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14    <Metadata name="Page_topic">King Henry VIII (1491-1547): Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources The Six Wives of Henry VIII The Reformation</Metadata>
15    <Metadata name="Content">King Henry VIII (1491-1547): Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources The Six Wives of Henry VIII</Metadata>
16    <Metadata name="Author">Marilee Mongello</Metadata>
17    <Metadata name="Title">King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources</Metadata>
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36
37&lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;3&quot; width=&quot;100%&quot; height=&quot;667&quot;&gt;
38  &lt;tr&gt;
39    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
40    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
41    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;29&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
42  &lt;/tr&gt;
43  &lt;tr&gt;
44    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
45    &lt;td width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
46    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
47    &lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/henry8.gif&quot; ALT=&quot;King Henry VIII&quot; height=52 width=315&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
48    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;3&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
49  &lt;/tr&gt;
50  &lt;tr&gt;
51    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
52    &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;50%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;
53    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
54    &lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/henry8main.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;portrait of King Henry VIII by an unknown artist&quot; BORDER=2 height=348 width=250&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
55    &lt;p&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#One&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;&lt;/a&gt;
56    View portraits of King Henry VIII at
57    &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fimages.html&quot;&gt;Tudor England: Images&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
58    &lt;p&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#One&quot;&gt;A
59
60brief discussion of his personality and historical importance&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
61    &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Two&quot;&gt;Henry Tudor, duke of York: 1491-1502&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Three&quot;&gt;Heir
62
63apparent: 1502-1509&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Four&quot;&gt;1509-1526:
64
65Katharine of Aragon, Cardinal Wolsey &amp;amp; Princess Mary&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Five&quot;&gt;1526-1536:
66
67Anne Boleyn and the Henrician Reformation&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Six&quot;&gt;1536-1546:
68
69Four wives, Thomas Cromwell &amp;amp; foreign policy&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Seven&quot;&gt;Death
70
71and disorder: Henry's last months and a discussion of his illness&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
72    &lt;p&gt;
73
74&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Eight&quot;&gt;The
75
76English nobility during Henry's reign&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
77
78&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Nine&quot;&gt;Henry:
79    lapsed Catholic or Protestant reformer?&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
80    &lt;blockquote&gt;
81      &lt;p&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;Primary
82
83Sources&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
84
85&lt;p&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Ten&quot;&gt;Notable
86
87Dates and Events&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Eleven&quot;&gt;Bibliography
88
89and Further Reading&lt;/a&gt;&lt;p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Henry's wives:&lt;/b&gt;&amp;nbsp;
90      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fwives.html&quot;&gt;The Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
91&lt;br&gt;      &lt;b&gt;Henry's children:&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fedward6.html&quot;&gt;
92      King Edward VI&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
93      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fmary1.html&quot;&gt;Queen Mary I&lt;/a&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz1.html&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
94      Queen Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
95    &lt;/td&gt;
96    &lt;td width=&quot;25%&quot; height=&quot;610&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
97  &lt;/tr&gt;
98&lt;/table&gt;
99
100&lt;blockquote&gt;
101  &lt;blockquote&gt;
102
103&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;'My, you ought to seen old Henry the Eight when he was in bloom.&amp;nbsp;
104
105He &lt;i&gt;was&lt;/i&gt; a blossom.&amp;nbsp; He used to marry a new wife every day, and
106
107chop off her head next morning.&amp;nbsp; And he would do it just as indifferent
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109as if he was ordering up eggs.&amp;nbsp; 'Fetch up Nell Gwynn,' he says.&amp;nbsp;
110
111They fetch her up.&amp;nbsp; Next morning, 'Chop off her head!'&amp;nbsp; And they
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113chop it off.&amp;nbsp; 'Fetch up Jane Shore,' he says; and up she comes.&amp;nbsp;
114
115Next morning, 'Chop off her head' - and they chop it off.&amp;nbsp; 'Ring up
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117Fair Rosamun.'&amp;nbsp; Fair Rosamun answers the bell.&amp;nbsp; Next morning,
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119'Chop off her head.'&amp;nbsp; And he made every one of them tell him a tale
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121every night; and he kept that up till he had hogged a thousand and one
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123tales that way, and then he put them all in a book, and called it Domesday
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125Book - which was a good name and stated the case.&amp;nbsp; You don't know
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127kings, Jim, but I know them; and this old rip of ourn is one of the cleanest
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129I've struck in history.&amp;nbsp; Well, Henry he takes a notion he wants to
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131get up some trouble with this country.&amp;nbsp; How does he go at it - give
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133notice? - give the country a show?&amp;nbsp; No.&amp;nbsp; All of a sudden he heaves
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135all the tea in Boston Harbor overboard, and whacks out a declaration of
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137independence, and dares them to come on.&amp;nbsp; That was &lt;i&gt;his&lt;/i&gt; style
138
139- he never give anybody a chance.&amp;nbsp; He  had suspicions of his father,
140
141the Duke of Wellington.&amp;nbsp; Well, what did he do? - ask him to show up?&amp;nbsp;
142
143No - drownded him in a butt of mamsey, like a cat.&amp;nbsp; Spose people left
144
145money laying around where he was - what did he do?&amp;nbsp; He collared it.&amp;nbsp;
146
147Spose he contracted to do a thing; and you paid him, and didn't set down
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149there and see that he done it - what did he do?&amp;nbsp; He always done the
150
151other thing.&amp;nbsp; Spose he opened his mouth - what then?&amp;nbsp; If he didn't
152
153shut it up powerful quick, he'd lose a lie, every time.&amp;nbsp; That's the
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155kind of a bug Henry was....&lt;/b&gt;
156
157&lt;br&gt;&lt;b&gt;All I say is, kings is kings, and you got to make allowances.&amp;nbsp;
158
159Take them all around, they're a mighty ornery lot.&amp;nbsp; It's the way they're
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161raised.'&lt;/b&gt;
162
163&lt;center&gt;
164&lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;from Mark Twain's &lt;i&gt;Adventures of Huckleberry Finn&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
165&lt;hr&gt;&lt;/center&gt;
166
167  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
168  &lt;p align=&quot;left&quot;&gt;&lt;a NAME=&quot;One&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;font size=4&gt;I have no fear but when you
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170heard that our Prince, now Henry the Eighth, whom we may call our Octavius,
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172had succeeded to his father's throne, all your melancholy left you at once.&amp;nbsp;
173
174What may you not promise yourself from a Prince with whose extraordinary
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176and almost Divine character you are acquainted?&amp;nbsp; When you know what
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178a hero he now shows himself, how wisely he behaves, what a lover he is
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180of justice and goodness, what affection he bears to the learned I will
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182venture to swear that you will need no wings to make you fly to behold
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184this new and auspicious star.&amp;nbsp; If you could see how all the world
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186here is rejoicing in the possession of so great a Prince, how his life
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188is all their desire, you could not contain your tears for joy.&amp;nbsp; The
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190heavens laugh, the earth exults, all things are full of milk, of honey,
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192of nectar!&amp;nbsp; Avarice is expelled the country.&amp;nbsp; Liberality scatters
193
194wealth with bounteous hand.&amp;nbsp; Our King does not desire gold or gems
195
196or precious metals, but virtue, glory, immortality.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;
197  &lt;font size=2&gt;&lt;i&gt;Lord Mountjoy to Erasmus&lt;/i&gt;, 1509&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
198  &lt;blockquote&gt;
199
200&lt;center&gt;&lt;hr&gt;&lt;/center&gt;
201
202    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;A brief discussion of his personality and historical
203
204importance&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
205    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; How can one adequately describe Henry's personality?&amp;nbsp;
206
207Imagine yourself as Henry VIII, the second son suddenly yanked into the
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209spotlight by your older brother's death. Sheltered and smothered by a father
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211suddenly aware that he has just one heir left; handsome and intelligent
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213and, by turns, both recklessly indulged and then denied.&amp;nbsp; Any of us
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215would have emerged as a mass of contradictions and frustrations.&amp;nbsp;
216
217So Henry VIII, crowned king at the prime of his life, just eighteen years
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219old and physically magnificent with more enthusiasm and energy than most
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221of his contemporaries, became a conflicted and confused man.&amp;nbsp; But
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223it is a shame to let the last twenty years of his life color the interpretation
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225of his entire life.&amp;nbsp; One should not see him as simply an ogre king
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227who beheaded two wives, divorced two others, and rejected another in one
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229of the most humiliating ways possible.
