nbsp; Anne became
201an accomplished musician, singer and dancer.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
202  &lt;p&gt;In 1521 or early 1522, with war between England and France
203imminent, Anne returned home.&amp;nbsp; When she first caught Henry VIII's
204eye is unknown.&amp;nbsp; He was originally attracted to her sister, Mary
205who came to court before Anne.&amp;nbsp; She was the king's mistress in the
206early 1520s and, as a mark of favor, her father was elevated to the
207peerage as viscount Rochfort/Rochford in 1525.&amp;nbsp; Mary herself would leave
208  court with only a dull marriage, and possibly the king's illegitimate son, as
209  her reward.&amp;nbsp; Anne learned much from her sister's example.&lt;/p&gt;
210  &lt;p&gt;Her first years at court were spent in service to Henry VIII's
211first wife, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhtml%5ffiles%2faragon.html&quot;&gt;Katharine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; She became quite popular among
212the younger men.&amp;nbsp; She was not considered a great beauty; her
213sister occupied that position in the family, but even Mary was merely
214deemed 'pretty'.&amp;nbsp; Hostile chroniclers &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fannedesc.html&quot;&gt;described Anne&lt;/a&gt;
215as plain, sallow, and possessing two distinct flaws - a large mole on
216the side of her neck and an extra finger on her left hand.&amp;nbsp; Such
217praise as she received focused on her style, her wit and charm; she was
218quick-tempered and spirited.&amp;nbsp; Her most remarkable physical
219attributes were her large dark eyes and long black hair.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
220  &lt;p&gt;The king's attraction was focused upon her sharp and teasing
221manner, and her oft-stated unavailability.&amp;nbsp; What he couldn't have,
222he pined for all the more.&amp;nbsp; This was especially difficult for a
223king used to having his own way in everything.&amp;nbsp; Anne was also
224seriously involved with &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fab-percy.html&quot;&gt;Henry Percy&lt;/a&gt;,
225the son and heir of the earl of Northumberland; there were rumors of an
226engagement and declarations of true love.&amp;nbsp; The king ordered his
227great minister, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fwolsey.html&quot;&gt;Cardinal
228Thomas Wolsey&lt;/a&gt;, to end the match.&amp;nbsp; Wolsey did so, thus ensuring
229Percy's unhappy marriage to the earl of Shrewsbury's daughter and
230Anne's great enmity.&amp;nbsp; It was safer to blame the Cardinal than his
231king.&amp;nbsp; Also, Henry's jealousy revealed the depth of his feelings,
232and Anne quite naturally thought - if she could not be an earl's wife,
233why not try for the crown of England? &lt;/p&gt;
234  &lt;p&gt;When Anne avoided Henry's company, was sullen and evasive to him,
235he sent her from court; he hoped that a few months in the country would
236persuade her of his charms.&amp;nbsp; It did not work.&amp;nbsp; Anne was
237already playing a far more serious game than the king.&amp;nbsp; Later,
238after she had been arrested, Henry would claim he had been 'bewitched'
239and the term wasn't used lightly in the 16th century.&amp;nbsp; But perhaps
240it was simply the contrast between her vivacity and Katharine's
241solemnity; or perhaps the king mistook the inexplicable ardor of true
242love for something more ominous, long after that love had faded.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
243  &lt;p&gt;It is impossible to fully explain the mystery of attraction
244between two people.&amp;nbsp; How Anne was able to capture and maintain the
245king's attention for such a long while, despite great obstacles and the
246constant presence of malicious gossip, cannot be explained.&amp;nbsp; Henry
247was headstrong and querulous.&amp;nbsp; But for several years, he remained
248faithful to his feelings for Anne - and his attendant desire for a
249legitimate male heir.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
