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14    <Metadata name="Title">Primary Sources: The fall of Anne Boleyn, 1536</Metadata>
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18    <Metadata name="dc.Subject">Tudor period|Others</Metadata>
19    <Metadata name="Identifier">HASH3d9e49bb208972bc382da2</Metadata>
20    <Metadata name="lastmodified">1522032932</Metadata>
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30&lt;div align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
31  &lt;center&gt;
32  &lt;table border=&quot;0&quot; cellpadding=&quot;0&quot; cellspacing=&quot;4&quot; width=&quot;94%&quot;&gt;
33    &lt;tr&gt;
34      &lt;td valign=&quot;bottom&quot; colspan=&quot;3&quot;&gt;
35      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt;
36      &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
37&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleynex.gif&quot; alt=&quot;Primary Sources: 1536: The execution of Anne Boleyn&quot; width=&quot;372&quot; height=&quot;167&quot;&gt;&lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/td&gt;
38    &lt;/tr&gt;
39    &lt;tr&gt;
40      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
41      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
42      &lt;td&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
43    &lt;/tr&gt;
44    &lt;tr&gt;
45      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot; bgcolor=&quot;#FFFFE8&quot;&gt;&lt;p&gt;
46&lt;img border=&quot;0&quot; src=&quot;_httpdocimg_/boleyn-sketch1.jpg&quot; alt=&quot;sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger&quot; align=&quot;left&quot; width=&quot;175&quot; height=&quot;157&quot;&gt;&lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;This
47    account of Anne Boleyn's fall from royal favor was written by the Spanish
48    ambassador Eustace Chapuys,
50in a letter to Emperor Charles V.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
51    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Chapuys despised Anne; she returned the feeling.&amp;nbsp; He
52    was the chief adviser and confidante of Henry VIII's first wife, Katharine
53    of Aragon.&amp;nbsp; He did not recognize the king's marriage to Anne and
54    referred to her as 'the concubine' and 'the whore' in his official
55    dispatches.&amp;nbsp; Like many, Chapuys blamed Anne for the king's poor
56    treatment of Katharine and their daughter, Princess Mary.&amp;nbsp; &lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
57    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Chapuys had confidently predicted Anne's fall for several
58    years.&amp;nbsp; When it actually happened, he was quite surprised.&amp;nbsp; He had
59    not recognized the depth of Henry's feelings for the woman who would become
60    his third wife, Jane Seymour.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;p&gt;
61    &lt;font size=&quot;-1&quot;&gt;Despite Chapuys's dislike of Anne, his account gives little
62    credit to the king.&amp;nbsp; He clearly considered Henry's behavior to be
63    inappropriate; it was also unpopular.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
64      &lt;td width=&quot;4%&quot;&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
65      &lt;td valign=&quot;top&quot; width=&quot;48%&quot;&gt;
68The joy shown by the people every day, not only at the ruin of the concubine
69but at the hope of princess Mary's restoration is inconceivable, but as
70yet the king shows no great disposition towards the latter; indeed he has
71twice shown himself obstinate when spoken to on the subject by his council.&amp;nbsp;
72I hear that, even before the arrest of the concubine, the king, speaking
73with Mistress Jane Seymour of their future marriage, the latter suggested
74that the princess should be replaced in her former position; and the king
75told her she was a fool, and ought to solicit the advancement of the children
76they would have between them, and not any others.&amp;nbsp; She replied that
77in asking for the restoration of the princess she was seeking the rest
78and tranquility of the king, herself, her future children, and the whole
79realm; for, without that neither your majesty nor this people would ever
80be content.
81&lt;p&gt;I will endeavor by all means to make her continue in this vein; I hope
82also to go and speak with the king within three days, and with members
83of the council in general.&amp;nbsp; I think the concubine's little bastard
84Elizabeth will be excluded from the succession, and that the king will
85get himself requested by parliament to marry.&amp;nbsp; To cover the affection
86he has for the said Seymour he has lodged her seven miles away in the house
87of a grand esquire, and says publicly that he has no desire in the world
88to marry again, unless he is constrained by his subjects to do so.&amp;nbsp;
89Several have already told me and sent to say that, if it cost them their
90lives, when parliament meets they will urge the cause of the princess to
91the utmost.
92&lt;p&gt;The very evening the concubine was brought to the Tower of London, when
93the duke of Richmond went to say goodnight to his father, and ask his blessing
94after the English custom, the king began to weep, saying that he and his
95sister, meaning the princess, were greatly bound to God for having escaped
96the hands of that accursed whore, who had determined to poison them; from
97which it is clear that the king knew something about it.