230
231&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; His personality was quite amazing; his intelligence,
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233learning, and curiosity impressed even the world-weary ambassadors who
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235littered his court.&amp;nbsp; His thirst for knowledge was insatiable, though
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237it never became the near-mania that haunted Philip II.&amp;nbsp; Henry VIII
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239didn't spend his declining years surrounded by slips of paper detailing
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241the most minute occurrences in his realm.&amp;nbsp; But he did spend his entire
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243reign reading dispatches, scribbling notations, meeting with diplomats
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245and politicians.&amp;nbsp; Very little occurred in England that escaped his
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247attention; indeed, very little occurred in Europe that escaped Henry VIII.&amp;nbsp;
248
249He prided himself on this and well he should; the Spanish ambassador reported
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251that Henry knew of the fall of Cadiz before the Holy Roman Emperor.
252
253&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; He was usually genial company.&amp;nbsp; He loved music
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255and wrote his own.&amp;nbsp; He enjoyed dancing and entertainment.&amp;nbsp; He
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257held countless banquets and tournaments.&amp;nbsp; He enjoyed all physical
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259activities and excelled at most of them.&amp;nbsp; Hunting, archery, tennis,
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261jousting - the king made his court into an endless round of competition
262
263and celebration.&amp;nbsp; When he grew older, these former pleasures became
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265torments; like most former athletes, Henry became fat as he aged and the
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267once-loved pastimes became bitter reminders of the ravages of time.&amp;nbsp;
268
269And he ruled over a country where almost half the population was 18 years
270
271old or younger!&amp;nbsp; Youth was everywhere, staring the old king in his
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273face.&amp;nbsp; We can imagine the effects.&amp;nbsp; Quite naturally, he sought
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275reassurances - from women, his courtiers, his council.&amp;nbsp; Affairs could
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277distract him, but love affairs were never his grand passion.&amp;nbsp; Despite
278
279his licentious reputation, Henry VIII was really a 16th century sexual
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281prude; among his European contemporaries, he philandered the least.&amp;nbsp;
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283State affairs indulged his taste for war and glory; family affairs gnawed
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285at his conscience and pride.&amp;nbsp; But Henry VIII did not want distractions.&amp;nbsp;
286
287He wanted a grand mission, a defining statement.&amp;nbsp; In the end, he got
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289his wish, though in the most improbable way possible.
290
291&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; He began life as a second son, destined for the
292
293church.&amp;nbsp; It was the dream of Henry VII for his eldest son, Arthur,
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295to be king and for his second son, Henry, to be the highest churchman in
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297England.&amp;nbsp; And so, for the first ten years of his life, Henry was a
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299student of theology.&amp;nbsp; And for the next thirty years of his life, he
300
301remained a dutiful son of the church.&amp;nbsp; It is ironic, then, that his
302
303most significant historical achievement was the destruction of the Roman
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305Catholic faith in England.&amp;nbsp; The impact of the Henrician reformation
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307forever altered the course of English history.&amp;nbsp; Henry VIII, who had
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309indulged in endless diplomatic squabbles and foreign wars, left no grand
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311achievement beyond his own borders.&amp;nbsp; Vast amounts of money were spent
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313on these foreign entanglements - and many lives lost - but, in the end,
314
315nothing changed in the European balance of power.&amp;nbsp; England, constantly
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317pulled between the two great continental powers of France and the Holy
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319Roman Empire, nearly bankrupted itself in an attempt to become respected
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321and feared.
322
323&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Why did Henry ultimately fail in those tasks normally
324
325reserved for monarchs?&amp;nbsp; Ultimately, he was a victim of his times.&amp;nbsp;
326
327The 16th century was a confusing mess of changing loyalties, betrayals,
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329near-constant fighting, and most importantly, a rising skepticism of that
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331great institution of the fading medieval world, the Roman Catholic church.&amp;nbsp;
332
333With the advent of the printing press a century before, literacy and intellectual
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335debate grew rapidly.&amp;nbsp; The High Renaissance in Italy occurred during
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337the first 20 years of Henry VIII's reign.&amp;nbsp; It was a time of unparalleled
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339scientific experiment, intellectual fervor, and spirited debate.&amp;nbsp;
340
341In such a time, traditional views of kingship were bound to change for
342
343both the ruler and those he ruled.
344
345&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; (As evidence of this confusion, one need only remember
346
347that Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor crowned by the Pope, led the brutal
348
349sack of Rome in 1527.&amp;nbsp; Charles, supposedly the anointed defender of
350
351the papacy, actually ordered his imperial army to loot, pillage, and kill
352
353their way through Rome and the Vatican.&amp;nbsp; The pope ended up fleeing
354
355to relative safety in his nightshirt.)
356
357&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; While reading any biography of Henry VIII, one must
358
359remember the flavor of his times and judge him, if at all, by sixteenth-century
360
361standards.&amp;nbsp; It's always amusing to read descriptions of Henry as the
362
363lustful tyrant torn between bedding and beheading innocent women; in truth,
364
365he blushed at dirty jokes and was more faithful than many 20th century
366
367husbands.&amp;nbsp; He was married to Katharine of Aragon for over twenty years
368
369and had just a handful of mistresses.&amp;nbsp; He waited years to physically
370
371consummate his relationship with Anne Boleyn, and despite being in the
372
373prime of his life, remained faithful to her until marriage.&amp;nbsp; Was this
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375sexual prudery a result of his early church training?&amp;nbsp; Perhaps.&amp;nbsp;
376
377Whatever the case, it was a hallmark of his life.&amp;nbsp; Henry VIII was
378
379always an incurable romantic.
380
381&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; His personal and political decisions were always
382
383grandiose, melodramatic, and played for great effect.&amp;nbsp; He loved pomp
384
385and pageantry, even as he loathed to deal with the consequences of his
386
387actions.&amp;nbsp; Like his father, he was caught in the transition from medieval
388
389England to renaissance England.&amp;nbsp; And like his father, he was well-versed
390
391in English history and desperate to continue the Tudor dynasty, to secure
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393his claims to Ireland, Scotland, and France, to raise England to the status
394
395of its continental neighbors, and to expand his God-given right to rule
396
397all Englishmen.&amp;nbsp; When reading about Henry's political and dynastic
398
399ambitions, one is always struck by the wide scope of his desires.&amp;nbsp;
400
401Though most came to naught in the end, he actually planned invasions of
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403France, plotted to join Charles V's invasion of Italy, and intended to
404
405seize the Scottish throne.&amp;nbsp; The word 'ambitious' hardly does Great
406
407Harry justice.