250  &lt;p&gt; &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragon-min.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;168&quot; width=&quot;166&quot;&gt;One cannot separate the king's desire for a
251son, indeed its very necessity, from his personal desire for
252Anne.&amp;nbsp; The two interests merged perfectly in 1527.&amp;nbsp; Henry had
253discovered the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhtml%5ffiles%2faragon.html&quot;&gt;invalidity
254of his marriage&lt;/a&gt; to Katharine.&amp;nbsp; Now it was possible to annul
255his marriage and secure his two fondest hopes - Anne's hand in marriage
256and the long-desired heir.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
257  &lt;p&gt; Cardinal Wolsey had long advocated an Anglo-French
258alliance.&amp;nbsp; For that reason, he disliked the Spanish
259  &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fhtml%5ffiles%2faragon.html&quot;&gt;Katharine
260of Aragon&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; He now set about securing his monarch's annulment
261with the intention of marrying Henry to a French princess.&amp;nbsp; And if
262not a French princess, perhaps a great lady of the English court.&amp;nbsp;
263Wolsey did not like Anne, and she despised him.&amp;nbsp; It was Wolsey who
264had delivered the king's orders to Henry Percy, driving her suitor from
265court.&amp;nbsp; She never forgot that injury to her heart.&amp;nbsp; And while
266she could not revenge herself upon the king, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletter8.html&quot;&gt;she could work
267against&lt;/a&gt; his Lord Chancellor.&amp;nbsp; His protégé and successor &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fcromwell.html&quot;&gt;Thomas
268Cromwell&lt;/a&gt; became a close ally. &lt;/p&gt;
269  &lt;p&gt;But Anne alone did not cause Wolsey's fall from grace, though she
270took the blame for it.&amp;nbsp; Indeed, 'Nan Bullen', as the common people
271derisively called her, became the scapegoat for all the king's
272unpopular decisions.&amp;nbsp; But it is important to remember that no one
273- not Wolsey, not Cromwell, and certainly not Anne Boleyn - ever
274controlled Henry VIII, or made him do other than exactly what he
275wanted.&amp;nbsp; He was a king who thoroughly knew and enjoyed his
276position.&amp;nbsp; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fmore.html&quot;&gt;Sir Thomas
277More&lt;/a&gt; would aptly point this out to his son-in-law, William Roper -
278'If a lion knew his strength, it were hard for any man to hold
279him.'&amp;nbsp; And later, when Roper commented upon the king's affection
280for More, the philosopher replied that if his head would win the king a
281castle in France, then Henry would not hesitate to chop it off.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
282  &lt;p&gt;But most people found it easier to hate Anne than to hate their
283monarch.&amp;nbsp; As the king's desire for an annulment became the gossip
284of all Europe, she was roundly criticized and condemned.&amp;nbsp; And she
285was not popular at the English court either.&amp;nbsp; Both her unique
286situation and her oft times abrasive personality offended many.&amp;nbsp;
287And Katharine's solemn piety had impressed the English court for three
288decades; her supporters were numerous, though not inclined to face the
289king's formidable wrath.&amp;nbsp; In truth, Anne was sustained only by the
290king's affection and she knew his mercurial temper.&amp;nbsp; It is
291possible that she was as surprised by his faithfulness as everyone
292else.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
293  &lt;p&gt;As the struggle for an annulment proceeded and the pope
294prevaricated between Henry and Katharine's nephew, the Holy Roman
295Emperor Charles V, Anne's position at the English court became steadily
296more prominent.&amp;nbsp; There were at first little signs.&amp;nbsp; The king
297would eat alone with her; she received expensive gifts; she began to
298dress in the most fashionable and expensive gowns; the king paid her
299gambling debts since Anne, like most courtiers, enjoyed cards and dice.