98&lt;p&gt;Master Norris, the king's chief butler, Master Weston who used to lie
99with the king, Master Brereton gentleman of the chamber, and the groom
100of whom I wrote to your majesty by my man, were all condemned as traitors.&amp;nbsp;
101Only the groom confessed that he had been three times with the said whore
102and concubine.&amp;nbsp; The others were condemned upon presumption and certain
103indications, without valid proof or confession.
104&lt;p&gt;The concubine and her brother were condemned for treason by all the
105principal lords of England, and the duke of Norfolk pronounced sentence.&amp;nbsp;
106I am told the earl of Wiltshire was quite as ready to assist at the judgement
107as he had done at the condemnation of the other four.&amp;nbsp; Neither the
108whore nor her brother was brought to Westminster like the other criminals.&amp;nbsp;
109They were condemned within the Tower of London, but the thing was not done
110secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present.&amp;nbsp; What she
111was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and
112other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris to marry
113after the king's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that
114she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted
115to mean that she had poisoned the late queen, and intrigued to do the same
116to the princess.&amp;nbsp; These things she totally denied and gave to each
117a plausible answer.&amp;nbsp; Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston,
118as she had often done to other young gentlemen.&amp;nbsp; She was also charged,
119and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the king and his dress,
120and that she showed in various ways she did not love the king, but was
121tired of him.&amp;nbsp; Her brother was charged with having cohabited with
122her by presumption, because he had once been found a long time with her,
123and with certain other little follies.&amp;nbsp; To all he replied so well
124that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted,
125especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as
126it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.
127&lt;p&gt;I must not omit that among other things charged against him as a crime
128was, that his sister had told his wife that the king was impotent.&amp;nbsp;
129This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with
130a warning not to repeat it.&amp;nbsp; But he immediately declared the matter,
131in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this
132point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the king's issue.&amp;nbsp;
133He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question
134whether his sister's daughter was the king's child.&amp;nbsp; To which he made
135no reply.&amp;nbsp; They were judged separately and did not see each other.&amp;nbsp;
136The concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which
137was to be burnt or beheaded at the king's pleasure, she preserved her composure,
138saying that she held herself ready to greet death and that what she regretted
139most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the king,
140were to die for her.&amp;nbsp; She only asked a short time for confession.&amp;nbsp;
141Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would
142no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death.&amp;nbsp;
143He only begged the king that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid
144out of his goods.
145&lt;p&gt;Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the whore there are
146some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and
147people speak variously of the king; and it will not pacify the world when
148it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Jane Seymour.&amp;nbsp;
149Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the king, having
150received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the
151arrest of the whore; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies,
152sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river.&amp;nbsp; Most
153of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on
154the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as
155showing his delight at getting rid of a thin, old and wicked fool with
156hope of change, which is a thing especially agreeable to this king.&amp;nbsp;
157He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the bishop of Carlisle,
158and showed an extravagant joy, as the said bishop came to tell me next
159morning, who reported moreover that the king had said to him, among other
160things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that
161thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him;
162and so saying the king drew from his bosom a little book written in his
163own hand, but the bishop did not read the contents.&amp;nbsp; It may have been
164certain ballads that the king had composed, at which the whore and her
165brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great
167&lt;p&gt;Three days after the concubine's imprisonment the princess was removed,
168and was honourably accompanied both by the servants of the little bastard
169and by several gentlemen who came of their own accord.&amp;nbsp; Many of her
170old servants and maids at this news went to her, and although her governess
171allowed them to remain, she was warned by me not to accept or retain anyone
172but those given her by the king her father.&amp;nbsp; What I most fear as regards
173her is, that when the king is asked by parliament to restore her to her
174rights, he will refuse his consent unless the princess first swears to
175the statutes invalidating the first marriage and the pope's authority.&amp;nbsp;
176To this, I think, she will not easily yield, although I should advise her
177to acquiesce in everything as far as she can without prejudice to her conscience.&lt;blockquote&gt;
178      &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
179    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;
180    &lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
181    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to the Anne
182    Boleyn website&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
183    &lt;p align=&quot;center&quot;&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;_httpextlink_&amp;amp;rl=1&amp;amp;;&gt;
184    &lt;font size=&quot;2&quot;&gt;to Primary Sources&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
185    &lt;/tr&gt;
186  &lt;/table&gt;
187  &lt;/center&gt;
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