408
409&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; His political ambitions failed and he bequeathed
410
411a woeful mess to his nine-year-old heir, Edward VI.&amp;nbsp; His greatest
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413achievement was a dubious one, and one for which he was often eager to
414
415distance himself - the Henrician reformation, the end of Roman Catholicism
416
417in England and the birth of the Anglican church.&amp;nbsp; The king, for all
418
419his contradictions and failures, helped destroy the greatest institution
420
421in medieval Europe.&amp;nbsp; Once Germany and England fell to the new heresy,
422
423its spread across Europe was inevitable and invincible.
424
425&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In the biography of Henry at this site, I hope to
426
427capture both the king's personality and assess his importance to history.&amp;nbsp;
428
429Henry VIII's reign was as tumultuous as the king himself.&amp;nbsp; If nothing
430
431else, it makes for entertaining reading.&lt;/p&gt;
432    &lt;p&gt;
433
434&lt;font size=-2&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Top&quot;&gt;TOP&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;
435
436&lt;br&gt;
437
438    &lt;/p&gt;
439
440&lt;hr WIDTH=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
441
442    &lt;p&gt;
443
444&lt;br&gt;&lt;a NAME=&quot;Two&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;b&gt;Henry Tudor, duke of York: 1491-1502&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
445    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; The second Henry Tudor was born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich
446
447Palace in London.&amp;nbsp; He was the third child of the first Tudor monarch,
448
449Henry VII, and his wife, Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of the Yorkist
450
451king, Edward IV.&amp;nbsp; At the time of her second son's birth, Queen Elizabeth
452
453was just 25 years old; her husband was 34, and had been king for almost
454
455six years.&amp;nbsp; Those six years had been difficult ones.&amp;nbsp; Henry's
456
457marriage to Elizabeth had helped amass Yorkist support for his rule, but
458
459the English people were hardly enthusiastic about Henry, even as they had
460
461been noticeably ambivalent about his predecessor, Elizabeth's uncle, Richard
462
463III.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth was popular with the common people; her young life
464
465had all the romance and tragedy necessary for sympathetic gossip and she
466
467was a classical fair beauty, possessing all the female virtues necessary
468
469for a queen.&amp;nbsp; She was quiet, demure, and charming; she was also content
470
471to allow her formidable mother-in-law, Margaret Beaufort, assume a position
472
473of unprecedented influence over the king.
474
475&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
476
477Elizabeth's emotional attachment to her husband has been much-debated.&amp;nbsp;
478
479In truth, she had known all her&lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/h8two.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;sketch of Henry VIII as a toddler&quot; BORDER=1 height=214 width=150 align=right&gt; life that she would never marry a man of
480
481her own choice.&amp;nbsp; In the end, her mother, Elizabeth Woodville, conspired
482
483with Margaret Beaufort for Elizabeth to marry Henry Tudor, exiled son of
484
485Henry VI's half-brother.&amp;nbsp; Henry was, by all accounts, grateful for
486
487the match.&amp;nbsp; He appreciated its political implications.&amp;nbsp; He also
488
489respected his new queen and was faithful to his marriage vows, an unusual
490
491trait in a king.&amp;nbsp; Upon her marriage, Elizabeth entered a semi-retirement
492
493- she was queen and her duty was to produce as many heirs as possible.&amp;nbsp;
494
495Nine months after her marriage, she gave birth to her first child at St Swithin's Priory in Winchester, a prince named Arthur.&amp;nbsp; Henry and
496
497Elizabeth had wed on 18 January 1486 at Westminster Abbey in London; Prince
498
499Arthur was born 20 September 1486.&amp;nbsp; Three years later, Elizabeth gave
500
501birth to their second child, a princess called Margaret after Henry VII's
502
503mother.&amp;nbsp; She was born on 28 November 1489 at Westminster Palace in
504
505London.&amp;nbsp; For the new king, the birth of a healthy second child, and
506
507his wife's rapid recovery, were good omens.&amp;nbsp; Even as he attempted
508
509to enforce his rule in the always troublesome northern England which had
510
511been Richard III's base of support, Henry VII could rest assured that his
512
513dynasty was becoming secure.&amp;nbsp; But it was only on 28 June 1491, when
514
515another healthy prince was born, this time at Greenwich Palace, that Henry
516
517VII could breathe a sigh of relief.&amp;nbsp; This second son was a necessary
518
519insurance policy for the new Tudor dynasty.&amp;nbsp; Childhood mortality was
520
521high and diseases such as small pox, the sweating sickness, and the plague
522
523were rife throughout England.&amp;nbsp; A king needed as many healthy heirs
524
525as possible, and the birth of a second son was an occasion for celebration.
526
527&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; On 27 February 1490, Prince Arthur was titled prince
528
529of Wales at Westminster Palace in London; this was the real beginning of
530
531a tradition that continues to this day.&amp;nbsp; And in 1494, Arthur's baby
532
533brother was titled duke of York, the traditional title of the king's brother.&amp;nbsp;
534
535At this early age, all we know of Prince Henry was that he was considered
536
537a handsome and precocious toddler, but one would expect such descriptions
538
539of the king's son.&amp;nbsp; He did not share his brother's fair coloring or
540
541slight build.&amp;nbsp; Prince Henry was a sturdy, strawberry-blond boy noted
542
543for his energy and temper.&amp;nbsp; Just a year after his birth, his mother
544
545bore another daughter; this child was called Elizabeth and she died three
546
547years later.&amp;nbsp; It was the first in a series of tragedies for the young
548
549queen.&amp;nbsp; She and Henry VII were considered good and affectionate parents,
550
551but they never lost sight of the political importance of their children.&amp;nbsp;
552
553Together they decided that Prince Henry, like most second sons, was destined
554
555for the church, and his early schooling was planned accordingly.&amp;nbsp;
556
557This strong emphasis upon theology and its esoteric debates remained with
558
559Henry for the rest of his life and made him feel uniquely qualified to
560
561interpret religious law during the 1520s.&lt;/p&gt;
562    &lt;p&gt;
563
564&lt;font size=-2&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Top&quot;&gt;TOP&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;
565
566&lt;br&gt;
567
568    &lt;/p&gt;
569
570&lt;hr WIDTH=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
571
572    &lt;p&gt;
573
574&lt;br&gt;&lt;a NAME=&quot;Three&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;b&gt;Heir apparent: 1502-1509&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
575    &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Henry's position as the second son lasted only until 2 April
576
5771502, just a few months before his eleventh birthday.&amp;nbsp; It was on that
578
579day that his brother Arthur died at Ludlow Castle, the government seat
580
581of the prince of Wales.&amp;nbsp; The insecurity of the Tudor succession was
582
583suddenly unavoidable.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth of York, despite repeated pregnancies,
584
585had not borne another healthy son; after Henry's birth, there was just
586
587one more male child - a son called Edmund, born in 1499 and dead just a
588
589year later.&amp;nbsp; The queen did become pregnant shortly after Arthur's
590
591death but this eighth pregnancy proved to be her last.&amp;nbsp; The child,
592
593called Katherine, was born and died on 2 February 1503.&amp;nbsp; Elizabeth
594
595contracted an infection and died a few days later, on 11 February, her
596
597thirty-seventh birthday.&amp;nbsp; So in the short space of a year, Henry lost
598
599both his older brother and mother.&amp;nbsp; But the effects of these losses
600
601was felt even more keenly by Henry VII.&amp;nbsp; His reign had proved to be
602
603neither peaceful or happy.&amp;nbsp; He was beset by worries - constant diplomatic
604
605maneuvering, subjects who mocked him as a cold-hearted, tax-hungry miser,
606
607and now he had lost his son and wife.