300  &lt;/p&gt;
301  &lt;p&gt;The king was not too outlandish at first; he had no desire to
302prejudice the pope against his case by flaunting a new love.&amp;nbsp; But
303as the delays mounted, and rumors of his new love spread, Henry
304realized there was no purpose in hiding the truth.&amp;nbsp; By 1530, Anne
305was openly honored by the king at court.&amp;nbsp; She was accorded
306precedence over all other ladies, and she sat with the king at
307banquets and hunts while Katharine was virtually ignored.&amp;nbsp; The
308pretense of his first marriage was allowed to continue; Katharine
309continued to personally mend his shirts and send him gifts and
310notes.&amp;nbsp; But it was an untenable situation.&amp;nbsp; It grated on both
311women.&amp;nbsp; Anne perhaps taxed the king with it.&amp;nbsp; To placate her,
312she was titled marquess of Pembroke on 4 September 1532 at Windsor
313Castle; she wore a beautiful crimson gown and her hair hung
314loose.&amp;nbsp; Now elevated to the peerage in her own right, she had
315wealth and lands of her own.&amp;nbsp; But when she accompanied him to
316France on a state visit a short while later, the ladies of the French
317court refused to meet with her.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
318  &lt;p&gt;It is believed that her elevation to the peerage marked the
319physical consummation of Anne and Henry's relationship.&amp;nbsp; She would
320give birth to &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz.html&quot;&gt;Elizabeth&lt;/a&gt;
321just a year later, and there were rumors of a secret marriage in late
3221532.&amp;nbsp; It is possible that she became pregnant after just a few
323months and a second, legitimate wedding became a necessity.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
324  &lt;p&gt;
325  &lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleyn3sepiatinged.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;sepia-tinged sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;344&quot; width=&quot;216&quot;&gt;The king had his fondest wish within his
326grasp.&amp;nbsp; Anne was pregnant with his long-awaited son, or so he
327thought, and this son must be legitimate.&amp;nbsp; He could no longer wait
328upon the pope.&amp;nbsp; Henry rejected the authority of the Holy See and
329Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, annulled his marriage to
330Katharine.&amp;nbsp; Henry and Anne married again in January 1533 in a
331small ceremony.&amp;nbsp; But though they were now husband and wife, few
332recognized the fact.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
333  &lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprianne1.html&quot;&gt;Her
334coronation&lt;/a&gt; was a lavish affair; the king spared no expense.&amp;nbsp;
335But the people of London were noticeably unimpressed.&amp;nbsp; They cried
336out 'HA! HA!' mockingly as tapestries decorated with Henry and Anne's
337entwined initials passed by.&amp;nbsp; Henry asked, 'How liked you the look
338of the City?'&amp;nbsp; Anne replied, 'Sir, I liked the City well enough -
339but I saw a great many caps on heads, and heard but few tongues.'&amp;nbsp;
340  &lt;/p&gt;
341  &lt;p&gt;And so her coronation was yet another reminder of her complete
342dependency upon the king.&lt;/p&gt;
343  &lt;p&gt;Anne enjoyed her triumph as much as she could.&amp;nbsp; She ordered
344new blue and purple livery for her servants and set about replacing
345Katharine's badge of pomegranates with her own falcon symbol.&amp;nbsp; She
346chose as her motto, 'The Most Happy', in stark contrast to her
347predecessor.&amp;nbsp; Katharine had been 'Humble and Loyal'; Henry's
348mother, Elizabeth of York had chosen 'Humble and Reverent'.&amp;nbsp; But
349humility was not a marked characteristic of Anne Boleyn.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
350  &lt;p&gt;She was pious, though not as rigid and inflexible as Katharine of
351Aragon.&amp;nbsp; Anne's sympathies naturally lay with the progressive
352thought now challenging Catholic orthodoxy; with Henry's rejection of the papacy and his
353creation of a new Church of England, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2ffaq.html#Eleven-b&quot;&gt;the
354Reformation&lt;/a&gt; had come to England.&amp;nbsp; It was not as revolutionary
355as Luther's movement in Germany.&amp;nbsp; Henry actually remained a devout
356Catholic, only denying what he now regarded as the illegitimate
357authority of the papacy.&amp;nbsp; Anne knew that her marriage and future
358children would never be recognized as legitimate by Catholic
359Europe.&amp;nbsp; She had to support the new church, otherwise she was no more than
360  the king's mistress.&lt;/p&gt;
361  &lt;p&gt;And this new emphasis upon debating even the most esoteric bits of
362theology appealed to her nature.&amp;nbsp; She was always curious and open
363to new ideas; she never blindly accepted&lt;img alt=&quot;The above portrait is of Anne Boleyn, painted by Lucas Horenbout; dated 1525-27.  Sir Roy Strong identified the portrait.  Anne wears a necklace with her falcon badge.&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynstrong.jpg&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; height=&quot;175&quot; width=&quot;175&quot;&gt; anything.&amp;nbsp; But this is not to deny her