608
609&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Arthur's death was more than a personal tragedy;
610
611it was a political tragedy as well.&amp;nbsp; The young prince had been married
612
613to &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2faragon.html&quot;&gt;Princess
614
615Katharine of Aragon&lt;/a&gt; on 14 November 1501 at St.Paul's Cathedral, London.&amp;nbsp;
616
617The daughter of the 'Catholic Kings' of Spain, Ferdinand of Aragon and
618
619Isabella of Castile, Katharine's marriage to the Tudor heir had marked
620
621the high point of Henry VII's foreign diplomacy.&amp;nbsp; His grip on the
622
623English throne had long been considered both illegitimate and untenable
624
625by most European powers, except in cases where it suited their interests
626
627to pretend otherwise.&amp;nbsp; But a bond of marriage between the house of
628
629Tudor and the ruling dynasty of Spain gave Henry's rule a stamp of approval.&amp;nbsp;
630
631He was now allied with one of the most powerful ruling families in Europe.&amp;nbsp;
632
633Prince Henry met his sister-in-law and future wife on this momentous occasion,
634
635heading the procession that led her to the cathedral.&amp;nbsp; Later, he officially
636
637introduced her to the citizens of London.
638
639&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; With Arthur's death, his teenage wife was trapped
640
641in England while Henry VII squabbled with her father over the remaining
642
643payments on her dowry.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII was perhaps even then mulling over
644
645the idea of not letting the all-important Spanish alliance go to waste.&amp;nbsp;
646
647Soon enough he was openly proposing that Katharine marry young Prince Henry,
648
649now the heir apparent and five years her junior.&amp;nbsp; What did young Prince
650
651Henry know of these plans?&amp;nbsp; Probably very little.&amp;nbsp; After Arthur's
652
653death, Henry VII became somewhat paranoid and tried desperately to protect
654
655his only son from any injury or illness.&amp;nbsp; People who wished to visit
656
657the young prince had to receive permission from Henry VII, and this remained
658
659the case well into the boy's adolescence.&amp;nbsp; Such strict rules may have
660
661irked the heir but they did not interfere with his continuing education.&amp;nbsp;
662
663While his older brother was in Wales learning the intricacies of government,
664
665Henry received a primarily classical education, mastering Latin and French
666
667and becoming an excellent and exuberant athlete.&amp;nbsp; Contemporary sources
668
669make it clear that he was a happy child, fond of sports and spectacle,
670
671and equally proud of his intellectual accomplishments.&amp;nbsp; In short,
672
673he possessed all the personality and charm his father noticeably lacked.&amp;nbsp;
674
675Both his physical appearance and character were similar to those of his
676
677Plantagenet grandfather Edward IV.&amp;nbsp; This fact was much remarked upon
678
679by those Englishmen who had lived through the last years of the Wars of
680
681the Roses.
682
683&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Luckily for Prince Henry, his father spent the last
684
685years of his reign establishing good relationships with other monarchs
686
687and avoiding expensive war; also, his fondness for extorting money from
688
689an unwilling populace never wavered.&amp;nbsp; He left his son a king's greatest
690
691gift - a healthy treasury.&amp;nbsp; Ironically, one of Henry VIII's first
692
693acts as king was to execute his father's most productive, and hence most
694
695notorious, tax collectors.&amp;nbsp; But Henry VII never really decided whether
696
697he wanted to marry Prince Henry to Katharine of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; He kept the
698
699young princess in England for seven years while he toyed with the idea.&amp;nbsp;
700
701Her living conditions steadily deteriorated; she was miserably unhappy,
702
703many of her Spanish attendants were sent home, she lacked money for even
704
705basic necessities.&amp;nbsp; Food and adequate clothing were constant concerns.&amp;nbsp;
706
707She struggled to bear her hardships with the serene and regal dignity that
708
709was ingrained in her character as a princess of Spain, and such calm in
710
711the face of deprivation impressed young Prince Henry.&amp;nbsp; It is certainly
712
713true that even years later, in the midst of an acrimonious separation,
714
715he never lost his respect for Katharine.&amp;nbsp; This respect was always
716
717tinged with a bit of fear.&amp;nbsp; He was keenly aware of her great ancestry
718
719and extensive education, her self-deprecating wit and complete mastery
720
721of all feminine tasks.&amp;nbsp; Even as queen of England, she took particular
722
723pride in sewing and mending Henry's shirts.
724
725&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
726
727They had little contact during the later years of Henry VII's reign, only
728
729meeting occasionally at formal&lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/henry8-cr.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;portrait of Henry VIII, c1509&quot; BORDER=1 height=194 width=125 align=right&gt; events.&amp;nbsp; Henry was formally promised
730
731in marriage to Katharine on 23 June 1503; the treaty stated that he would
732
733marry Katharine on his fifteenth birthday, 28 June 1505, and that her parents
734
735send over 100,000 crowns worth of plate and jewels in addition to the dowry
736
737she had given when married to Prince Arthur.&amp;nbsp; Henry VII was a stickler
738
739on the dowry issue, refusing to allow the marriage to be solemnized, much
740
741less celebrated and consummated, until the money arrived.&amp;nbsp; But the
742
743Spaniards were as loathe to part with money as Henry.&amp;nbsp; So 1505 came
744
745and went with no marriage though Prince Henry referred in letters to Katharine
746
747as his 'most dear and well-beloved consort, the princess my wife'.&amp;nbsp;
748
749But his father was still king, and his father refused to allow the marriage.&amp;nbsp;
750
751To strengthen his bargaining power with the Spaniards, he had Prince Henry
752
753make a formal protest to Richard Fox, the bishop of Winchester, disowning
754
755the marriage contract.&amp;nbsp; Both parties prevaricated - until 1509, when
756
757Henry VII suddenly died at the age of 52, and his headstrong son, chafing
758
759at his father's authority, was free to make his own decisions.&amp;nbsp; To
760
761the surprise of all, including the Spaniards, he promptly announced he
762
763would marry Katharine and crown her queen of England.
764
765&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; After years of being shut away from the world, he
766
767was now king.&amp;nbsp; All of the boundless energy and enthusiasm of his character
768
769was unleashed.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps out of chivalry, or adolescent affection,
770
771or, as he later claimed, out of respect for his father's wishes, he wed
772
773his late brother's wife.&amp;nbsp; In light of future events, it is worth noting
774
775that the dowry had not been the only sticking-point in the marriage plans
776
777- there was the not insignificant fact that Katharine had been married
778
779to Henry's brother, and her marriage to Henry would be regarded as incestuous
780
781and unacceptable to the church.&amp;nbsp; As Henry VIII would later argue,
782
783&lt;i&gt;Leviticus&lt;/i&gt;
784
785clearly stated that a man was forbidden to marry his brother's widow.&amp;nbsp;
786
787For her part, Katharine claimed, and her duenna, Dona Elvira, agreed, that
788
789her marriage to Arthur had never been consummated.&amp;nbsp; The young prince
790
791of Wales had been suffering from consumption for months, even before the
792
793wedding, and their wedding night had passed uneventfully.&amp;nbsp; If this
794
795was true, and it seems to have been (until it was in Henry VIII's interests
796
797for it not to be), there was no barrier to her union with Henry.&amp;nbsp;
798
799Both the English and Spanish courts sought the requisite papal dispensation.&amp;nbsp;
800
801It was granted and the path to marriage was clear.&lt;/p&gt;
802    &lt;p&gt;
803
804&lt;font size=-2&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Top&quot;&gt;TOP&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;
805
806&lt;br&gt;
807
808    &lt;/p&gt;
809
810&lt;hr WIDTH=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
811
812  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
813  &lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=4&gt;His Majesty is the handsomest potentate I ever
814
815set eyes on; above the usual height, with an extremely fine calf to his
816
817leg, his complexion very fair and bright, auburn hair combed straight and
818
819short, in the French fashion, and a round face so very beautiful that it
820
821would become a pretty woman, his throat being rather long and thick....&amp;nbsp;
822
823He will enter his twenty-fifth year the month after next.&amp;nbsp; He speaks
824
825French, English and Latin, and a little Italian, plays well on the lute
826
827and harpsichord, sings from book at sight, draws the bow with greater strength
828
829than any man in England and jousts marvelously....&amp;nbsp; a most accomplished
830
831Prince.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;i&gt;&lt;font size=4&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;the Venetian diplomat Pasqualigo in a dispatch&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;, 1515&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
832  &lt;blockquote&gt;
833    &lt;hr&gt;
834    &lt;p&gt;&lt;a NAME=&quot;Four&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;b&gt;1509-1526: Katharine of Aragon, Cardinal Wolsey
835
836and Princess Mary&lt;/b&gt; &lt;/p&gt;
837
838&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Henry was crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey on 23 June 1509.&amp;nbsp;
839
840He had married Katharine on 11 June at Grey Friars Church in Greenwich
841
842and she shared his coronation.&amp;nbsp; It was a splendid event and continued
843
844throughout midsummer with much celebration and spectacle.&amp;nbsp; There is
845
846an account of the coronation at the &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;Primary
847
848Sources&lt;/a&gt; section.&amp;nbsp; It was soon clear that the young king, who turned
849
85018 just a few days after his coronation, had little interest in the day-to-day
851
852business of government.&amp;nbsp; While it is true that Henry was a vocal participant
853
854at council meetings, the early years of his reign were devoted more to
855
856enjoyment than the drudgery of administration.&amp;nbsp; He was content to
857
858allow trusted nobles and ecclesiastics to rule in his name - William Warham,
859
860archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey and later 2d duke
861
862of Norfolk, Bishop Richard Foxe, and, beginning around 1514, &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fwolsey.html&quot;&gt;Thomas
863
864Wolsey&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; As mentioned earlier, one of the first acts of Henry's
865
866reign was a particularly brutal one, especially designed to benefit his
867
868popularity.&amp;nbsp; He ordered the executions of his father's most productive
869
870and hated tax collectors, Edmund Dudley and Sir Richard Empson.&amp;nbsp; It
871
872was a bloody beginning for his reign and a taste of things to come.&amp;nbsp;
873
874Certainly it pleased the English people for most tax collectors were hated,
875
876and Dudley and Empson had been particularly ruthless.&amp;nbsp; But their efficiency
877
878had the complete support of King Henry VII, whose orders they followed.&amp;nbsp;
879
880A problem had emerged for the new king - how could he execute the tax collectors
881
882when their only crime was to obey their king?&amp;nbsp; He resorted, for the
883
884first but not the last time, to judicial murder, charging the men with
885
886'constructive treason'.&amp;nbsp; It was a wholly fictitious charge which no
887
888one fully understood, even those at the trial.&amp;nbsp; This cold-blooded
889
890act pleased the people and demonstrated Henry's desire for popular approval.&amp;nbsp;
891
892But it also revealed a ruthlessness to his character that grew more pronounced
893
894as the years passed.&amp;nbsp; Many historians argue that Henry grew tyrannical
895
896only after Katharine of Aragon failed to provide an heir but the evidence
897
898proves otherwise.&amp;nbsp; If someone could not be legally executed, the king
899
900simply invented a new charge.&amp;nbsp; For example, in 1513, before leaving
901
902for war in France, he executed Edmund de la Pole, his Plantagenet cousin
903
904held prisoner in the Tower since Henry VII's reign.&amp;nbsp; A benign spirit,
905
906locked away for most of his life, Edmund was no threat to anyone.&amp;nbsp;
907
908But Henry executed him to remind his subjects that, though he would be
909
910in France, any challenge to his authority would be met with grave displeasure.
911
912&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; His marriage to Katharine was very happy, at least
913
914during these early years.&amp;nbsp; She had a more reserved character than
915
916her husband and blushed at his ribald jests, but she entered into the spirit
917
918of frivolity which pervaded their court.&amp;nbsp; There was dancing and music,
919
920for Henry was a splendid dancer and musician; he composed songs and wrote
921
922poetry, most of which has survived and is quite lovely.&amp;nbsp; He also enjoyed
923
924hunting, sometimes tiring ten horses during a single hunt, and jousting;
925
926by all accounts, he was the greatest athlete at the court.&amp;nbsp; And he
927
928was a dedicated and affectionate husband.&amp;nbsp; Everything he built was
929
930decorated with an intertwined H and K, and Katharine's pomegranates were
931
932carved next to Tudor roses.&amp;nbsp; He called himself the 'Knight of the
933
934Loyal Heart' and bowed before his queen after each grueling tournament.&amp;nbsp;
935
936He also involved Katharine in the seemingly endless visits of foreign dignitaries,
937
938inviting the ambassadors to her apartments and openly seeking her advice
939
940and opinion.&amp;nbsp; It was clear that they loved and respected one another,
941
942and those early years made his eventual disinterest all the more painful
943
944for the queen to bear.
945
946&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;
947
948Katharine bore their first child on 31 January 1510, just six months after
949
950their coronation.&amp;nbsp; It was a girl, born too early to survive.&amp;nbsp;
951
952The next birth, on 1 January 1511, was a far happier occasion.&amp;nbsp; It
953
954was a boy, called Henry after his father and titled duke of Cornwall.&amp;nbsp;
955
956The delighted father planned celebrations to rival his&lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/aragon-min.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;portrait of Katharine of Aragon, c1525 by Horenbout&quot; height=168 width=166 align=right&gt; coronation.&amp;nbsp;
957
958The boy was apparently healthy yet died about two months later.&amp;nbsp; The
959
960cause was unknown, but it was an age of high infant mortality.&amp;nbsp; The
961
962young parents were devastated.&amp;nbsp; Henry consoled himself by waging war
963
964against France, courtesy of his father-in-law Ferdinand of Aragon, and
965
966Katharine's fierce piety led her to kneel for hours on cold stone floors
967
968in prayer.&amp;nbsp; But Henry's attempts to gain glory on the battlefield
969
970were misplaced.&amp;nbsp; In June 1512, the marquess of Dorset sailed out of
971
972Southampton, bound for Gascony with 12,000 troops.&amp;nbsp; They reached the
973
974port of Fuentarrabia, where they were to join the Spanish and attack Bayonne.&amp;nbsp;
975
976But the Spanish troops never arrived.&amp;nbsp; Ferdinand, without consulting
977
978his son-in-law, attacked and seized Navarre instead and then declared the
979
980'Holy War' over.&amp;nbsp; He had essentially used Henry's troops as bait;
981
982when the French went off to fight the English, Ferdinand seized his chance
983
984and attacked Navarre.&amp;nbsp; To top off his treachery, he also openly criticized
985
986the English soldiers who, without receiving his permission, had sailed
987
988home after waiting four months at Fuentarrabia.&amp;nbsp; Henry was too embarrassed
989
990by his soldiers' mutiny to call his father-in-law's bluff.