364deep faith.&amp;nbsp; As queen, she was close friends with Thomas Cranmer
365and she also sponsored various religious books.&amp;nbsp; She had none of
366the hard-fought pragmatism of her daughter,
367  &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz.html&quot;&gt;Elizabeth&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; Religious faith was a
368vital part of Anne's life, as it was for every person in the 16th
369century.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
370  &lt;p&gt;She entered confinement for the birth of her first child on 26
371August 1533.&amp;nbsp; The child was born on 7 September 1533.&amp;nbsp; The
372physicians and astrologers had been mistaken; it was not a
373prince.&amp;nbsp; But the healthy baby girl called Elizabeth was not the
374disappointment most assumed, nor did she immediately cause her mother's
375downfall.&amp;nbsp; The birth had been very easy and quick.&amp;nbsp; 'There
376was good speed in the deliverance and bringing forth,' Anne wrote to
377Lord Cobham that very day.&amp;nbsp; The queen recovered quickly.&amp;nbsp;
378Henry had every reason to believe that strong princes would
379follow.&amp;nbsp; It was only when Anne miscarried two sons that he began
380to question the validity of his second marriage.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
381  &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth's christening was a grand affair, though the king did
382not attend.&amp;nbsp; This fact was much remarked-upon, but Henry
383confounded all by his continuing affection for Anne.&amp;nbsp; He also
384promptly declared Elizabeth his heir, thus according her precedence
385over her 17 year old half-sister,
386  &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fmary1.html&quot;&gt;Princess Mary&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; Anne could
387breathe a sigh of relief, recover, and become pregnant again.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
388  &lt;p&gt;Immediately after Elizabeth's christening, Henry wrote to Mary and
389demanded that she relinquish her title of Princess of Wales.&amp;nbsp; The
390title belonged to his heiress.&amp;nbsp; He also demanded that she
391acknowledge the validity of his new marriage and legitimacy of her
392half-sister.&amp;nbsp; But Mary could be as obstinate as her mother; she refused.&amp;nbsp; Enraged, Henry evicted Mary from her
393home, the manor Beaulieu, so he could give it to Anne's brother, George.&amp;nbsp; In December,
394  she was moved into Elizabeth's household
395under the care of Lady Anne Shelton, a sister of Anne's father.&amp;nbsp;
396It was an understandably miserable time for Mary.&amp;nbsp; When told to pay her
397respects to the baby Princess, she said that she knew of no Princess of
398England but herself and burst into tears.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
399  &lt;p&gt;Henry was infuriated and Anne encouraged the estrangement.&amp;nbsp;
400Her daughter's status depended upon Mary remaining out of favor.&amp;nbsp;
401In the two and a half years she lived after Elizabeth's birth, Anne
402proved herself a devoted mother.&amp;nbsp; Soon after the birth, Elizabeth
403had to be moved from London, for purposes of health; London was rife
404with a variety of illnesses - sweating sickness, smallpox, and
405plague.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth and Mary were sent to Hatfield.&amp;nbsp; Both
406Henry and Anne visited their daughter often, occasionally taking her
407back with them to Greenwich or the palace at Eltham.&amp;nbsp; During these
408visits, Mary was kept alone in her room.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
409  &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;portrait of Henry VIII&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/henry8boleyn.jpg&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;186&quot; width=&quot;150&quot;&gt;There are account books and
410letters which reveal certain facts about Elizabeth's early
411childhood:&amp;nbsp; bills for an orange satin gown and russet velvet
412kirtle, for the king's heir had to be fashionably dressed; a letter in
413late 1535, after her second birthday, from the wet nurse asking
414permission to wean her; a plan of study in classical languages, for
415Anne was determined her daughter would be as educated as Mary.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
416  &lt;p&gt;The conflict with Mary dominated a great deal of Henry and Anne's
417thoughts.&amp;nbsp; In January 1534, the king's new chief minister, Thomas
418Cromwell, went to visit Mary at Hatfield.&amp;nbsp; He urged her to
419renounce her title and warned her that her behavior would lead to her
420ruin.&amp;nbsp; Mary replied that she simply wanted her father's blessing
421and the honor of kissing his hand.&amp;nbsp; When Cromwell chastised her,
422she left the room.&amp;nbsp; Mary, and indeed most of England, believed