991
992&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Desperate to erase the memory of that military blunder,
993
994he planned a grand campaign for the spring of 1513.&amp;nbsp; His ambassadors
995
996even secured the support of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian.&amp;nbsp; He
997
998joined the 'Holy Alliance' of England and Spain to attack France.&amp;nbsp;
999
1000But once again Ferdinand's self-interest ruled the day.&amp;nbsp; He went behind
1001
1002his allies' backs to make a secret truce with Louis XII of France, and
1003
1004so he kept Navarre peacefully.&amp;nbsp; This happened in March 1513 and suitably
1005
1006angered Henry.&amp;nbsp; But the English king had learned a lesson from his
1007
1008previous blunder.&amp;nbsp; His forces were launched from England's only possession
1009
1010on the continent, Calais in northern France.&amp;nbsp; The Spanish would not
1011
1012be involved.&amp;nbsp; On 1 August 1513, about a month after he left England,
1013
1014Henry besieged the town of Therouanne.&amp;nbsp; Two centuries before, Edward
1015
1016III had seized that city after the great battle of Crecy.&amp;nbsp; With Maximilian
1017
1018by his side (actually as his subordinate; he allowed Henry command of his
1019
1020troops in exchange for paying their salaries), Henry won a victory within
1021
1022a fortnight.&amp;nbsp; The capture of a duke, marquis, and vice-admiral fleeing
1023
1024the scene helped raise substantial ransoms.&amp;nbsp; He gave the town to Maximilian
1025
1026as a gift and the emperor ordered it razed to the ground.&amp;nbsp; Their next
1027
1028battle was one month later at Tournai.&amp;nbsp; It surrendered after eight
1029
1030days and Henry decided it would become another English stronghold within
1031
1032France.
1033
1034&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; He had left Katharine in charge at home, officially
1035
1036titled Governor of the Realm and Captain-General of the Armed Forces, an
1037
1038honor never allowed his other wives.&amp;nbsp; She had been resoundingly successful.&amp;nbsp;
1039
1040France and Scotland had an 'Auld Alliance' against England, and&amp;nbsp; James
1041
1042IV of Scotland, married to Henry's sister Margaret Tudor, had responded
1043
1044to English aggression against his ally.&amp;nbsp; He led his armies into northern
1045
1046England.&amp;nbsp; Thomas Howard, the earl of Surrey, took the few English
1047
1048troops left in the nation to meet him.&amp;nbsp; The armies clashed at Flodden
1049
1050Edge, between Berwick and the Cheviots.&amp;nbsp; Three hours of fighting ended
1051
1052the Scottish threat.&amp;nbsp; The evening of 9 September 1513 saw over 10,000
1053
1054Scots dead, including most of their aristocracy.&amp;nbsp; James IV himself
1055
1056was killed.&amp;nbsp; Had Henry's attention been focused on his own country,
1057
1058he could have seized a golden opportunity - with James dead and the high
1059
1060nobility of Scotland destroyed, he could have marched into Edinburgh and
1061
1062seized his sister Margaret and her infant son, now King James V.&amp;nbsp;
1063
1064But instead he remained enthralled with dreams of European conquest, perhaps
1065
1066comparing himself to his hero, Henry V.&amp;nbsp; And these dreams were encouraged
1067
1068by news that the Pope had, in secret, promised to recognize Henry as king
1069
1070of France if he could physically seize possession of the country.&amp;nbsp;
1071
1072This generous offer had been inspired by French meddling in papal affairs.
1073
1074&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; During this triumphant time, Katharine lost another
1075
1076child.&amp;nbsp; In November 1513, another prince, also called Henry, duke
1077
1078of Cornwall, was born and soon died.&amp;nbsp; It was the third miscarriage
1079
1080in as many years.&amp;nbsp; Was Henry worried?&amp;nbsp; He was still young, as
1081
1082was Katharine, and had been king for just five years.&amp;nbsp; He was naturally
1083
1084optimistic, though undoubtedly disappointed.&amp;nbsp; Once again, the queen
1085
1086was on her knees in prayer.&amp;nbsp; Perhaps she felt the losses more keenly.&amp;nbsp;
1087
1088In letters to her father, she blamed herself.&amp;nbsp; She clearly saw the
1089
1090dead children as a reproof of some sort, a failure to fulfill the most
1091
1092basic feminine role.&amp;nbsp; But she was able to send Henry the bloody coat
1093
1094of the Scottish king; it may have been some consolation.
1095
1096&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Still, in 1514, as &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fwolsey.html&quot;&gt;Cardinal
1097
1098Thomas Wolsey&lt;/a&gt; extended his control of government, Katharine had reason
1099
1100to become wary.&amp;nbsp; The golden happiness of the first years with Henry
1101
1102was wearing thin.&amp;nbsp; Her father had betrayed her husband openly and
1103
1104scornfully, treating them both as little more than foolish children.&amp;nbsp;
1105
1106She had been her father's best ambassador, heedlessly pressing his claims
1107
1108upon Henry, using the natural affection between husband and wife to urge
1109
1110alliances with Spain.&amp;nbsp; She felt the sting of her father's betrayals.&amp;nbsp;
1111
1112He had lied to her, misled her, and tricked her into betraying her husband.&amp;nbsp;
1113
1114It was clear that her primary loyalty must be to Henry and the English
1115
1116people; she would never trust Ferdinand again.&amp;nbsp; In 1514, the king
1117
1118returned home and his councilors told him that Henry VII's great treasury
1119
1120was fast running low.&amp;nbsp; War with France was too costly to continue.&amp;nbsp;
1121
1122Henry had seized Tournai and made the competent Thomas Wolsey its bishop,
1123
1124but more extensive campaigning was out of the question.&amp;nbsp; In this,
1125
1126the king surprisingly agreed.&amp;nbsp; He had won his share of glory - at
1127
1128least for now - and it would be enough.&amp;nbsp; And Ferdinand's betrayal
1129
1130had been met with a suitable reply.&amp;nbsp; Henry's younger sister
1131
1132&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2frelative%2fbrandon.html&quot;&gt;Mary&lt;/a&gt;,
1133
1134the most beautiful of the Tudor children, had been betrothed to Ferdinand's
1135
1136nephew, the duke of Burgundy, but now Henry made peace with France and
1137
1138promised Mary to Louis XII, three times her age and suffering from gout.
1139
1140&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Henry's
1141
1142new desire for peace with France, England's traditional enemy, was encouraged
1143
1144by Spanish duplicity.&amp;nbsp; But it&lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/wolsey-cr.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey&quot; height=234 width=150 align=right&gt; was also due to the growing influence
1145
1146of Wolsey.&amp;nbsp; Derisively called 'Master Almoner' by those jealous of
1147
1148his influence, Wolsey came from a humble background and, like most talented
1149
1150and ambitious men from poor families, he used the church to advance in
1151
1152society.&amp;nbsp; He attended Oxford and showed such promise that he was made
1153
1154bursar of Magdalen College and then chaplain to Archbishop Deane.&amp;nbsp;
1155
1156In 1507, in his thirties and now well-connected, he became chaplain to
1157
1158Henry VII.&amp;nbsp; Upon Henry VIII's accession, Wolsey received a seat on
1159
1160the council and was made king's almoner.&amp;nbsp; This position allowed him
1161
1162personal contact with the young, impressionable monarch.&amp;nbsp; He accompanied
1163
1164Henry to France during the successful campaigns of 1513, where he was made
1165
1166bishop of Tournai, and their close relationship grew stronger.&amp;nbsp; Henry
1167
1168appreciated Wolsey's dedication to administrative detail and hard work.&amp;nbsp;
1169
1170And both Warham and Fox, the two senior councilors Henry inherited from
1171
1172his father, regarded Wolsey as their protégé.&amp;nbsp; They
1173
1174were quite happy to retire to their dioceses, leaving the younger man to
1175
1176deal with the headstrong and rash young king.&amp;nbsp; One can easily sympathize
1177
1178with Warham and Fox since Henry VIII's personality was quite different
1179
1180from his father's.&amp;nbsp; The most obvious difference was that he spent
1181
1182money with the same passion his father had collected it.
1183
1184&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But it is important to remember that Henry VIII
1185
1186never completely abandoned his power to Wolsey, though court gossip believed
1187
1188otherwise.&amp;nbsp; He carefully read the Cardinal's dispatches and proved
1189
1190himself well-informed about domestic and foreign affairs when dealing with
1191
1192ambassadors.&amp;nbsp; Also, Henry possessed a lifelong love of keeping his
1193
1194subjects, noble or common, on their toes; he enjoyed indulging his taste
1195
1196for surprises.&amp;nbsp; In banquets, this showed itself in his passion for
1197
1198elaborate costumes in which his identity was hidden.&amp;nbsp; His subjects
1199
1200would guess which costume hid their king, to the delight of all.&amp;nbsp;
1201
1202Once, he and several courtiers dressed as Robin Hood and his band of outlaws
1203
1204and then broke into Katharine of Aragon's apartments.&amp;nbsp; The queen,
1205
1206used to such antics, wisely played along but several of her ladies were
1207
1208terrified.&amp;nbsp; At the
1209
1210&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;Primary
1211
1212Sources&lt;/a&gt; section, you can read about Henry's first meeting with his
1213
1214fourth wife, Anne of Cleves; he disguised himself at their first meeting,
1215
1216to the amusement of his nobles and the confusion of the lady.&amp;nbsp; At
1217
1218times, this love of surprise - of keeping those close to him on an uneven
1219
1220keel - was downright cruel.&amp;nbsp; He would later allow his councilors to
1221
1222plan Thomas Cranmer's arrest, only to tell the archbishop their plan in
1223
1224secret.&amp;nbsp; When the soldiers arrived, they were openly embarrassed and
1225
1226thwarted when Cranmer revealed his knowledge of the plan and the king's
1227
1228pardon.&amp;nbsp; And his sixth and final wife, Katharine Parr, was likewise
1229
1230surprised.&amp;nbsp; Walking in her garden with Henry, she was accosted by
1231
1232soldiers intending to arrest her.&amp;nbsp; Their warrant had been signed by
1233
1234Henry himself.&amp;nbsp; But when they attempted to seize the queen, Henry
1235
1236cursed them, beat several of them about the head and shoulders, and demanded
1237
1238they beg Katharine's forgiveness.&amp;nbsp; One can imagine the guards' confusion.
1239
1240&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; All of these instances serve to illustrate Henry's
1241
1242desire to remain in control, to hold absolute power in his hands always.&amp;nbsp;
1243
1244As king, he could give orders but it was also his privilege to immediately
1245
1246change his mind without bothering to consult anyone.&amp;nbsp; His will was
1247
1248law.&amp;nbsp; And so he demonstrated his power by doing exactly as he liked,
1249
1250oftimes choosing the perfect moment to throw everyone off guard and demonstrate
1251
1252his complete authority.&amp;nbsp; It may have seemed irrational to his contemporaries,
1253
1254and also to us, but it was quite an effective policy.&amp;nbsp; It meant that
1255
1256no one ever really knew where they stood with the king.&amp;nbsp; And so, not
1257
1258knowing his true feelings, they were all the more eager to sycophantically
1259
1260fawn over him and seek his approval.
1261
1262&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; This strain of the king's character was perhaps
1263
1264a bit more light-hearted in the early years of his reign but, like most
1265
1266of Henry's good qualities, it soon developed an ugly cast.&amp;nbsp; His mutability
1267
1268was certainly recognized by Wolsey, and famously by Sir Thomas More, and
1269
1270later led to the Cardinal's downfall.&amp;nbsp; But in the early years of their
1271
1272relationship, as Wolsey's genius for administration and diplomacy led him
1273
1274to amass great titles and wealth, the men got along amazingly well.&amp;nbsp;
1275
1276This continued for over a dozen years.&amp;nbsp; In 1514, Wolsey was titled
1277
1278archbishop of York, and in 1515 he became a cardinal and lord chancellor,
1279
1280and in 1518 he was made papal legate.&amp;nbsp; As archbishop of York, he lived
1281
1282at York Palace and to most outside observers this was the real seat of
1283
1284government power.&amp;nbsp; Messengers rode constantly between York and Henry's
1285
1286palaces.
1287
1288&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; For a long while, both Wolsey and Henry were focused
1289
1290on foreign affairs.&amp;nbsp; Wolsey was a Francophile and desired peace between
1291
1292the traditional enemies.&amp;nbsp; He used Ferdinand's treacherous behavior
1293
1294to encourage a marriage between Henry's sister and Louis XII.&amp;nbsp; This
1295
1296pro-France policy naturally placed him at odds with Katharine of Aragon.&amp;nbsp;
1297
1298Though she recognized her father's treachery and protected her marriage
1299
1300by no longer pressing Spanish claims, she was still the daughter of the
1301
1302Spanish king.&amp;nbsp; Wolsey didn't trust her, which certainly wasn't surprising.&amp;nbsp;
1303
1304Katharine developed a natural antipathy to the Cardinal as well.&amp;nbsp;
1305
1306She was a deeply pious woman, growing more so as she aged.&amp;nbsp; She thought
1307
1308Wolsey far too worldly to be a man of the church.&amp;nbsp; She favored councilors
1309
1310like &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2fmore.html&quot;&gt;Thomas
1311
1312More&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fcitizens%2ffisher.html&quot;&gt;John
1313
1314Fisher&lt;/a&gt;, bishop of Rochester, men whose dedication to the church was
1315
1316as passionate as her own.&amp;nbsp; She was also peeved that her role as Henry's
1317
1318confidante and advisor was slowly stolen away by Wolsey.&amp;nbsp; Katharine
1319
1320was jealous of the Cardinal's influence with her husband, particularly
1321
1322since it meant a subsequent decline in her own influence.&amp;nbsp; The king
1323
1324no longer brought foreign ambassadors to her rooms and he no longer sought
1325
1326her opinions.&amp;nbsp; It was as if her father's betrayals implicated her.&amp;nbsp;
1327
1328Wolsey was the consummate diplomat, skilled at flattering the queen when
1329
1330they met, but their mutual dislike was open knowledge at court.