423Anne to be the cause of Henry's disgust with his eldest child.&amp;nbsp; In
424truth, Henry had far more to do with it than Anne; this was proven
425after Anne's execution.&amp;nbsp; Mary believed that she would regain her
426favor with the wicked stepmother out of the way but she was proven
427terribly wrong.&amp;nbsp; Eventually, under threat of her life, she &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;wrote the letter&lt;/a&gt;
428her father had long desired.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
429  &lt;p&gt;He and Anne also tried a gentler course with Mary; their goal was
430to show that she had brought Henry's displeasure upon herself and that
431he and Anne were quite willing - under reasonable conditions - to
432receive her.&amp;nbsp; At their next visit to Hatfield, Anne arranged to
433see her stepdaughter.&amp;nbsp; She invited Mary to come to court and
434'visit me as Queen.'&amp;nbsp; Mary responded with a cruel insult - 'I know
435no Queen in England but my mother.&amp;nbsp; But if you, Madam, as my
436father's mistress, will intercede for me with him, I should be
437grateful.'&amp;nbsp; Anne did not lose her temper; she pointed out the
438absurdity of the request and repeated her offer.&amp;nbsp; Mary then
439refused to answer and Anne left in a rage.&amp;nbsp; From then on, she made
440no attempts to gain Mary's friendship.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
441  &lt;p&gt;The problem with Mary highlights the untenable positions Anne and
442Elizabeth occupied in English politics.&amp;nbsp; Many of Henry's subjects
443did not know who to call Princess, who was the rightful heir, and who
444was the true wife.&amp;nbsp; Katharine of Aragon lived on, still calling
445herself Queen, and Mary, encouraged by the spiteful Imperial ambassador
446Eustace Chapuys, still called herself Princess.&amp;nbsp; Furthermore,
447Chapuys, who openly despised Anne, told Mary that Anne was planning to
448have her murdered.&amp;nbsp; It was a terrible lie but one that Mary, in
449her hysterical state, was inclined to believe.&amp;nbsp; When word came
450that she and Elizabeth's household was moving from Hatfield to The
451More, she refused to go.&amp;nbsp; She believed she would be moved and
452quietly murdered.&amp;nbsp; Guards had to actually seize her and throw her
453into her litter.&amp;nbsp; Her distress naturally made her ill.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
454  &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth, meanwhile, was too young to notice any of this.&amp;nbsp;
455But such events helped cement the lifelong hatred Mary would have for
456her half-sister.&amp;nbsp; Her Spanish friends continued to spread rumors
457about Anne and Elizabeth, saying the infant princess was physically
458deformed and monstrous in appearance.&amp;nbsp; To dispel this, in April
4591534, Henry showed the naked infant to several continental
460ambassadors.&amp;nbsp; In that same month, Anne announced she was once
461again pregnant.&amp;nbsp; Nothing could have pleased Henry more.&amp;nbsp; She
462may have had a miscarriage in February for there were rumors she was
463pregnant in January but nothing came of it; given the heightened
464circumstances, it is unlikely she could have hidden her
465condition.&amp;nbsp; Even a suspicion of pregnancy was sure to become
466gossip.&amp;nbsp; But the main source of this miscarriage is Chapuys,
467hardly an impartial observer.&amp;nbsp; At any rate, she was definitely
468pregnant again in April 1534.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
469  &lt;p&gt;The elated king took his wife to the medieval palace at Eltham;
470there, they sent for the princess Elizabeth.&amp;nbsp; Henry was often seen
471carrying her about and playing with her.&amp;nbsp; The king&lt;img src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynsketch2.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;206&quot; width=&quot;165&quot;&gt; and queen soon returned to Greenwich and
472then Henry left on a progress, leaving Anne at the palace.&amp;nbsp; This
473was probably out of concern for her health and lends some credence to
474the belief she miscarried in February.&amp;nbsp; If she had, Henry would
475show special concern for her health, and this he did.&amp;nbsp; He was
476supposed to meet Francis I of France in June at Calais to sign a treaty
477but decided not to, writing that Katharine and Mary, 'bearing no small
478grudge against his most entirely beloved Queen Anne, might perchance in
479his absence take occasion to practice matters of no small peril to his
480royal person, realm, and subjects.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
481  &lt;p&gt;His extra attention to Anne did not help her health.&amp;nbsp; In
482September 1534, she miscarried a six-month-old fetus; it was old enough
483for features to be discerned - it was a boy.&amp;nbsp; Henry was bitterly
484disappointed.&amp;nbsp; Anne was likewise.&amp;nbsp; She was also angry for
485Henry had begun a casual affair that summer.&amp;nbsp; She reproached him
486and Henry replied, 'You have good reason to be content with what I have
487done for you - and I would not do it again, if the thing were to
488begin.&amp;nbsp; Consider from what you have come.'&amp;nbsp; The scene was
489furious and overheard by her attendants.&amp;nbsp; But it was a passing
490storm.&amp;nbsp; Henry was already tired of his new mistress and, within
491days, Chapuys was sadly writing to Charles V of Henry's continued
492affection.&amp;nbsp; But there were signs that things were not progressing
493smoothly.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
494  &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;For example, Henry had hoped to cement his relationship with
495Francis I by betrothing Elizabeth to Francis's son, the Duc
496d'Angouleme.&amp;nbsp; After Anne suffered two miscarriages, as the French
497ambassador reported to Francis, the French king grew wary of such a
498betrothal.&amp;nbsp; To him, it must have seemed that Anne's position was
499weakening; after all, Henry had dismissed one wife because she had no
500sons - would he do the same to Anne?&amp;nbsp; And, if he did, then what
501good was a marriage to Elizabeth?&amp;nbsp; Of course, it was in France's
502interests to promote Anne for Katharine of Aragon and her daughter were
503Charles V's pawns.&amp;nbsp; But his doubts highlight the
504instability of Anne's position.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
505  &lt;p&gt;This undoubtedly affected her mental and physical health.&amp;nbsp;
506Henry was never the mercenary adulterer of legend.&amp;nbsp; In fact, he
507was remarkably conventional in his sexual appetites, unlike his French
508rival.&amp;nbsp; Any affairs would have been widely reported and yet,
509during his long marriage to Katharine of Aragon, there were just a
510handful of mistresses.&amp;nbsp; He enjoyed being around attractive
511women.&amp;nbsp; He was flirtatious and would joke with them, compliment
512them, but only rarely did he enter into a physical relationship.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
513  &lt;p&gt;But for Anne, any occasional fling was devastating, especially if
514it followed upon her miscarriage.&amp;nbsp; Such behavior was said to
515indicate his displeasure with her; this she could not afford.&amp;nbsp;
516They were occasionally estranged and the effect was to increase her
517already-noticeable anxiety.&amp;nbsp; In late 1534 Anne, accompanied by the
518duke of Suffolk, her uncle Norfolk, and other courtiers, visited
519Richmond Palace, where both Elizabeth and Mary resided.&amp;nbsp; Anne
520entered her daughter's rooms only to realize that the two dukes had
521left her.&amp;nbsp; They were paying court to Mary and remained with her
522until Anne had left.&amp;nbsp; Still, this slight could be forgotten when
523the Treason Act was passed in November.&amp;nbsp; It was now a capital
524crime to deny the legitimacy of her marriage or children.&amp;nbsp; By
525December, she and Henry had made up yet again.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
526  &lt;p&gt;A scandal occurred shortly thereafter which added further damage to Anne's
527  reputation.&amp;nbsp; Her sister, Mary, who had been Henry's mistress years
528  before, married Sir William Stafford without her family or the king's
529  permission.&amp;nbsp; Because Stafford was poor, Mary's father was angry and cut
530  off her allowance.&amp;nbsp; She appealed to the king and Anne but they would not
531  help.&amp;nbsp; (Mary did not attend court during Anne's reign, since her presence
532  would have been an embarrassment for the king and queen.)&lt;/p&gt;
533  &lt;p&gt; &lt;img alt=&quot;portrait of Anne Boleyn&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/anne2.jpg&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; border=&quot;0&quot; height=&quot;194&quot; width=&quot;139&quot;&gt;Always fascinated with rumors surrounding his
534English 'brother', Francis I decided to hedge his bets in the mercurial
535Tudor court.&amp;nbsp; In other words, he would remain friendly with Anne
536and also with Mary Tudor.&amp;nbsp; And so he instructed his new
537ambassador, Admiral Chabot, to ignore Anne when he arrived at
538court.&amp;nbsp; Chabot was received by Henry and two days passed without
539any mention of the queen.&amp;nbsp; Henry asked if Chabot wanted to visit
540her.&amp;nbsp; The ambassador replied, 'As it pleases Your Highness' and
541then asked permission to visit Mary.&amp;nbsp; Henry refused, but Chabot
542made certain everyone knew of his request.&amp;nbsp; He also told courtiers
543that Francis wanted to marry the Dauphin to Mary; when Henry reminded
544him of the union with Elizabeth, the ambassador said nothing.&amp;nbsp;
545Still, Francis did enrage Charles V by acknowledging Elizabeth's
546legitimacy.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
547  &lt;p&gt;It was a tedious and frightening dance for Anne.&amp;nbsp; During the
548two and a half years after Elizabeth's birth, she was rarely secure,
549certain of her position and the king's affections.&amp;nbsp; Her little