1331
1332&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; In December 1514, Katharine suffered another miscarriage;
1333
1334it was her fourth, and the third son.&amp;nbsp; It was particularly galling
1335
1336for her since earlier that year Henry had taken his first public mistress.&amp;nbsp;
1337
1338He was not a lecher, and certainly less victimized by lust than his fellow
1339
1340monarchs, particularly Francis I of France.&amp;nbsp; But kings take mistresses
1341
1342and around New Years' 1514, Henry's eye was caught by &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2frelative%2ffitzroy.html&quot;&gt;Elizabeth
1343
1344Blount&lt;/a&gt;.&amp;nbsp; She was the cousin of Lord Mountjoy and one of Katharine's
1345
1346ladies-in-waiting.&amp;nbsp; Bessie was pretty and vivacious, and quite happy
1347
1348to bask in the king's attention.&amp;nbsp; And she had his attention for several
1349
1350years, which once more proves Henry's monogamous streak.&amp;nbsp; And he did
1351
1352not neglect his wife.&amp;nbsp; On 18 February 1516, Katharine and Henry's
1353
1354luck changed.&amp;nbsp; Their only surviving child, a princess called Mary,
1355
1356was born.&amp;nbsp; She was healthy and survived the difficult early months
1357
1358of infancy.&amp;nbsp; Henry was proud, if disappointed, and told an ambassador:
1359
1360'We are both young.&amp;nbsp; If it was a daughter this time, by the grace
1361
1362of God the sons will follow.'
1363
1364&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; One can easily understand Henry's disappointment.&amp;nbsp;
1365
1366He was a good father to Mary in those early years, proudly carrying her
1367
1368about and showing her off to visitors.&amp;nbsp; But he was perhaps aware that
1369
1370time was running out for a male heir to be born.&amp;nbsp; There are indications
1371
1372that he explored the idea of divorcing Katharine as early as 1518.&amp;nbsp;
1373
1374An English courtier had supposedly visited the Vatican on an exploratory
1375
1376mission earlier that year.&amp;nbsp; And gossip about Katharine's miscarriages
1377
1378had spread through the English court as early as 1514.
1379
1380&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Henry was still affectionate towards Katharine,
1381
1382and they remained intimate for several years after Mary's birth, as evidenced
1383
1384by other pregnancies.&amp;nbsp; But perhaps the bloom of the relationship had
1385
1386gone.&amp;nbsp; His wife looked older than her years, her body worn out by
1387
1388ceaseless pregnancies and births.&amp;nbsp; She was by nature a reserved and
1389
1390serious person; her mind dwelt constantly upon the failure of her most
1391
1392important duty as queen.&amp;nbsp; On 10 November 1518, her last child - another
1393
1394daughter - was born, and died.&amp;nbsp; Special doctors summoned from Spain
1395
1396arrived to help the queen conceive again.&amp;nbsp; They were unsuccessful.&amp;nbsp;
1397
1398Henry publicly vowed to lead a crusade against the&amp;nbsp;&lt;img SRC=&quot;_httpdocimg_/fitzroy.jpg&quot; ALT=&quot;miniature portrait of Henry Fitzroy, Henry VIII's illegitimate son&quot; height=203 width=208 align=LEFT&gt;Turks
1399
1400if God granted him a son.
1401
1402&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; But it was not to be, at least not with Katharine
1403
1404of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; In 1519, Elizabeth Blount, his young mistress, bore him
1405
1406a healthy son.&amp;nbsp; Henry was ecstatic.&amp;nbsp; Here at last was proof that
1407
1408the king could father sons.&amp;nbsp; Henry named the boy after himself, giving
1409
1410him the last name 'Fitzroy', the traditional surname of royal bastards.&amp;nbsp;
1411
1412He would soon lavish so many titles upon the boy that Katharine felt it
1413
1414necessary to remind him that Princess Mary was his heir.&amp;nbsp; Henry publicly
1415
1416chastised her and, in a fit of spite, sent several of her favorite attendants
1417
1418back to Spain.
1419
1420&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; Now we come to an important moment in what came
1421
1422to be called 'the king's great matter' (Henry's attempt to annul his marriage
1423
1424to Katharine.)&amp;nbsp; Fitzroy's birth proved Henry could have a son, and
1425
1426no one could deny Katharine's fertility.&amp;nbsp; It is doubtful Henry ever
1427
1428blamed her for the failure to produce a male heir after witnessing the
1429
1430endless cycle of pregnancies and prayer.&amp;nbsp; Yet why had he and Katharine
1431
1432been unable to produce a living son between them?&amp;nbsp; Naturally enough,
1433
1434the king's mind turned to God.&amp;nbsp; It must be God's will that they had
1435
1436no male heir.&amp;nbsp; But what had he done to offend God?&amp;nbsp; Henry searched
1437
1438for an answer and soon found it quite easily.&amp;nbsp; In the Bible, &lt;i&gt;Leviticus
1439
1440&lt;/i&gt;XVIII,
1441
144216 clearly stated 'Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife:
1443it is thy brother's nakedness'.&amp;nbsp; And, later, in chapter XX, 'If a man shall
1444take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother's
1445nakedness; they shall be childless'.&amp;nbsp; What could be more clear?&amp;nbsp; The
1446Bible itself condemned his marriage to Katharine.&amp;nbsp; The pope's dispensation
1447was meaningless.&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; And so began one of the most fascinating decades in English
1448history.&lt;p&gt;
1449
1450&lt;font size=-2&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Top&quot;&gt;TOP&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;
1451
1452&lt;br&gt;
1453
1454    &lt;/p&gt;
1455
1456&lt;hr WIDTH=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
1457
1458    &lt;p&gt;
1459
1460&lt;br&gt;&lt;a NAME=&quot;Five&quot;&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;b&gt;1526-1536: Anne Boleyn and the Henrician Reformation&lt;/b&gt;
1461    &lt;/p&gt;
1462    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;This section, along with the remainder of the biography, is
1463
1464    not available as of March 2004.
1465
1466&lt;br&gt;I will post its completion soon.&lt;/p&gt;
1467    &lt;p&gt;
1468
1469&lt;font size=-2&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fhenry8.html#Top&quot;&gt;TOP&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;
1470
1471&lt;br&gt;
1472
1473    &lt;/p&gt;
1474
1475&lt;hr WIDTH=&quot;100%&quot;&gt;
1476
1477&lt;center&gt;
1478
1479      &lt;p&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=0&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fwww.marileecody.com%2fimages.html&quot;&gt;Portraits
1480
1481of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fprimary.html&quot;&gt;Primary
1482
1483Sources&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
1484
1485&lt;p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Henry's wives:&lt;/b&gt;&amp;nbsp;
1486      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fwives.html&quot;&gt;The Six Wives of Henry VIII&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
1487&lt;br&gt;      &lt;b&gt;Henry's children:&lt;br&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fedward6.html&quot;&gt;
1488      King Edward VI&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br&gt;
1489      &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2fmary1.html&quot;&gt;Queen Mary I&lt;/a&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs%2feliz1.html&quot;&gt;&lt;br&gt;
1490      Queen Elizabeth I&lt;/a&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2ftudor1.html&quot;&gt;Test your knowledge
1491
1492of Henry VIII's life at Tudor Quizzes&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;p&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor%2fmonarchs.html&quot;&gt;to
1493
1494Tudor Monarchs&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;br&gt;&lt;font size=-1&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;href=http:%2f%2fenglishhistory.net%2ftudor.html&quot;&gt;to Tudor
1495
1496England&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/center&gt;
1497
1498
1499
1500  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
1501&lt;/blockquote&gt;
1502
1503
1504
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1507</Content>
1508</Section>
1509</Archive>
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