550daughter received every favor she could bestow; Anne insisted Henry
551favor Elizabeth because it strengthened her position.&amp;nbsp; But she was
552surrounded by fair-weather friends who, at the slightest sign of
553Henry's disfavor, ignored her.&amp;nbsp; She only trusted her brother,
554George, whose wife, Jane Rochford, was a viper in their nest.&amp;nbsp;
555Meanwhile, Henry was again flirting openly with another woman.&amp;nbsp;
556This time it was Anne's cousin and lady-in-waiting, Madge
557Shelton.&amp;nbsp; Anne still had influence over her husband, but knew only
558one way to make his favor permanent.&amp;nbsp; She must bear a son.&amp;nbsp;
559Henry would never dismiss the mother of his long-awaited heir.&amp;nbsp;
560Her enemies would at last be silenced.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
561  &lt;p&gt;Meanwhile, Henry's health had begun to worsen.&amp;nbsp; The first
562signs of the illness which would kill him appeared (occluded sinus on
563his leg).&amp;nbsp; Headaches became frequent and severe.&amp;nbsp; The king
564was a hypochondriac.&amp;nbsp; Now unable to indulge his love of sports, he
565instead indulged his fear of pain and illness.&amp;nbsp; And he was
566frequently impotent.&amp;nbsp; He was in his mid-forties and increasingly
567obese; this, combined with his other ailments, made his continued
568virility questionable.&amp;nbsp; Certainly his 'mistresses' did not
569conceive.&amp;nbsp; But the continued lack of an heir and Anne's
570miscarriages must have reminded him of Katharine.&amp;nbsp; How could it
571not?&amp;nbsp; Like most of his contemporaries, the king blamed his wife
572when she did not conceive or carry to term.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
573  &lt;p&gt;And, like Francis I, Thomas Cromwell - that influential and
574brilliant man - was keeping his options open as well.&amp;nbsp; He visited
575Mary and was rumored to promise support for her reinstatement.&amp;nbsp;
576Anne was terrified at this loss of her one-time supporter who was also
577the king's most trusted advisor.&amp;nbsp; But Anne had one last chance,
578and in June 1535, became pregnant again.&amp;nbsp; She lost that child as
579well, in January 1536; she was reported to have said, 'I have
580miscarried of my savior.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
581  &lt;p&gt;When her destruction came, it was rapid and unbelievable.&amp;nbsp;
582Henry had always been one to plot against people while he pretended
583affection.&amp;nbsp; Anne suffered the same fate as Katharine.&amp;nbsp; She
584knew he was dissatisfied with her but he maintained their lifestyle
585together.&amp;nbsp; And all the while, he was seeking the best way to
586destroy her.&amp;nbsp; Katharine of Aragon died in January as well, just a
587few days before Anne's miscarriage.&amp;nbsp; These events, taken together,
588pushed Henry into action.&amp;nbsp; While Katharine had lived, most of
589Europe, and many Englishmen, had regarded her as his rightful wife, not
590Anne.&amp;nbsp; Now he was rid of Katharine; if he were to rid himself of
591Anne, he could marry again - and this third marriage would never be
592tainted by the specter of bigamy.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
593  &lt;p&gt;Henry's &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprianne2.html&quot;&gt;decision
594to thoroughly destroy Anne&lt;/a&gt; baffled even her enemies.&amp;nbsp; There
595was a possible way out which would spare Anne's life.&amp;nbsp; Henry had
596admitted an affair with her sister,&lt;img alt=&quot;an 18th century portrait of Anne Boleyn&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/anne3.jpg&quot; align=&quot;right&quot; border=&quot;2&quot; height=&quot;194&quot; width=&quot;144&quot;&gt; Mary.&amp;nbsp; He could have argued that was as
597damning as Katharine's marriage to his brother.&amp;nbsp; But he chose a
598more direct route.&amp;nbsp; He had her arrested, charged with adultery,
599witchcraft, and incest; the charges were ludicrous even to her
600enemies.&amp;nbsp; Her brother George was arrested as well.&amp;nbsp; His
601despised wife, Jane Rochford, testified about an incestuous love
602affair.&amp;nbsp; Whether anyone believed her was irrelevant.&amp;nbsp; Henry
603VIII wanted Anne convicted and killed.&amp;nbsp; George would also lose his
604life, as did three of their friends.&amp;nbsp; Only one had confessed to
605the charge, and that was under torture; it was still enough to convict
606them all.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
607  &lt;p&gt;As queen of England, Anne was tried by her peers; the main charge
608was adultery, and this was an act of treason for a queen.&amp;nbsp; No
609member of the nobility would help her; her craven uncle Norfolk
610pronounced the death sentence.&amp;nbsp; Poor Henry Percy, her first love,
611swooned during the trial and had to be carried from the room.&amp;nbsp; As
612a concession to her former position, she was not beheaded by a clumsy
613axe.&amp;nbsp; A skilled swordsman was brought over from France.&amp;nbsp; She
614was assured that there would be little pain; she replied, with typical
615spirit, 'I have heard that the executioner is very good.&amp;nbsp; And I
616have a little neck.'&lt;/p&gt;
617  &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
618  &lt;blockquote&gt;
619    &lt;blockquote&gt;
620      &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'You have chosen me from low estate to be your
621queen and companion, far beyond my desert or desire; if, then, you
622found me worthy of such honor, good your grace, let not any light fancy
623or bad counsel of my enemies withdraw your princely favor from me;
624neither let that stain - that unworthy stain - of a disloyal heart
625towards your good grace ever cast so foul a blot on me, and on the
626infant princess your daughter.' &lt;/font&gt;&lt;b&gt;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/b&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;from Anne Boleyn's &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletter10.html&quot;&gt;last letter&lt;/a&gt;
627to King Henry VIII, 1536&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fletter10.html&quot;&gt;its authenticity
628is debated&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
629    &lt;/blockquote&gt;
630  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
631  &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
632  &lt;p&gt;She had prayed for exile, to end her days in a nunnery, but now
633faced a more tragic fate.&amp;nbsp; She met it with bravery and wit.&amp;nbsp;
634She was brought to the scaffold at 8 o'clock in the morning on 19 May
6351536.&amp;nbsp; It was a heretofore unknown spectacle, the first public
636execution of an English queen.&amp;nbsp; Anne, who had defended herself so
637ably at her trial, chose her last words carefully:&amp;nbsp; 'Good
638Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law,
639and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing
640against it.&amp;nbsp; I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak
641anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray
642God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler
643nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a
644good, a gentle and sovereign lord.&amp;nbsp; And if any person will meddle
645of my cause, I require them to judge the best.&amp;nbsp; And thus I take my
646leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to
647pray for me.&amp;nbsp; O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my
648soul.'&amp;nbsp; She was then blindfolded and knelt at the block.&amp;nbsp; She
649repeated several times, 'To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesu
650receive my soul.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
651  &lt;p&gt;It was a sardonic message to the king.&amp;nbsp; Even now he waited
652impatiently to hear the Tower cannon mark Anne's death.&amp;nbsp; He wished
653to marry Anne's lady-in-waiting, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fseymour.html&quot;&gt;Jane
654Seymour&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; They wed ten days after the execution.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
655  &lt;p&gt;Elizabeth was just three and a half when her mother died.&amp;nbsp;
656She was a precocious child, though; when her governess visited her just
657days after the execution, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz.html&quot;&gt;Elizabeth&lt;/a&gt;
658asked, 'Why, Governor, how hap it yesterday Lady Princess, and today
659but Lady Elizabeth?'&amp;nbsp; &lt;/p&gt;
660  &lt;p&gt;Anne was buried in an old arrow box since no coffin was
661provided.&amp;nbsp; But the box was too short; her head was tucked beside
662her.&amp;nbsp; The remains were taken to St Peter ad Vincula, the church of
663the Tower of London.&amp;nbsp; It was later rumored that her few remaining
664friends smuggled her body to a more suitable grave and she is buried
665under a plain slab in a Norfolk church.&amp;nbsp; The church is said to be
666haunted.&lt;/p&gt;
667  &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
668  &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;4&quot;&gt;'And if any person will meddle of my
669cause, I require them to judge the best.'&amp;nbsp; &lt;br&gt;
670  &lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;from Anne Boleyn's speech at her execution&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;
671  &lt;/p&gt;
672  &lt;blockquote&gt;
673    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;
674    &lt;center&gt;
675    &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fwives.html&quot;&gt;to the Six
676Wives main page&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt; &lt;br&gt;
677    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor.html&quot;&gt;to
678Tudor England&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
679    &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;to Primary Sources&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
680    &lt;/center&gt;
681  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
682&lt;/blockquote&gt;
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